8 Works

Fostering Marine Biodiversity Data Sharing for Decision-Making in the Western Indian Ocean Region

Désirée Schwindenhammer, Hauke Kegler, Hauke Reuter, Christopher Muhando, Daudi Msagameno, George Rushingisha, Arthur Tuda, Theuri Mwangi & David Obura
This policy brief informs decision-makers about the benefits of effective marine biodiversity data sharing and proposes measures to encourage and improve sharing among stakeholders. The oceans and coastal areas in Eastern African countries are home to an abundance of marine biodiversity, with immense ecological and socioeconomic value. Stakeholders have varying interests concerning shared ecosystems. Transboundary conservation goals and harmonised coastal management strategies are of great value to sustain ecological services for future generations and to...

Data from: Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

Thomas M. Brooks, H. Resit Akçakaya, Neil D. Burgess, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Michael Hoffmann, Diego Juffe-Bignoli, Naomi Kingston, Brian MacSharry, Mike Parr, Laurence Perianin, Eugenie C. Regan, Ana S. L. Rodrigues, Carlo Rondinini, Yara Shennan-Farpon & Bruce E. Young
Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites),...

Data from: Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic General Ecosystem Model

Michael Brian James Harfoot, Tim Newbold, Derek P. Tittensor, Stephen Emmott, Jon Hutton, Vassily Lyutsarev, Matthew J. Smith, Jorn P. W. Scharlemann & Drew W. Purves
Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of ecosystems worldwide, threatening the ecosystem services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of ecosystem structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General Ecosystem Model (GEM) of ecosystem structure and function that is both global, and...

Data from: The energetics of life on the deep seafloor

Craig R. McClain, Andrew P. Allen, Derek P. Tittensor & Michael A. Rex
With frigid temperatures and virtually no in situ productivity, the deep oceans, Earth’s largest ecosystem, are especially energy-deprived systems. Our knowledge of the effects of this energy limitation on all levels of biological organization is very incomplete. Here we use the Metabolic Theory of Ecology to examine the relative roles of carbon flux and temperature in influencing metabolic rate, growth rate, lifespan, body size, abundance, biomass, and biodiversity for life on the deep seafloor. We...

Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: A Manual for Assessment Practitioners

Neville Ash, Hernán Blanco, Claire Brown, Keisha Garcia, Thomas Henrichs, Nicolas Lucas, Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne, R. David Simpson, Robert Scholes, Thomas P. Tomich, Bhaskar Vira & Monika Zurek
​This Manual makes the methods of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and associated sub-global (local and regional) assessments widely accessible. While the MA is the most comprehensive assessment of ecosystems carried out to date, there are other related assessment processes such as Global Environment Outlook, Global International Waters Assessment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands, International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, and World Water Assessment. Lessons learned...

Catchment properties and the photosynthetic trait composition of freshwater plant communities

Lars Lønsmann Iversen, A. Winkel, L. Baastrup-Spohr, A. B. Hinke, J. Alahuhta, A. Baattrup-Pedersen, S. Birk, P. Brodersen, P. A. Chambers, F. Ecke, T. Feldmann, D. Gebler, J. Heino, T. S. Jespersen, S. J. Moe, T. Riis, L. Sass, O. Vestergaard, S. C. Maberly, K. Sand-Jensen & O. Pedersen
Unlike in land plants, photosynthesis in many aquatic plants relies on bicarbonate in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) to compensate for the low diffusivity and potential depletion of CO2 in water. Concentrations of bicarbonate and CO2 vary greatly with catchment geology. In this study, we investigate whether there is a link between these concentrations and the frequency of freshwater plants possessing the bicarbonate use trait. We show, globally, that the frequency of plant species with...

An ecoregion-based approach to restoring the world’s intact large mammal assemblages

Carly Vynne, Joe Gosling, Calum Maney, Eric Dinerstein, Andy T. L. Lee, Neil Burgess, Néstor Fernández, Sanjiv Fernando, Harshini Jhala, Yadvendradev Jhala, Reed Noss, Michael Proctor, Jan Schipper, José F. González-Maya, Anup Joshi, David Olson, William J. Ripple & Jens-Christian Svenning
Assemblages of large mammal species play a disproportionate role in the structure and composition of natural habitats. Loss of these assemblages destabilizes natural systems, while their recovery can restore ecological integrity. Here we take an ecoregion-based approach to identify landscapes that retain their historically present large mammal assemblages, and map ecoregions where reintroduction of 1–3 species could restore intact assemblages. Intact mammal assemblages occur across more than one-third of the 730 terrestrial ecoregions where large...

Effects of protected areas on welfare of local households: the case of Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya

Ayub M.O. Oduor, Dagne Mojo, Chao Fu, Yunli Bai, Huaping Long, Guoqin Wang & Linxiu Zhang
Protected areas are vital for biodiversity conservation although some have been criticized for not providing adequate socio-economic benefits to local people. However, empirical studies on socio-economic impacts of protected areas that control for confounding factors are rare. Here, we assessed the potential impacts of Maasai Mara National Reserve in South-Western Kenya on welfare (indicated by levels of income, consumption, and assets) of, and poverty incidence among 423 randomly selected local households. We used descriptive statistics...

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  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • Aarhus University
  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • University of Sussex
  • Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
  • Estonian University of Life Sciences
  • Oregon State University
  • Finnish Environment Institute