255 Works

Data from: Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal

Ben Dantzer, Amy E. M. Newman, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries & Andrew G. McAdam
Spruce cone and squirrel density dataData used to investigate how previous year spruce cones and food-supplementation affected red squirrel density. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Spruce cone and density data.csvTable S2 Results - neonate mass and growth rateData used for results shown in Table 2. Only neonate mass and offspring growth data. All data collected in Kluane, Yukon, Canada.Table S2 - neonate mass and growth rate.csvTable S2-S3 ResultsData for results shown in Table S2...

Data from: High resolution mapping of community structure in three glass sponge reefs (Porifera, Hexactinellida).

Jackson W. F. Chu, Sally P. Leys, JWF Chu & SP Leys
ABSTRACT: Glass sponge reefs (Porifera, Hexactinellida) are unique to the Pacific coast of Canada. To date, the locations and extents of reefs have only been assessed by multibeam echosounders, a method that does not resolve where live, dead and buried sponges are within a reef. We performed fine-scale (25 and 12.5 m grids) photographic surveys using remote operated vehicles and carried out GIS and semivariogram analysis to produce high resolution maps of the spatial distribution...

Data from: Estimating genome-wide heterozygosity: effects of demographic history and marker type

Joshua M. Miller, René M. Malenfant, Patrice David, Corey S. Davis, Jocelyn Poissant, John T. Hogg, Marco Festa-Bianchet & David W. Coltman
Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are often used to link individual genetic variation to differences in fitness. However, most studies examining HFCs find weak or no correlations. Here, we derive broad theoretical predictions about how many loci are needed to adequately measure genomic heterozygosity assuming different levels of identity disequilibrium (ID), a proxy for inbreeding. We then evaluate the expected ability to detect HFCs using an empirical data set of 200 microsatellites and 412 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Data from: \"RAD Sequencing for SNP Discovery in Two Populations of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 April 2013 - 31 May 2013

Joshua M. Miller, John T. Hogg & David W. Coltman
In this work we present the development of a large set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in two populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). To do so we used restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of four individuals from each population. Through alignment of reads to the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome we discovered >83,000 SNPs, of which >38,000 are suitable for assays such as an Illumina SNP chip. These loci will allow for fine-mapping...

Data from: Fine scale genetic correlates to condition and migration in a wild Cervid

Joseph M. Northrup, Aaron B. A. Shafer, , David W. Coltman, George Wittemyer & Charles R. Anderson
The relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic traits is fundamental to the study and management of natural populations. Such relationships often are investigated by assessing correlations between phenotypic traits and heterozygosity or genetic differentiation. Using an extensive data set compiled from free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), we combined genetic and ecological data to (i) examine correlations between genetic differentiation and migration timing, (ii) screen for mitochondrial haplotypes associated with migration timing, and (iii) test whether...

Data from: Reward context determines risky choice in pigeons and humans

Elliot A. Ludvig, Christopher R. Madan, Jeffrey M. Pisklak & Marcia L. Spetch
Whereas humans are risk averse for monetary gains, other animals can be risk seeking for food rewards, especially when faced with variable delays or under significant deprivation. A key difference between these findings is that humans are often explicitly told about the risky options, whereas non-human animals must learn about them from their own experience. We tested pigeons (Columba livia) and humans in formally identical choice tasks where all outcomes were learned from experience. Both...

Data from: Evidence-based tool surpasses expert opinion in predicting probability of eradication of aquatic nonindigenous species

David Drolet, Andrea Locke, Mark A. Lewis & Jeff Davidson
The main objective of evidence-based management is to promote use of scientific data in the decision-making process of managers, with data either complementing or replacing expert knowledge. It is expected that this will increase the efficiency of environmental interventions. However, the relative accuracy and precision of evidence-based tools and expert knowledge has seldom been evaluated. It is therefore essential to verify whether such tools provide better decision support before advocating their use. We conducted an...

Data from: Postcrania of juvenile Pinacosaurus grangeri (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Alagteeg Formation, Alag Teeg, Mongolia: implications for ontogenetic allometry in ankylosaurs

Michael E. Burns, Tatiana A. Tumanova & Philip J. Currie
The ankylosaurine Pinacosaurus is one of the best known ankylosaur to date in terms of the number and preservational quality of specimens. Juvenile to sub-adult postcrania collected by the Soviet-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition from the Upper Cretaceous Alagteeg Formation at Alag Teeg, Mongolia can be assigned to Pinacosaurus grangeri based on discrete cranial characters. One individual is significantly larger than the others and demonstrates delayed fusion of postcranial elements with the earliest occurring between dorsal ribs...

Data from: Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites

Ghulam Murtaza Jamro, Scott X. Chang, M. Anne Naeth, Min Duan & Jason House
Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area,...

Data from: Genetic and genomic evidence of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation in mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts

Dario I. Ojeda Alayon, Clement K. M. Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Zhang Yiyuan, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K. Boone, Allan L. Carroll, Janice E.K. Cooke, Amanda D. Roe, Felix A. H. Sperling, Richard C. Hamelin, Janice E. K. Cooke & Yiyuan Zhang
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These fungal symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defences and modifying host tissues to favour brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the...

Data from: Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

Carlos Jaramillo, Ingrid Romero, Carlos D'Apolito, German Bayona, Edward Duarte, Stephen Louwye, Jaime Escobar, Javier Luque, Jorge D. Carrillo-Briceño, Vladimir Zapata, Andrés Mora, Stefan Schouten, Michael Zavada, Guy Harrington, John Ortiz & Frank P. Wesselingh
There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted...

Data from: Territory surveillance and prey management: wolves keep track of space and time

Ulrike E. Schlägel, Evelyn H. Merrill & Mark A. Lewis
Identifying behavioral mechanisms that underlie observed movement patterns is difficult when animals employ sophisticated cognitive-based strategies. Such strategies may arise when timing of return visits is important, for instance to allow for resource renewal or territorial patrolling. We fitted spatially explicit random-walk models to GPS movement data of six wolves (Canis lupus; Linnaeus, 1758) from Alberta, Canada to investigate the importance of the following: (1) territorial surveillance likely related to renewal of scent marks along...

Data from: Multilevel and sex-specific selection on competitive traits in North American red squirrels.

David N. Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M. Humphries, Jeffrey E. Lane & Andrew G. McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g. offspring, siblings or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on...

Data from: Ecosystem memory of wildfires affects resilience of boreal mixedwood biodiversity after retention harvest

J.A. Colin Bergeron, Jaime Pinzon, Sonya Odsen, Samuel Bartels, S. Ellen Macdonald, John R. Spence & J. A. Colin Bergeron
The extent to which past states influence present and future ecosystem characteristics (ecosystem memory (EM)) is challenging to assess because signals of past ecological conditions fade with time. Using data about seven different taxa, we show that ecological gradients initiated by wildfires up to three centuries earlier affect biotic recovery after variable retention harvest in the boreal mixedwood forest. First, we show that fire history over the last 300 years is reflected in pre-harvest species-specific...

Data from: Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape

Mark Baah-Acheamfour, Charles P. A. Bourque, Fan-Rui Meng, D. Edwin Swift & Charles P.-A. Bourque
There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by...

Data from: Natural regeneration on seismic lines influences movement behaviour of wolves and grizzly bears

Laura Finnegan, Karine E. Pigeon, Jerome Cranston, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Lalenia Neufeld, Fiona Schmiegelow, Julie Duval & Gordon B. Stenhouse
Across the boreal forest of Canada, habitat disturbance is the ultimate cause of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) declines. Habitat restoration is a focus of caribou recovery efforts, with a goal to finding ways to reduce predator use of disturbances, and caribou-predator encounters. One of the most pervasive disturbances within caribou ranges in Alberta, Canada are seismic lines cleared for energy exploration. Seismic lines facilitate predator movement, and although vegetation on some seismic lines is regenerating,...

Data from: Lianas abundance is positively related with the avian acoustic community in tropical dry forests

Branko Hilje, Shauna Stack & Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa
Dry forests are important sources of biodiversity where lianas are highly abundant given their ability to grow during times of drought and as a result of secondary growth processes. Lianas provide food and shelter for fauna such as birds, but there are no studies assessing the influence of liana abundance on birds in dry forests. Here we evaluate the influence of liana abundance on the avian acoustic community in the dry forests of Costa Rica...

Data from: Genetic decline, restoration and rescue of an isolated ungulate population

Marc-Antoine Poirier, David W. Coltman, Fanie Pelletier, Jon Jorgenson & Marco Festa-Bianchet
Isolation of small populations is expected to reduce fitness through inbreeding and loss of genetic variation, impeding population growth and compromising population persistence. Species with long generation time are the least likely to be rescued by evolution alone. Management interventions that maintain or restore genetic variation to assure population viability are consequently of significant importance. We investigated, over 27 years, the genetic and demographic consequences of a demographic bottleneck followed by artificial supplementation in an...

Data from: The evolution of fungal substrate specificity in a widespread group of crustose lichens

Philipp Resl, Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Helmut Mayrhofer & Toby Spribille
Lichens exhibit varying degrees of specialization with regard to the surfaces they colonize, ranging from substrate generalists to strict substrate specialists. Though long recognized, the causes and consequences of substrate specialization are poorly known. Using a phylogeny of a 150-200 MYA clade of lichen fungi, we asked whether substrate niche is phylogenetically conserved, which substrates are ancestral, whether specialists arise from generalists or vice versa, and how specialization affects speciation/extinction processes. We found strong phylogenetic...

Data from: The dorid nudibranchs Peltodoris lentiginosa and Archidoris odhneri as predators of glass sponges

Jackson W.F. Chu & Sally P. Leys
The dorid nudibranchs Peltodoris lentiginosa and Archidoris odhneri were found on glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) during remotely operated vehicle surveys of three reefs in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Eight nudibranchs were sampled from 2009 to 2011. Identification of sponge spicules found in their gut and fecal contents confirmed the nudibranchs to be predators of the reef-forming hexactinellids Aphrocallistes vastus and Heterochone calyx, as well as of the demosponge Desmacella austini, which encrusts...

Data from: Genome-wide admixture and ecological niche modeling reveal the maintenance of species boundaries despite long history of interspecific gene flow

Amanda R. De La Torre, David R. Roberts & Sally N. Aitken
1.The maintenance of species boundaries despite interspecific gene flow has been a continuous source of interest in evolutionary biology. Many hybridizing species have porous genomes with regions impermeable to introgression, conferring reproductive barriers between species. 2.We used ecological niche modeling to study the glacial and postglacial recolonization patterns between the widely hybridizing spruce species Picea glauca and P. engelmannii in western North America. 3.Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 311 candidate gene...

Data from: Daily energy expenditure during lactation is strongly selected in a free-living mammal

Quinn E. Fletcher, John R. Speakman, Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Murray M. Humphries
1. Energy expenditure is a trait of central importance in ecological and evolutionary theory. We examined the correlates of, the strength of selection on, and the heritability of, daily energy expenditure (DEE; kJ/day) during lactation in free-ranging North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). 2. Over seven years, lactating squirrels with greater DEE had higher annual reproductive success (ARS; standardized selection gradient: β’ = 0.47; top 12% of published estimates). Surprisingly, positive fecundity selection on lactation...

Data from: Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

Les N. Harris, Louise Chavarie, Robert Bajno, Kimberly L. Howland, Simon H. Wiley, William M. Tonn & Eric B. Taylor
Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies...

Data from: A generalized residual technique for analyzing complex movement models using earth mover's distance

Jonathan R. Potts, Marie Auger-Méthé, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
1. Complex systems of moving and interacting objects are ubiquitous in the natural and social sciences. Predicting their behavior often requires models that mimic these systems with sufficient accuracy, while accounting for their inherent stochasticity. Though tools exist to determine which of a set of candidate models is best relative to the others, there is currently no generic goodness-of-fit framework for testing how close the best model is to the real complex stochastic system. 2....

Data from: Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Talita Zupo
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

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