258 Works

Data from: Continent-wide population genomic structure and phylogeography of North America’s most destructive conifer defoliator, the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)

Lisa Lumley, Esther Pouliot, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Bryan Brunet, Roger Levesque, Felix Sperling & Michel Cusson
The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, is presumed to be panmictic across vast regions of North America. We examined the extent of panmixia by genotyping 3650 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in 1975 individuals from 128 collections across the continent. We found three spatially structured subpopulations: Western (Alaska, Yukon), Central (southeastern Yukon to the Manitoba-Ontario border) and Eastern (Manitoba-Ontario border and Atlantic). Additionally, the most diagnostic genetic differentiation between the Central and Eastern subpopulations was chromosomally...

Additive negative effects of decadal warming and nitrogen addition on grassland community stability

Qian Wu, Haiyan Ren, Zhongwu Wang, Zhiguo Li, Yinghao Liu, Zhen Wang, Yuanheng Li, Ruiyang Zhang, Mengli Zhao, Scott X. Chang & Guodong Han
Much recent research has explored how global warming and increased nitrogen (N) deposition, two important components of global environmental changes, influence the structure and functioning of natural ecosystems. However, how ecosystem dynamics respond to the combination of long-term warming and N enrichment remains largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of warming and N addition on the temporal stability of plant communities in a decade-long field experiment, conducted in a desert steppe in northern China, using...

Demographic fluctuations lead to rapid and cyclic shifts in genetic structure among populations of an alpine butterfly, Parnassius smintheus

Maryam Jangjoo, Stephen Matter, Jens Roland & Nusha Keyghobadi
Many populations, especially in insects, fluctuate in size and periods of particularly low population size can have strong effects on genetic variation. Effects of demographic bottlenecks on genetic diversity of single populations are widely documented. Effects of bottlenecks on genetic structure among multiple inter-connected populations are less studied, as are genetic changes across multiple cycles of demographic collapse and recovery. We take advantage of a long-term dataset comprising demographic, genetic, and movement data from a...

Territory acquisition mediates the influence of predators and climate on juvenile red squirrel survival

Jack G Hendrix, David Fisher, April Martinig, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane & Andrew McAdam
1) Juvenile survival to first breeding is a key life history stage for all taxa. Survival through this period can be particularly challenging when it can coincide with harsh environmental conditions such as a winter climate or food scarcity, leading to highly variable cohort survival. However, the small size and dispersive nature of juveniles generally makes studying their survival more difficult. 2) In territorial species, a key life history event is the acquisition of a...

Data from: Nutrient foraging behaviour of four co-occuring perennial grassland plant species alone does not predict behaviour with neighbours

Gordon G. McNickle, Michael K. Deyholos, & James F. Cahill
The spatial arrangement of nutrients and neighbours in soil influences plant growth and reproduction. Plants often respond to such stimuli through plasticity in root proliferation (root mass per soil volume), or the breadth of their root system. Here, we asked how plants adjust nutrient foraging strategies when grown alone or with neighbours. We asked (i) Does root proliferation into nutrient-rich patches when plants are grown alone predict root proliferation when plants are grown with neighbours?...

Data from: Variation of xylem vessel diameters across a climate gradient: insight from a reciprocal transplant experiment with a widespread boreal tree

Stefan G. Schreiber, Uwe G. Hacke & Andreas Hamann
Xylem vessel diameters represent an important plant hydraulic trait to ensure sufficient water supply from the roots to the leaves. The ability to adjust the hydraulic pathway to environmental cues is key in order to satisfy transpirational demands and maximize growth and survival. We evaluated the variability of vessel diameters in trembling aspen in a reciprocal transplant experiment. We tested six provenances from three ecological regions of North America planted at four test sites in...

Feeding preferences and nutritional niche of wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal.

Lee Hecker, Tej Sherstha, Achyut Aryal & Sean Coogan
We sought to further the understanding of how an animal’s foraging ecology is influenced by their feeding preferences and nutritional composition of forage items. Our research identified these aspects of wild water buffalo’s (Bubalus arnee) foraging ecology in Nepal. First, we sought to describe the foraging preferences of wild water buffalo in terms of the relative abundance of functional forage groups (i.e., forbs, graminoids, and browse) in their diet. We observed signs of wild water...

Data from: Experimental evolution of infectious behaviour in a facultative ectoparasite

Emily S. Durkin & Lien T. Luong
Parasitic lifestyles have evolved many times in animals, but how such life-history strategies evolved from free-living ancestors remains a great puzzle. Transitional symbiotic strategies, such as facultative parasitism, are hypothesized evolutionary stepping-stones towards obligate parasitism. However, to consider this hypothesis, heritable genetic variation in infectious behaviour of transitional symbiotic strategies must exist. In this study, we experimentally evolved infectivity and estimated the additive genetic variation in a facultative parasite. We performed artificial selection experiments in...

Data from: A genetic locus for paranoia

Bernard Crespi, Silven Read, Iiro Salminen & Peter Hurd
The psychological effects of brain-expressed imprinted genes in humans are virtually unknown. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic condition mediated by genomic imprinting, which involves high rates of psychosis characterized by hallucinations and paranoia, as well as autism. Altered expression of two brain-expressed imprinted genes, MAGEL2 and NDN, mediates a suite of PWS-related phenotypes, including behavior, from studies of mice. We phenotyped a large population of typical individuals for schizophrenia-spectrum and autism-spectrum traits, and genotyped...

Data from: Complementary food resources of carnivory and frugivory affect local abundance of an omnivorous carnivore

Scott E. Nielsen, Terrence A. Larsen, Gordon B. Stenhouse & Sean C. P. Coogan
A major unresolved question for omnivorous carnivores, like most species of bears, is to what degree are populations influenced by bottom–up (food supply) or top–down (human-caused mortality) processes. Most previous work on bear populations has focused on factors that limit survival (top–down) assuming little effect of food resource supply. When food resources are considered, most often they consider only the availability/supply of a single resource, particularly marine-subsidized or terrestrial sources of protein (carnivory) or alternately...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: To eat and not be eaten: diurnal mass gain and foraging strategies in wintering great tits

Maria Moiron, Kimberley J. Mathot & Niels J. Dingemanse
Adaptive theory predicts that the fundamental trade-off between starvation and predation risk shapes diurnal patterns in foraging activity and mass gain in wintering passerine birds. Foragers mitigating both types of risk should exhibit a bimodal distribution (increased foraging and mass gain early and late in the day), whereas both foraging and mass gains early (vs. late) during the day are expected when the risk of starvation (vs. predation) is greatest. Finally, relatively constant rates of...

Data from: Sexually antagonistic association between paternal phenotype and offspring viability reinforces total selection on a sexually selected trait

Alexandre M. Martin, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W. Coltman & Fanie Pelletier
The evolution of conspicuous sexually selected traits, such as horns or antlers, has fascinated biologists for more than a century. Elaborate traits can only evolve if they substantially increase reproduction, because they probably incur survival costs to the bearer. Total selection on these traits, however, includes sexual selection on sires and viability selection on offspring and can be influenced by changes in each of these components. Non-random associations between paternal phenotype and offspring viability may...

Data from: Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

S. Eryn McFarlane, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell & David W. Coltman
A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components...

Data from: A unifying framework for quantifying the nature of animal interactions

Jonathan R. Potts, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
Collective phenomena, whereby agent-agent interactions determine spatial patterns, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, movement and space use are also greatly influenced by the interactions between animals and their environment. Despite both types of interaction fundamentally influencing animal behaviour, there has hitherto been no unifying framework for the models proposed in both areas. Here, we construct a general method for inferring population-level spatial patterns from underlying individual movement and interaction processes,...

Data from: Dental ontogeny in extinct synapsids reveals a complex evolutionary history of the mammalian tooth attachment system

Aaron R.H. LeBlanc, Kirstin S. Brink, Megan R. Whitney, Fernando Abdala, Robert R. Reisz & Aaron R. H. LeBlanc
The mammalian dentition is uniquely characterized by a combination of precise occlusion, permanent adult teeth, and a unique tooth attachment system. Unlike the ankylosed teeth in most reptiles, mammal teeth are supported by a ligamentous tissue that suspends each tooth in its socket, providing flexible and compliant tooth attachment that prolongs the life of each tooth and maintains occlusal relationships. Here we investigate dental ontogeny through histological examination of a wide range of extinct synapsid...

Data from: Alternative reproductive tactics and lifetime reproductive success in a polygynandrous mammal

Adele Balmer, Bertram Zinner, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Shirley Raveh & F. Stephen Dobson
The widespread occurrence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) highlights the diverse ways in which sexual selection can operate within a population. We studied ARTs in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), evaluating paternity, lifetime reproductive success, and life histories. Reproductively mature male Columbian ground squirrels displayed either a territorial or satellite (non-territorial) tactic. Territorial males secured a higher proportion of copulations, were more likely to mate at earlier positions in females’ mating sequences and sired more...

Data from: Predicting the continuum between corridors and barriers to animal movements using Step Selection Functions and Randomized Shortest Paths

Manuela Panzacchi, Bram Van Moorter, Olav Strand, Marco Saerens, Ilkka Kivimäki, Colleen Cassady St. Clair, Ivar Herfindal & Luigi Boitani
1. The loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat everywhere on Earth prompts increasing attention to identifying landscape features that support animal movement (corridors) or impedes it (barriers). Most algorithms used to predict corridors assume that animals move through preferred habitat either optimally (e.g. least cost path) or as random walkers (e.g. current models), but neither extreme is realistic. 2. We propose that corridors and barriers are two sides of the same coin and that animals...

Data from: Poor health is associated with use of anthropogenic resources in an urban carnivore

Maureen Murray, Mark A. Edwards, Bill Abercrombie & Colleen Cassady St. Clair
Rates of encounters between humans and wildlife are increasing in cities around the world, especially when wildlife overlap with people in time, space and resources. Coyotes (Canis latrans) can make use of anthropogenic resources and reported rates of conflict have increased in cities across North America. This increase may be linked to individual differences in the use of human food and developed areas. We compared the relationships between coyote age, sex or health and the...

Data from: Distinct sources of gene flow produce contrasting population genetic dynamics at different range boundaries of a Choristoneura budworm

Gwylim S. Blackburn, Bryan M. T. Brunet, Kevin Muirhead, Michel Cusson, Catherine Béliveau, Roger C. Levesque, Lisa M. Lumley & Felix A. H. Sperling
Populations are often exposed to multiple sources of gene flow, but accounts are lacking of the population genetic dynamics that result from these interactions or their effects on local evolution. Using a genomic clines framework applied to 1195 SNPs, we documented genome-wide, locus-specific patterns of introgression between Choristoneura occidentalis biennis spruce budworms and two ecologically divergent relatives, C. o. occidentalis and C. fumiferana, that it interacts with at alternate boundaries of its range. We observe...

Data from: The morphology of the inner ear of squamate reptiles and its bearing on the origin of snakes

Alessandro Palci, Mark N. Hutchinson, Michael W. Caldwell & Michael S. Y. Lee
The inner ear morphology of 80 snake and lizard species, representative of a range of ecologies, is here analysed and compared to that of the fossil stem snake Dinilysia patagonica, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Inner ear morphology is linked to phylogeny (we find here a strong phylogenetic signal in the data that can complicate ecological correlations), but also correlated with ecology, with Dinilysia resembling certain semi-fossorial forms (Xenopeltis and Cylindrophis), consistent with previous reports. We...

Data from: Characterizing wildlife behavioural responses to roads using integrated step selection analysis

Christina M. Prokopenko, Mark S. Boyce & Tal Avgar
Roads are a prevalent, ever-increasing form of human disturbance on the landscape. In many places in western North America, energy development has brought human and road disturbance into seasonal winter range areas for migratory elk. We sought to evaluate the predictions from the risk-disturbance hypothesis when studying elk response to roads during winter. Road proximity and crossing were used to evaluate these behaviours, which offered a rare comparison between two common measures of roads. We...

Data from: Convergent local adaptation to climate in distantly related conifers

Sam Yeaman, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Katie E. Lotterhos, Haktan Suren, Simon Nadeau, Kristin A. Nurkowski, Pia Smets, Tongli Wang, Laura K. Gray, Katharina J. Liepe, Andreas Hamann, Jason A. Holliday, Michael C. Whitlock, Loren H. Rieseberg & Sally N. Aitken
When confronted with an adaptive challenge, such as extreme temperature, closely related species frequently evolve similar phenotypes using the same genes. Although such repeated evolution is thought to be less likely in highly polygenic traits and distantly related species, this has not been tested at the genome scale. We performed a population genomic study of convergent local adaptation among two distantly related species, lodgepole pine and interior spruce. We identified a suite of 47 genes,...

Data from: Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

Jamie C. Summers, Joshua Kurek, Jane L. Kirk, Derek CG. Muir, Xiaowa Wang, Johan A. Wiklund, Colin A. Cooke, Marlene S. Evans, John P. Smol & Derek C. G. Muir
Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from local industry or from recent...

Data from: Kin effects on energy allocation in group-living ground squirrels

Vincent A. Viblanc, Claire Saraux, Jan O. Murie & F. Stephen Dobson
The social environment has potent effects on individual phenotype and fitness in group-living species. We asked whether the presence of kin might act on energy allocation, a central aspect of life-history variation. Using a 22-year data set on reproductive and somatic allocations in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), we tested the effects of co-breeding and non-breeding kin on the fitness and energy allocation balance between reproduction and personal body condition of individual females. Greater numbers...

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  • University of Alberta
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