258 Works

Data from: The role of cell replacement in benthic–pelagic coupling by suspension feeders

Amanda S. Kahn & Sally P. Leys
Benthic–pelagic coupling through suspension feeders and their detrital pathways is integral to carbon transport in oceans. In food-poor ecosystems however, a novel mechanism of carbon recycling has been proposed that involves direct uptake of dissolved carbon by suspension feeders followed by shedding of cells as particulate carbon. We studied cell replacement rates in a range of cold-water sponge species to determine how universal this mechanism might be. We show that cell replacement rates of feeding...

Data from: Environmental and evolutionary effects on horn growth of male bighorn sheep

Mathieu Douhard, Gabriel Pigeon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Dave W. Coltmann, Simon Guillemette, Fanie Pelletier & David W. Coltman
The development of male secondary sexual characters such as antlers or horns has substantial biological and socio-economic importance because in many species these traits affect male fitness positively through sexual selection and negatively through trophy hunting. Both environmental conditions and selective hunting can affect horn growth but their relative importance remains unexplored. We first examined how a large-scale climate index, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), local weather and population density influenced both absolute and relative...

Data from: Can terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) and hemispherical photographs predict tropical dry forest succession with liana abundance?

Gerardo Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa, J. Antonio Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio Vega-Araya, Carlos A. Campos-Vargas, Sandra Milena Durán, Nikhil D'Souza, Thomas Gianoli, Carlos Portillo-Quintero, Iain Sharp, Carlos Campos-Vargas &
Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are ecosystems with long drought periods, a mean temperature of 25 °C, a mean annual precipitation that ranges from 900 to 2000 mm, and that possess a high abundance of deciduous species (trees and lianas). What remains of the original extent of TDFs in the Americas remains highly fragmented and at different levels of ecological succession. It is estimated that one of the main fingerprints left by global environmental and climate...

Data from: Probability matching in perceptrons: effects of conditional dependence and linear nonseparability

Michael R.W. Dawson, Maya Gupta & Michael R. W. Dawson
Probability matching occurs when the behavior of an agent matches the likelihood of occurrence of events in the agent's environment. For instance, when artificial neural networks match probability, the activity in their output unit equals the past probability of reward in the presence of a stimulus. Our previous research demonstrated that simple artificial neural networks (perceptrons, which consist of a set of input units directly connected to a single output unit) learn to match probability...

Data from: Towards robust evolutionary inference with integral projection models

M. J. Janeiro, D. W. Coltman, M. Festa-Bianchet, F. Pelletier & M. B. Morrissey
Integral projection models (IPMs) are extremely flexible tools for ecological and evolutionary inference. IPMs track the distribution of phenotype in populations through time, using functions describing phenotype-dependent development, inheritance, survival and fecundity. For evolutionary inference, two important features of any model are the ability to (i) characterize relationships among traits (including values of the same traits across ages) within individuals, and (ii) characterize similarity between individuals and their descendants. In IPM analyses, the former depends...

Data from: Demographic drivers of age-dependent sexual selection

Alexandre M. Martin, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W. Coltman & Fanie Pelletier
Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age...

Data from: Host phenology and potential saprotrophism of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the boreal forest

Stefan F. Hupperts, Justine Karst, Karin Pritsch & Simon M. Landhäusser
Phenology-induced changes in carbon assimilation by trees may affect carbon stored in fine roots and as a consequence, alter carbon allocated to ectomycorrhizal fungi. Two competing models exist to explain carbon mobilization by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Under the ‘saprotrophy model’, decreased allocation of carbon may induce saprotrophic behaviour in ectomycorrhizal fungi, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter to mobilize carbon. Alternatively, under the ‘nutrient acquisition model’, decomposition may instead be driven by the acquisition of...

Data from: Pivotal effect of early-winter temperatures and snowfall on population growth of alpine Parnassius smintheus butterflies

Jens Roland & Stephen F. Matter
Geographic range shifts in species’ distributions, due to climate change, imply altered dynamics at both their northern and southern range limits, or at upper and lower elevational limits. There is therefore a need to identify specific weather or climate variable(s), and life stages or cohorts on which they act, and how these affect population growth. Identifying such variables permits prediction of population increase or decline under a changing climate, and shifts in a species’ geographic...

Data from: Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPs

Michelle Viengkone, Andrew Edward Derocher, Evan Shaun Richardson, René Michael Malenfant, Joshua Moses Miller, Martyn E. Obbard, Markus G. Dyck, Nick J. Lunn, Vicki Sahanatien & Corey S. Davis
Defining subpopulations using genetics has traditionally used data from microsatellite markers to investigate population structure; however, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as a tool for detection of fine-scale structure. In Hudson Bay, Canada, three polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations (Foxe Basin (FB), Southern Hudson Bay (SH), and Western Hudson Bay (WH)) have been delineated based on mark–recapture studies, radiotelemetry and satellite telemetry, return of marked animals in the subsistence harvest, and population genetics using microsatellites....

Data from: A new fossil marine lizard with soft tissues from the Late Cretaceous of Southern Italy

Ilaria Paparella, Alessandro Palci, Umberto Nicosia & Michael W. Caldwell
A new marine lizard showing exceptional soft tissue preservation was found in Late Cretaceous deposits of the Apulian Platform (Puglia, Italy). Primitivus manduriensis gen. et sp. nov. is not only the first evidence of the presence of dolichosaurs in a Southern Italian Carbonate Platform, filling a paleogeographic gap in the Mediterranean Tethys, but also extends the range of this group to the upper Campanian – lower Maastrichtian. Our parsimony analysis recover a monophyletic non-ophidian pythonomorph...

Data from: Heritability of body size in the polar bears of Western Hudson Bay

René M. Malenfant, Corey S. Davis, Evan S. Richardson, Nicholas J. Lunn & David W. Coltman
Among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), fitness is dependent on body size through males' abilities to win mates, females' abilities to provide for their young, and all bears' abilities to survive increasingly longer fasting periods caused by climate change. In the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation (near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada), polar bears have declined in body size and condition, but nothing is known about the genetic underpinnings of body size variation, which may be subject to natural...

Data from: Deletion/loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 changes tooth morphology and function in Mus musculus: implications for dental evolution in mammals

Chelsey Zurowski, Heather Jamniczky, Daniel Graf & Jessica Theodor
Quantifying regulatory gene effects on dental morphology and function has implications for the underlying mechanisms that generated dental diversity in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that regulatory gene expression changes lead to differences in molars using a neural crest knockout of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in Mus musculus. 3D geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify the shape of the molar toothrow. BMP7 mutants have extra cusps on the first upper and lower molars,...

Data from: The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence

Andrew Ladle, Robin Steenweg, Brenda Shepherd & Mark S. Boyce
Species distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence...

Data from: Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

Elizabeth Peacock, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Martyn E. Obbard, Andrei Boltunov, Eric V. Regehr, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Jon Aars, Stephen N. Atkinson, George K. Sage, Andrew G. Hope, Eve Zeyl, Lutz Bachmann, Dorothee Ehrich, Kim T. Scribner, Steven C. Amstrup, Stanislav Belikov, Erik W. Born, Andrew E. Derocher, Ian Stirling, Mitchell K. Taylor, Øystein Wiig, David Paetkau & Sandra L. Talbot
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely...

Data from: Brassicales phylogeny inferred from 72 plastid genes: a reanalysis of the phylogenetic localization of two paleopolyploid events and origin of novel chemical defenses

Patrick P. Edger, Jocelyn C. Hall, Alex Harkess, Michelle Tang, Jill Coombs, Setareh Mohammadin, M. Eric Schranz, Zhiyong Xiong, James Leebens-Mack, Blake C. Meyers, Kenneth J. Systma, Marcus A. Koch, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, J. Chris Pires & Kenneth J. Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY - Previous phylogenetic studies employing molecular markers have yielded various insights into the evolutionary history across Brassicales, but many relationships between families remain poorly supported or unresolved. A recent phylotranscriptomic approach utilizing 1155 nuclear markers obtained robust estimates for relationships among 14 of 17 families. Here we report a complete family‐level phylogeny estimated using the plastid genome. METHODS - We conducted phylogenetic analyses on a concatenated data set comprising 44,926 bp...

Data from: The theory of island biogeography, the sample-area effect, and the habitat diversity hypothesis: complementarity in a naturally fragmented landscape of lake islands

Zachary G. MacDonald, Iraleigh D. Anderson, John H. Acorn & Scott E. Nielsen
Aim: Investigate relationships between fragmentation and species diversity in the context of the theory of island biogeography, sample-area effect, and habitat diversity hypothesis. Location: Lake of the Woods, Canada. Taxon: Vascular plants Methods: Vascular plant species diversity was inventoried on 30 islands, organized into two island sets. Each island set contained four size classes that varied in degree of fragmentation while controlling for the sample-area effect (small island set: 8×0.1-ha, 4×0.2-ha, 2×0.4-ha, and 1×0.8-ha islands;...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Dissolved organic carbon in streams within a subarctic catchment analysed using a GIS/remote sensing approach

Pearl Mzobe, Martin Berggren, Petter Pilesjö, Erik Lundin, David Olefeldt, Nigel T. Roulet & Andreas Persson
Climate change projections show that temperature and precipitation increases can alter the exchange of greenhouse gases between the atmosphere and high latitude landscapes, including their freshwaters. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in greenhouse gas emissions, but the impact of catchment productivity on DOC release to subarctic waters remains poorly known, especially at regional scales. We test the hypothesis that increased terrestrial productivity, as indicated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), generates...

Data from: Grizzly bear response to spatio-temporal variability in human recreational activity.

Andrew Ladle, Tal Avgar, Matthew Wheatley, Gordon B. Stenhouse, Scott Nielsen, Mark S. Boyce & Scott E. Nielsen
1. Outdoor recreation on trail networks is a growing form of disturbance for wildlife. However, few studies have examined behavioural responses by large carnivores to motorised and non-motorised recreational activity-- a knowledge gap that has implications for the success of human access management aimed at improving habitat quality for wildlife. 2. We used an integrated step-selection analysis of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) radiotelemetry data and a spatio-temporal model of motorised and non-motorised human recreational activity...

Data from: Testing the role of the Red Queen and Court Jester as drivers of the macroevolution of Apollo butterflies

Fabien L. Condamine, Jonathan Rolland, Sebastian Höhna, Felix A. H. Sperling & Isabel Sanmartín
In macroevolution, the Red Queen (RQ) model posits that biodiversity dynamics depend mainly on species-intrinsic biotic factors such as interactions among species or life-history traits, while the Court Jester (CJ) model states that extrinsic environmental abiotic factors have a stronger role. Until recently, a lack of relevant methodological approaches has prevented the unraveling of contributions from these two types of factors to the evolutionary history of a lineage. Here we take advantage of the rapid...

Data from: On-demand sildenafil as a treatment for Raynaud phenomenon: a series of n-of-1 trials

Matthieu Roustit, Joris Giai, Olivier Gaget, Charles Khouri, Myriam Mouhib, Adrien Lotito, Sophie Blaise, Christophe Seinturier, Fabien Subtil, Adeline Paris, Claire Cracowski, Bernard Imbert, Patrick Carpentier, Sunita Vohra & Jean-Luc Cracowski
Background: Treatment of Raynaud phenomenon (RP) with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors has shown moderate efficacy. Adverse effects decrease the risk–benefit profile of these drugs, and patients may not be willing to receive long-term treatment. On-demand single doses before or during exposure to cold may be a good alternative. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of on-demand sildenafil in RP. Design: Series of randomized, double-blind, n-of-1 trials. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02050360). Setting: Outpatients at a French university hospital. Participants:...

Data from: Spatial genetic structure of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in western Canada: historical patterns and contemporary dispersal

G. D. N. Gayathri Samarasekera, Nicholas V. Bartell, B. Staffan Lindgren, Janice E. K. Cooke, Corey S. Davis, Patrick M. A. James, David W. Coltman, Karen E. Mock & Brent W. Murray
Environmental change has a wide range of ecological consequences, including species extinction and range expansion. Many studies have shown that insect species respond rapidly to climatic change. A mountain pine beetle epidemic of record size in North America has led to unprecedented mortality of lodgepole pine, and a significant range expansion to the northeast of its historic range. Our goal was to determine the spatial genetic variation found among outbreak population from which genetic structure,...

Data from: Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate

Aaron B. A. Shafer, Joseph M. Northrup, Kevin S. White, Mark S. Boyce, Steeve D. Côté & David W. Coltman
Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, while population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and...

Data from: Population size and major valleys explain microsatellite variation better than taxonomic units for caribou in western Canada

Robert Serrouya, David Paetkau, Bruce N. McLellan, Stan Boutin, Deborah A. Jenkins & Mitch Campbell
Identifying conservation units below the species level is becoming increasingly important, particularly when limited resources necessitate prioritization for conservation among such units. This problem is exemplified with caribou, a mammal with a circum-Arctic distribution that is exposed to a broad spectrum of ecological conditions, but is also declining in many parts of its range. We used microsatellite markers to evaluate the suitability of existing intra-specific taxonomic designations to act as population units for conservation, and...

Data from: Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation

Quinn E. Fletcher, Colin Selman, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Sarah B. Woods, Arnold Y. Seo, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, John R. Speakman & Murray M. Humphries
A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the...

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