25 Works

Data from: Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

Les N. Harris, Louise Chavarie, Robert Bajno, Kimberly L. Howland, Simon H. Wiley, William M. Tonn & Eric B. Taylor
Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies...

Data from: Reward context determines risky choice in pigeons and humans

Elliot A. Ludvig, Christopher R. Madan, Jeffrey M. Pisklak & Marcia L. Spetch
Whereas humans are risk averse for monetary gains, other animals can be risk seeking for food rewards, especially when faced with variable delays or under significant deprivation. A key difference between these findings is that humans are often explicitly told about the risky options, whereas non-human animals must learn about them from their own experience. We tested pigeons (Columba livia) and humans in formally identical choice tasks where all outcomes were learned from experience. Both...

Data from: Evidence-based tool surpasses expert opinion in predicting probability of eradication of aquatic nonindigenous species

David Drolet, Andrea Locke, Mark A. Lewis & Jeff Davidson
The main objective of evidence-based management is to promote use of scientific data in the decision-making process of managers, with data either complementing or replacing expert knowledge. It is expected that this will increase the efficiency of environmental interventions. However, the relative accuracy and precision of evidence-based tools and expert knowledge has seldom been evaluated. It is therefore essential to verify whether such tools provide better decision support before advocating their use. We conducted an...

Data from: Daily energy expenditure during lactation is strongly selected in a free-living mammal

Quinn E. Fletcher, John R. Speakman, Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Murray M. Humphries
1. Energy expenditure is a trait of central importance in ecological and evolutionary theory. We examined the correlates of, the strength of selection on, and the heritability of, daily energy expenditure (DEE; kJ/day) during lactation in free-ranging North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). 2. Over seven years, lactating squirrels with greater DEE had higher annual reproductive success (ARS; standardized selection gradient: β’ = 0.47; top 12% of published estimates). Surprisingly, positive fecundity selection on lactation...

Data from: Fine scale genetic correlates to condition and migration in a wild Cervid

Joseph M. Northrup, Aaron B. A. Shafer, , David W. Coltman, George Wittemyer & Charles R. Anderson
The relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic traits is fundamental to the study and management of natural populations. Such relationships often are investigated by assessing correlations between phenotypic traits and heterozygosity or genetic differentiation. Using an extensive data set compiled from free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), we combined genetic and ecological data to (i) examine correlations between genetic differentiation and migration timing, (ii) screen for mitochondrial haplotypes associated with migration timing, and (iii) test whether...

Data from: The dorid nudibranchs Peltodoris lentiginosa and Archidoris odhneri as predators of glass sponges

Jackson W.F. Chu & Sally P. Leys
The dorid nudibranchs Peltodoris lentiginosa and Archidoris odhneri were found on glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) during remotely operated vehicle surveys of three reefs in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Eight nudibranchs were sampled from 2009 to 2011. Identification of sponge spicules found in their gut and fecal contents confirmed the nudibranchs to be predators of the reef-forming hexactinellids Aphrocallistes vastus and Heterochone calyx, as well as of the demosponge Desmacella austini, which encrusts...

Data from: A generalized residual technique for analyzing complex movement models using earth mover's distance

Jonathan R. Potts, Marie Auger-Méthé, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
1. Complex systems of moving and interacting objects are ubiquitous in the natural and social sciences. Predicting their behavior often requires models that mimic these systems with sufficient accuracy, while accounting for their inherent stochasticity. Though tools exist to determine which of a set of candidate models is best relative to the others, there is currently no generic goodness-of-fit framework for testing how close the best model is to the real complex stochastic system. 2....

Data from: Genome-wide admixture and ecological niche modeling reveal the maintenance of species boundaries despite long history of interspecific gene flow

Amanda R. De La Torre, David R. Roberts & Sally N. Aitken
1.The maintenance of species boundaries despite interspecific gene flow has been a continuous source of interest in evolutionary biology. Many hybridizing species have porous genomes with regions impermeable to introgression, conferring reproductive barriers between species. 2.We used ecological niche modeling to study the glacial and postglacial recolonization patterns between the widely hybridizing spruce species Picea glauca and P. engelmannii in western North America. 3.Genome-wide estimates of admixture based on a panel of 311 candidate gene...

Data from: Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

S. Eryn McFarlane, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell & David W. Coltman
A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components...

Data from: Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Stephen G. Hamilton, Laura Castro De La Guardia, Andrew E. Derocher, Vicki Sahanatien, Bruno Tremblay & David Huard
Background: Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 – 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Principal Findings: Shifts away from multiyear ice to...

Data from: Sexually antagonistic association between paternal phenotype and offspring viability reinforces total selection on a sexually selected trait

Alexandre M. Martin, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W. Coltman & Fanie Pelletier
The evolution of conspicuous sexually selected traits, such as horns or antlers, has fascinated biologists for more than a century. Elaborate traits can only evolve if they substantially increase reproduction, because they probably incur survival costs to the bearer. Total selection on these traits, however, includes sexual selection on sires and viability selection on offspring and can be influenced by changes in each of these components. Non-random associations between paternal phenotype and offspring viability may...

Data from: A unifying framework for quantifying the nature of animal interactions

Jonathan R. Potts, Karl Mokross & Mark A. Lewis
Collective phenomena, whereby agent-agent interactions determine spatial patterns, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, movement and space use are also greatly influenced by the interactions between animals and their environment. Despite both types of interaction fundamentally influencing animal behaviour, there has hitherto been no unifying framework for the models proposed in both areas. Here, we construct a general method for inferring population-level spatial patterns from underlying individual movement and interaction processes,...

Data from: Landscape structure and the genetic effects of a population collapse

Serena A. Caplins, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Claudia Ciotir, Jens Roland, Stephen F. Matter & Nusha Keyghobadi
Both landscape structure and population size fluctuations influence population genetics. While independent effects of these factors on genetic patterns and processes are well studied, a key challenge is to understand their interaction, as populations are simultaneously exposed to habitat fragmentation and climatic changes that increase variability in population size. In a population network of an alpine butterfly, abundance declined 60–100% in 2003 because of low over-winter survival. Across the network, mean microsatellite genetic diversity did...

Data from: Changes in tree and liana communities along a successional gradient in a tropical dry forest in south-eastern Brazil

Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes, Mario Marcos Espirito-Santo, Giovana Rodrigues Da Luz, Maria Das Dores Magalhaes Veloso, Rubens Manuel Dos Santos, Sofia Calvo-Alvarado, Sandra Milena Duran, Santos D'Ângelo Neto, Bruno G. Madeira, G. Wilson Fernandes & G. Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
We investigated changes in species composition and structure of tree and liana communities along a successional gradient in a seasonally dry tropical forest. There was a progressive increase in tree richness and all tree structural traits from early to late stages, as well as marked changes in tree species composition and dominance. This pattern is probably related to pasture management practices such as ploughing, which remove tree roots and preclude regeneration by resprouting. On the...

Data from: Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships

Clement Kin-Ming Tsui, Lina Farfan, Amanda D. Roe, Adrianne V. Rice, Janice E. K. Cooke, Yousry A. El-Kassaby & Richard C. Hamelin
Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of...

Data from: Design of a 9K SNP chip for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from RAD and transcriptome sequencing

René M. Malenfant, David W. Coltman & Corey S. Davis
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) offer numerous advantages over anonymous markers such as microsatellites, including improved estimation of population parameters, finer-scale resolution of population structure and more precise genomic dissection of quantitative traits. However, many SNPs are needed to equal the resolution of a single microsatellite, and reliable large-scale genotyping of SNPs remains a challenge in nonmodel species. Here, we document the creation of a 9K Illumina Infinium BeadChip for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), which will be...

Data from: Glass sponge reefs as a silicon sink

Jackson W. F. Chu, Manuel Maldonado, Gitai Yahel, Sally P. Leys, JWF Chu & SP Leys
Glass sponge reefs concentrate large amounts of biological silicon (Si) over relatively small areas of the seafloor. We examined the role of glass sponges in biological silicon (Si) cycling by calculating a Si budget for 3 glass sponge reefs (Howe, Fraser, and Galiano) in the Strait of Georgia (SOG), British Columbia, Canada. The main reef-forming glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus is heavily silicified, with 80% of its dry weight composed of biogenic silica (bSi). We used...

Data from: Consensus RDA across dissimilarity coefficients for canonical ordination of community composition data

F. Guillaume Blanchet, Pierre Legendre, J. A. Colin Bergeron & Fangliang He
Understanding how habitat structures species assemblages in a community is one of the main goals of community ecology. To relate community patterns to particular factors defining habitat conditions, ecologists often use canonical ordinations such as canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). It is a common practice to use dissimilarity coefficients to perform canonical ordinations through distance-based RDA (db-RDA) or transformation-based RDA (tb-RDA). Dissimilarity coefficients are measures of resemblance where the information about species communities is condensed into...

Data from: Assessment of identity disequilibrium and its relation to empirical heterozygosity fitness correlations: a meta-analysis

Joshua M. Miller & David W. Coltman
Heterozygosity fitness correlations (HFCs) have often been used to detect inbreeding depression, under the assumption that genome-wide heterozygosity is a good proxy for inbreeding. However, meta-analyses of the association between fitness measures and individual heterozygosity have shown that often either no correlation is observed, or the effect sizes are small. One of the reasons for this may be the absence of variance in inbreeding, a requisite for generating general-effect HFCs. Recent work has highlighted identity...

Data from: Predators, energetics and fitness drive neonatal reproductive failure in red squirrels

Emily K. Studd, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs & Murray M. Humphries
Neonatal reproductive failure should occur when energetic costs of parental investment outweigh fitness benefits. However, little is known about the drivers of neonatal reproductive failure in free ranging species experiencing continuous natural variation in predator abundance and in the energetic and fitness costs and benefits associated with parental investment. Long-term comprehensive studies are required to better understand how biotic, abiotic, and life history conditions interact to drive occurrences of reproductive failure in the wild. Using...

Data from: Spatial patterns of neutral and functional genetic variation reveal patterns of local adaptation in raccoon (Procyon lotor) populations exposed to raccoon rabies

Sarrah Castillo, Vythegi Srithayakumar, Catherine I. Cullingham, Bradley N. White, Yessica Rico, Christopher J. Kyle & Bruce A. Pond
Local adaptation is necessary for population survival and depends on the interplay between responses to selective forces and demographic processes that introduce or retain adaptive and maladaptive attributes. Host-parasite systems are dynamic, varying in space and time, where both host and parasites must adapt to their ever-changing environment in order to survive. We investigated patterns of local adaptation in raccoon populations with varying temporal exposure to the raccoon rabies virus (RRV). RRV infects approximately 85%...

Data from: User-friendly and evidence-based tool to evaluate probability of eradication of aquatic non-indigenous species

David Drolet, Andrea Locke, Mark A. Lewis & Jeff Davidson
1. The gap between practitioners and conservation or environmental management science is difficult to bridge. Managers sometimes use limited scientific information in their decision-making process, mainly because they have little time to review primary literature before making a decision. Making data readily available to managers is expected to improve the overall efficiency of management interventions. Here we present an approach to develop user-friendly applications for evidence-based management and illustrate the concept by presenting a simple...

Data from: Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

Elizabeth Peacock, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Martyn E. Obbard, Andrei Boltunov, Eric V. Regehr, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Jon Aars, Stephen N. Atkinson, George K. Sage, Andrew G. Hope, Eve Zeyl, Lutz Bachmann, Dorothee Ehrich, Kim T. Scribner, Steven C. Amstrup, Stanislav Belikov, Erik W. Born, Andrew E. Derocher, Ian Stirling, Mitchell K. Taylor, Øystein Wiig, David Paetkau & Sandra L. Talbot
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely...

Data from: Life-stage differences in spatial genetic structure in an irruptive forest insect: implications for dispersal and spatial synchrony

Patrick M. A. James, Barry Cooke, Bryan Brunet, Lisa Lumley, Felix Sperling, Marie-Josée Fortin, Vanessa S. Quinn, Brian R. Sturtevant, Bryan M. T. Brunet, Lisa M. Lumley & Felix A. H. Sperling
Dispersal determines the flux of individuals, energy, and information and is therefore a key determinant of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Yet, it remains difficult to quantify its importance relative to other factors. This is particularly true in cyclic populations in which demography, drift, and dispersal contribute to spatio-temporal variability in genetic structure. Improved understanding of how dispersal influences spatial genetic structure is needed to disentangle the multiple processes that give rise to spatial synchrony in...

Data from: Comparing measures of breeding inequality and opportunity for selection with sexual selection on a quantitative character in bighorn rams

Alexandre M. Martin, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W. Coltman & Fanie Pelletier
The reliability and consistency of the many measures proposed to quantify sexual selection have been questioned for decades. Realized selection on quantitative characters measured by the selection differential i was approximated by metrics based on variance in breeding success, using either the opportunity for sexual selection Is or indices of inequality. There is no consensus about which metric best approximates realized selection on sexual characters. Recently, the opportunity for selection on character mean OSM was...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Alberta
  • University of British Columbia
  • McGill University
  • University of Guelph
  • Université de Sherbrooke
  • University of Montreal
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • University of Prince Edward Island
  • Ministry of Natural Resources
  • Trent University