Benthic–pelagic coupling through suspension feeders and their detrital pathways is integral to carbon transport in oceans. In food-poor ecosystems however, a novel mechanism of carbon recycling has been proposed that involves direct uptake of dissolved carbon by suspension feeders followed by shedding of cells as particulate carbon. We studied cell replacement rates in a range of cold-water sponge species to determine how universal this mechanism might be. We show that cell replacement rates of feeding...
The development of male secondary sexual characters such as antlers or horns has substantial biological and socio-economic importance because in many species these traits affect male fitness positively through sexual selection and negatively through trophy hunting. Both environmental conditions and selective hunting can affect horn growth but their relative importance remains unexplored. We first examined how a large-scale climate index, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), local weather and population density influenced both absolute and relative...
Data from: Pivotal effect of early-winter temperatures and snowfall on population growth of alpine Parnassius smintheus butterfliesJens Roland & Stephen F. Matter
Geographic range shifts in species’ distributions, due to climate change, imply altered dynamics at both their northern and southern range limits, or at upper and lower elevational limits. There is therefore a need to identify specific weather or climate variable(s), and life stages or cohorts on which they act, and how these affect population growth. Identifying such variables permits prediction of population increase or decline under a changing climate, and shifts in a species’ geographic...
Parents should bias sex allocation toward offspring of the sex most likely to provide higher fitness returns. Trivers and Willard proposed that for polygynous mammals, females should adjust sex-ratio at conception or bias allocation of resources toward the most profitable sex, according to their own body condition. However, the possibility that mammalian fathers may influence sex allocation has seldom been considered. Here, we show that the probability of having a son increased from 0.31 to...
Data from: Fungal effects on plant-plant interactions contribute to grassland plant abundances: evidence from the fieldJonathan A. Bennett & James F. Cahill
1. Plant-fungal interactions can have strong effects on plant abundances, both through direct effects on plant performance and indirect effects on competition and facilitation. Most evidence linking fungi to plant abundances derives from direct fungal effects on initial growth, with little evidence linking fungal effects on plant-plant interactions in intact communities to plant abundances for any plant life history stage. 2. We transplanted 4320 individuals belonging to 18 plant species into plots where we removed...
Phenology-induced changes in carbon assimilation by trees may affect carbon stored in fine roots and as a consequence, alter carbon allocated to ectomycorrhizal fungi. Two competing models exist to explain carbon mobilization by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Under the ‘saprotrophy model’, decreased allocation of carbon may induce saprotrophic behaviour in ectomycorrhizal fungi, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter to mobilize carbon. Alternatively, under the ‘nutrient acquisition model’, decomposition may instead be driven by the acquisition of...
Data from: Assessing polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population structure in the Hudson Bay region using SNPsMichelle Viengkone, Andrew Edward Derocher, Evan Shaun Richardson, René Michael Malenfant, Joshua Moses Miller, Martyn E. Obbard, Markus G. Dyck, Nick J. Lunn, Vicki Sahanatien & Corey S. Davis
Defining subpopulations using genetics has traditionally used data from microsatellite markers to investigate population structure; however, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as a tool for detection of fine-scale structure. In Hudson Bay, Canada, three polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations (Foxe Basin (FB), Southern Hudson Bay (SH), and Western Hudson Bay (WH)) have been delineated based on mark–recapture studies, radiotelemetry and satellite telemetry, return of marked animals in the subsistence harvest, and population genetics using microsatellites....
Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age...
University of Alberta33
Université de Sherbrooke4
French National Centre for Scientific Research3
University of Georgia2
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center1
University of Kansas1
Michigan Technological University1
King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi1
California State University, Northridge1
Government of Alberta1