14 Works

The morphological diversity of the quadrate bone in squamate reptiles as revealed by high-resolution computed tomography and geometric morphometrics

Alessandro Palci, Michael Caldwell, Mark Hutchinson, Takuya Konishi & Michael Lee
We examined the morphological diversity of the quadrate bone in squamate reptiles (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians). The quadrate is the principal splanchnocranial element involved in suspending the lower jaw from the skull, and its shape is of particular interest because it is potentially affected by several factors, such as phylogenetic history, allometry, ecology, skull kinesis and hearing capabilities (e.g. presence or absence of a tympanic ear). Due to its complexity, the quadrate bone is also...

Data from: How many cubs can a mum nurse? Maternal age and size influence litter size in polar bears

Dorinda Marie Folio, Jon Aars, Olivier Gimenez, Andrew E. Derocher, Oystein Wiig & Sarah Cubaynes
Life history theory predicts that females' age and size affect the level of maternal investment in current reproduction, balanced against future reproductive effort, maintenance and survival. Using long-term (30 years) individual data on 193 female polar bears (Ursus maritimus), we assessed age- and size-specific variation on litter size. Litter size varied with maternal age, younger females had higher chances of losing a cub during their first months of life. Results suggest an improvement of reproductive...

Data from: On-demand sildenafil as a treatment for Raynaud phenomenon: a series of n-of-1 trials

Matthieu Roustit, Joris Giai, Olivier Gaget, Charles Khouri, Myriam Mouhib, Adrien Lotito, Sophie Blaise, Christophe Seinturier, Fabien Subtil, Adeline Paris, Claire Cracowski, Bernard Imbert, Patrick Carpentier, Sunita Vohra & Jean-Luc Cracowski
Background: Treatment of Raynaud phenomenon (RP) with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors has shown moderate efficacy. Adverse effects decrease the risk–benefit profile of these drugs, and patients may not be willing to receive long-term treatment. On-demand single doses before or during exposure to cold may be a good alternative. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of on-demand sildenafil in RP. Design: Series of randomized, double-blind, n-of-1 trials. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02050360). Setting: Outpatients at a French university hospital. Participants:...

Data from: Corridors or risk? movement along, and use of, linear features vary predictably among large mammal predator and prey species

Melanie Dickie, Michael Cody & Tal Avgar
1. Space-use behaviour reflects trade-offs in meeting ecological needs and can have consequences for individual survival and population demographics. The mechanisms underlying space-use can be understood by simultaneously evaluating habitat selection and movement patterns, and fine-resolution locational data are increasing our ability to do so. 2. We use high-resolution location data and an integrated step-selection analysis to evaluate caribou, moose, bear, and wolf habitat selection and movement behavior in response to anthropogenic habitat modification, though...

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

Data from: Diet and macronutrient niche of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in two regions of Nepal during summer and autumn

Saroj Panthi, Achyut Aryal & Sean C. P. Coogan
Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of omnivorous Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in Nepal. We characterized the diet of black bears in two seasons (June–July, “summer”; and October–November “autumn”) and two study areas (Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve [DHR]; and Kailash Sacred Landscape [KSL]). We then conducted nutritional analysis of species consumed by black bears in each study area, in combination with nutritional estimates from the literature, to estimate the proportions of macronutrients (i.e.,...

Data from: Depth-to-water mediates bryophyte response to harvesting in boreal forests

Samuel F. Bartels, Ryan S. James, Richard T. Caners & S. Ellen Macdonald
1. Site moisture is an important component of the forest landscape for maintaining biodiversity, including forest-floor bryophytes, but little is known about its role in shaping understory responses to harvesting. 2. We investigated the influence of site wetness, determined using a remotely-sensed, topographic depth-to-water (DTW) index, on responses of bryophyte cover, richness, diversity, and composition to variable retention harvesting (comparing: 2% [clear-cut], 20%, and 50% dispersed green tree retention and uncut controls [100% retention]) in...

Data from: Estimating the intensity of use by interacting predators and prey using camera traps

Jonah L. Keim, Subhash R. Lele, Philip D. DeWitt, J. Jeremy Fitzpatrick & Noemie S. Jenni
Understanding how organisms distribute themselves in response to interacting species, ecosystems, climate, human development and time is fundamental to ecological study and practice. A measure to quantify the relationship among organisms and their environments is intensity of use: the rate of use of a specific resource in a defined unit of time. Estimating the intensity of use differs from estimating probabilities of occupancy or selection, which can remain constant even when the intensity of use...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Continent-wide population genomic structure and phylogeography of North America’s most destructive conifer defoliator, the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)

Lisa Lumley, Esther Pouliot, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Bryan Brunet, Roger Levesque, Felix Sperling & Michel Cusson
The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, is presumed to be panmictic across vast regions of North America. We examined the extent of panmixia by genotyping 3650 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in 1975 individuals from 128 collections across the continent. We found three spatially structured subpopulations: Western (Alaska, Yukon), Central (southeastern Yukon to the Manitoba-Ontario border) and Eastern (Manitoba-Ontario border and Atlantic). Additionally, the most diagnostic genetic differentiation between the Central and Eastern subpopulations was chromosomally...

Data from: Impacts of dead-wood manipulation on the biodiversity of temperate and boreal forests - A systematic review

Jennie Sandström, Claes Bernes, Kaisa Junninen, Asko Lohmus, Ellen Macdonald, Jörg Müller & Bengt Gunnar Jonsson
Dead wood (DW) provides critical habitat for thousands of species in forests, but its amount, quality and diversity have been heavily reduced by forestry. Therefore, interventions aiming to increase DW might be necessary to support its associated biodiversity, even in protected forests, which may be former production forests. Our aim was to synthesise the current state of knowledge drawn from replicated experimental studies into solid quantitative evidence of the effects of DW manipulation on forest...

FoRCy: Rocking Shallow Foundation Performance in Slow Cyclic and Monotonic Experiments

Manouchehr Hakhamaneshi, Bruce L. Kutter, Andreas Gerasimos Gavras, Sivapalan Gajan, Angelos Tsatsis, George Gazetas, Ioannis Anastasopoulos, Tetsuya Kohno, Giovanna Pianese, Keshab Sharma, Lijun Deng, Weian Liu, Roberto Paolucci & Jonathan Monical
Numerous centrifuge experiments (e.g., Rosebrook 2001; Ugalde et al. 2007; Gajan and Kutter 2008; Deng et al. 2012; Hakhamaneshi et al. 2012; Liu et al. 2013; Allmond and Kutter 2014; Loli et al. 2014) and 1g shake-table experiments (e.g., Shirato et al. 2008; Drosos et al. 2012; Antonellis et al. 2015; Tsatsis and Anastasopoulos 2015) have demonstrated that rocking shallow foundations can be designed to provide re-centering and energy dissipation with little damage to the...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Density-dependent space use affects interpretation of camera trap detection rates

Kate Broadley, Cole Burton, Stan Boutin & Tal Avgar
Camera-traps (CTs) are an increasingly popular tool for wildlife survey and monitoring. Estimating relative abundance in unmarked species is often done using detection rate as an index of relative abundance, which assumes a positive linear relationship with true abundance. This assumption may be violated if movement behavior varies with density, but the degree to which movement is density-dependent across taxa is unclear. The potential confounding of population-level relative abundance indices by movement depends on how...

Registration Year

  • 2019
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of Alberta
    14
  • Utah State University
    3
  • University of Oslo
    2
  • University of Tartu
    2
  • University of Camerino
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Islamic Azad University
    1
  • Sao Paulo State University
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Guangxi Institute of Botany
    1