90 Works

Cost-effectiveness analysis of telerehabilitation for people who have sustained a stroke with return home without intensive rehabilitation: A systematic review

Lucien P. Coulibaly, Christian Rochefort, Dahlia Kairy & Michel Tousignant

Det tør!: Frozen-Ground Cartoons; Et international samarbejde mellem kunstnere og permafrostforskere

Heta Nääs, Noémie Ross, Frédéric Bouchard, Michelle Paquette, Audrey Veillette, Michael Fritz, Stefanie Weege, Julie Malenfant-Lepage, Bethany Deshpande, Alexander Nieuwendam, Ashley Rudy, Matthias Siewert, Ylva Sjöberg, Jonathan Harbor, J. Otto Habeck, Kerstin Krøier Rasmussen & Kirstey Langley
This project started in October 2015 with a crazy idea : prepare and submit a funding application for an international, multidisciplinary and non-traditional scientific outreach project… within the next 48 hours. Well, it worked out. A group of highly motivated young researchers from Canada and Europe united to combine arts and science and produce a series of outreach comic strips about permafrost (frozen ground). The aim of the project is to present and explain scientific...

Décentralisation au Cameroun : quelle place pour la gouvernance urbaine ?

Francis Joël Tchenkeu & Michel Max Raynaud

Data from: NREM2 and sleep spindles are instrumental to the consolidation of motor sequence memories

Samuel Laventure, Stuart Fogel, Ovidiu Lungu, Geneviève Albouy, Pénélope Sévigny-Dupont, Catherine Vien, Chadi Sayour, Julie Carrier, Habib Benali & Julien Doyon
Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were...

Data from: Multiple pairwise analysis of non-homologous centromere coupling reveals preferential chromosome size-dependent interactions and a role for bouquet formation in establishing the interaction pattern

Philippe Lefrançois, Beth Rockmill, Pingxing Xie, G. Shirleen Roeder & Michael Snyder
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence...

Data from: Selective disappearance of individuals with high levels of glycated haemoglobin in a free-living bird

Charlotte Récapet, Adélaïde Sibeaux, Laure Cauchard, Blandine Doligez & Pierre Bize
Although disruption of glucose homeostasis is a hallmark of ageing in humans and laboratory model organisms, we have little information on the importance of this process in free-living animals. Poor control of blood glucose levels leads to irreversible protein glycation. Hence, levels of protein glycation are hypothesized to increase with age and to be associated with a decline in survival. We tested these predictions by measuring blood glycated haemoglobin in 274 adult collared flycatchers of...

Data from: Ecological selection of siderophore-producing microbial taxa in response to heavy metal contamination

Elze Hesse, Siobhan O'Brien, Nicolas Tromas, Florian Bayer, Adela M. Lujan, Eleanor M. Van Veen, Dave J. Hodgson & Angus Buckling
Some microbial public goods can provide both individual and community-wide benefits, and are open to exploitation by non-producing species. One such example is the production of metal-detoxifying siderophores. Here, we investigate whether conflicting selection pressures on siderophore production by heavy metals – a detoxifying effect of siderophores, and exploitation of this detoxifying effect – results in a net increase or decrease. We show that the proportion of siderophore-producing taxa increases along a natural heavy metal...

Data from: Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs

Jennifer Firn, James M. McGree, Eric Harvey, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Martin Schütz, Yvonne M. Buckley, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew M. MacDougall, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Erica Porter, Emma Ladouceur, Charlotte Allen, Karine H. Moromizato, John W. Morgan, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Nico Eisenhauer, Justin P. Wright, Peter B. Adler, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker … & Anita C. Risch
Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus...

Data from: Frequency-dependent conspecific attraction to food patches

Guy Beauchamp & Graeme D. Ruxton
In many ecological situations, resources are difficult to find but become more apparent to nearby searchers after one of their numbers discovers and begins to exploit them. If the discoverer cannot monopolize the resources, then others may benefit from joining the discoverer and sharing their discovery. Existing theories for this type of conspecific attraction have often used very simple rules for how the decision to join a discovered resource patch should be influenced by the...

Data from: paco: implementing Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny in R

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Edgar Fernando Cagua, Juan A. Balbuena, Daniel B. Stouffer & Timothée Poisot
1. The concordance of evolutionary histories and extant species interactions provides a useful metric for addressing questions of how the structure of ecological communities is influenced by macro-evolutionary processes. 2. We introduce paco (v.0.3.1), an R package to perform Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny. This method assesses the phylogenetic congruence, or evolutionary dependence, of two groups of interacting species using both ecological interaction networks and their phylogenetic history. 3. We demonstrate the functionality of paco through...

Data from: Consensus RDA across dissimilarity coefficients for canonical ordination of community composition data

F. Guillaume Blanchet, Pierre Legendre, J. A. Colin Bergeron & Fangliang He
Understanding how habitat structures species assemblages in a community is one of the main goals of community ecology. To relate community patterns to particular factors defining habitat conditions, ecologists often use canonical ordinations such as canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). It is a common practice to use dissimilarity coefficients to perform canonical ordinations through distance-based RDA (db-RDA) or transformation-based RDA (tb-RDA). Dissimilarity coefficients are measures of resemblance where the information about species communities is condensed into...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: A scenario for the evolution of selective egg colouration: the roles of enemy-free space, camouflage, thermoregulation, and pigment limitation

Inmaculada Torres-Campos, Paul K. Abram, Eric Guerra-Grenier, Guy Boivin & Jacques Brodeur
Behavioural plasticity can drive the evolution of new traits in animals. In oviparous species, plasticity in oviposition behaviour could promote the evolution of new egg traits by exposing them to different selective pressures in novel oviposition sites. Individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris are able to selectively colour their eggs depending on leaf side, laying lightly pigmented eggs on leaf undersides and more pigmented eggs, which are more resistant to ultraviolet (UV)...

Data from: Examining the dynamics of Epstein-Barr virus shedding in the tonsils and the impact of HIV-1 coinfection on daily saliva viral loads

Catherine Byrne, Christine Johnston, Jackson Orem, Fred Okuku, Meei-Li Huang, Habibur Rahman, Anna Wald, Lawrence Corey, Joshua Schiffer, Corey Casper, Daniel Coombs & Soren Gantt
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted by saliva and is a major cause of cancer, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. Here, we describe the frequency and quantity of EBV detection in the saliva of Ugandan adults with and without HIV-1 infection and use these data to develop a novel mathematical model of EBV infection in the tonsils. Eligible cohort participants were not taking antiviral medications, and those with HIV-1 infection had a CD4 count >200...

Data from: Consequences of multiple simultaneous opportunities to exploit others’ efforts on free riding

Frédérique Dubois & Étienne Richard-Dionne
Individuals within a group do not all act in the same way: typically the investors (or producers) put efforts into producing resources while the free riders (or scroungers) benefit from these resources without contributing. In behavioural ecology, the prevalence of free riders can be predicted by a well-known game-theoretical model -the Producer-Scrounger (PS) model- where group members have the options to either search for resources (producers) or exploit the efforts of others (scroungers). The PS...

Data from: A shift from phenol to silica-based leaf defenses during long-term soil and ecosystem development

Félix De Tombeur, Etienne Laliberté, Hans Lambers, Michel-Pierre Faucon, Graham Zemunik, Benjamin Turner, Jean-Thomas Cornélis & Grégory Mahy
The resource availability hypothesis predicts that plants adapted to infertile soils have high levels of anti-herbivore leaf defenses. This hypothesis has been mostly explored for secondary metabolites such as phenolics, while it remains underexplored for silica-based defenses. We determined leaf concentrations of total phenols and silicon (Si) in plants growing along the 2-million-year Jurien Bay chronosequence, exhibiting an extreme gradient of soil fertility. We found that nitrogen (N) limitation on young soils led to a...

Programa de educação da Wikipédia como metodologia ativa de ensino e ferramenta de colaboração coletiva em saúde auditiva

Thais C. Morata
As tecnologias de informação e comunicação visam facilitar o processo de ensino e de aprendizagem, enquanto abrem possibilidades a novas formas de ação, de interação e de aquisição de conhecimentos. O acesso à informação livre é compreendido como uma etapa necessária para a promoção da saúde em geral. O objetivo principal será analisar a utilização da Wikipédia enquanto instrumento de Metodologia Ativa de Ensino, bem como ferramenta de Educação em Saúde. Parte-se da hipótese de...

Habit Formation and the Persistence of Monetary Shocks

Hafedh Bouakez, Emanuela Cardia & Francisco J. Ruge-Murcia
This paper studies the persistent effects of monetary shocks on output. Previous empirical literature documents this persistence, but standard general-equilibrium models with sticky prices fail to generate output responses beyond the duration of nominal contracts. The paper constructs and estimates a general-equilibrium model with price rigidities, habit formation, and costly capital adjustment. The model is estimated by the maximum-likelihood method using U.S. data on output, the real money stock, and the nominal interest rate. Econometric...

Data from: Do avian cooperative breeders live longer?

Guy Beauchamp
Cooperative breeding is not common in birds but intriguingly over-represented in several families, suggesting that predisposing factors, similar ecological constraints or a combination of the two facilitate the evolution of this breeding strategy. The life-history hypothesis proposes that cooperative breeding is facilitated by high annual survival, which increases the local population and leads to a shortage of breeding opportunities. Clutch size in cooperative breeders is also expected to be smaller. An earlier comparative analysis in...

Data from: Wright's shifting balance theory and the diversification of aposematic signals

Mathieu Chouteau & Bernard Angers
Despite accumulating evidence for selection within natural systems, the importance of random genetic drift opposing Wright's and Fisher's views of evolution continue to be a subject of controversy. The geographical diversification of aposematic signals appears to be a suitable system to assess the factors involved in the process of adaptation since both theories were independently proposed to explain this phenomenon. In the present study, the effects of drift and selection were assessed from population genetics...

Data from: Effectiveness of continence promotion for older women via community organisations: a cluster randomised trial

Cara Tannenbaum, Rona Agnew, Andrea Benedetti, Doneal Thomas & Eleanor Van Den Heuvel
Objectives: The primary objective of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the three experimental continence promotion interventions against a control intervention on urinary symptom improvement in older women with untreated incontinence recruited from community organisations. Setting: 71 community organisations across the United Kingdom Participants: 259 women aged 60 years and older with untreated incontinence entered the trial; 88% completed the 3-month follow-up. Interventions: The three active interventions consisted of a...

Title: Partitioning plant spectral diversity into alpha and beta components

Etienne Laliberté, Anna Schweiger & Pierre Legendre
Plant spectral diversity — how plants differentially interact with solar radiation — is an integrator of plant chemical, structural, and taxonomic diversity that can be remotely sensed. We propose to measure spectral diversity as spectral variance, which allows the partitioning of the spectral diversity of a region, called spectral gamma (γ) diversity, into additive alpha (α; within communities) and beta (β; among communities) components. Our method calculates the contributions of individual bands or spectral features...

Learning can be detrimental for a parasitic wasp: R scripts and Telenomus podisi data

Jacques Brodeur, Valeria Bertoldi, Gabriele Rondoni, Eric Conti & Ezio Peri
Animals have evolved the capacity to learn, and the conventional view is that learning allows individuals to improve foraging decisions. We describe a first case of maladaptive learning where a parasitoid learns to associate chemical cues from an unsuitable host, thereby re-enforcing a reproductive cul-de-sac (evolutionary trap). Telenomus podisi parasitizes eggs of the exotic stink bug Halyomorpha halys at the same rate as eggs of its coevolved host, Podisus maculiventris, but the parasitoid cannot complete...

A linear time solution to the Labeled Robinson-Foulds Distance problem

Samuel Briand, Christophe Dessimoz, Nadia El Mabrouk & Yannis Nevers
Motivation: Comparing trees is a basic task for many purposes, and especially in phylogeny where different tree reconstruction tools may lead to different trees, likely representing contradictory evolutionary information. While a large variety of pairwise measures of similarity or dissimilarity have been developed for comparing trees with no information on internal nodes, very few address the case of inner node-labeled trees. Yet such trees are common; for instance reconciled gene trees have inner nodes labeled...

Data from: Differential impacts of vaccination on wildlife disease spread during epizootic and enzootic phases

Erica J. Newton, Bruce A. Pond, Rowland R. Tinline, Kevin Middel, Denise Belanger & Erin E. Rees
1. Dissemination of oral vaccine baits is a cost-effective method to contain and control infectious wildlife diseases. The effectiveness of vaccine barriers in slowing or halting the disease spread depends on host ecology and landscape variability. It is not clear, however, how the success of vaccine barriers to manage disease may change from an epizootic to an enzootic phase of a disease invasion, and if this depends on the quality and configuration of host habitat....

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Affiliations

  • University of Montreal
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