201 Works

Data from: Scale-dependent foraging ecology of a marine top predator modelled using passive acoustic data

Enrico Pirotta, Paul M. Thompson, Peter I. Miller, Kate L. Brookes, Barbara Cheney, Tim R. Barton, Isla M. Graham & David Lusseau
1. Understanding which environmental factors drive foraging preferences is critical for the development of effective management measures, but resource use patterns may emerge from processes that occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Direct observations of foraging are also especially challenging in marine predators, but passive acoustic techniques provide opportunities to study the behavior of echolocating species over a range of scales. 2. We used an extensive passive acoustic dataset to investigate the distribution and...

Data from: Decomposing variation in male reproductive success: age-specific variances and covariances through extra-pair and within-pair reproduction

Christophe Lebigre, Peter Arcese & Jane M. Reid
1. Age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success shape the total variance in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), age-specific opportunities for selection, and population demographic variance and effective size. Age-specific (co)variances in reproductive success achieved through different reproductive routes must therefore be quantified to predict population, phenotypic and evolutionary dynamics in age-structured populations. 2. While numerous studies have quantified age-specific variation in mean reproductive success, age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success, and the contributions of...

Data from: Resting and daily energy expenditures during reproduction are adjusted in opposite directions in free-living birds

Jorg Welcker, John R. Speakman, Kyle H. Elliott, Scott A. Hatch & Alexander S. Kitaysky
1. Reproduction is energetically expensive, and daily energy expenditure (DEE) often peaks during the period of rearing young. The “potentiation” hypothesis predicts that high DEE needs to be sustained by a corresponding up-regulation of metabolic machinery, thus a concomitant increase of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is expected. Alternatively, the “compensation” hypothesis predicts that DEE and RMR are regulated independently and animals may maintain low RMR to maximize the energy available for reproduction. This might...

Data from: Variation in harbour porpoise activity in response to seismic survey noise

Enrico Pirotta, Kate L. Brookes, Isla M. Graham & Paul M. Thompson
Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of harbour porpoises exposed to impulse noise from a 10 day two-dimensional seismic survey. Here, we used an array of passive acoustic loggers coupled with calibrated...

Data from: Markov switching autoregressive models for interpreting vertical movement data with application to an endangered marine apex predator

Cecilia Pinto & Luigi Spezia
1.Time series of animal movement obtained from bio-loggers are becoming widely used across all taxa. These data are nowadays of high quality, combining high resolution with precision, as the tags are able to collect for longer times and store larger quantities of data. Due to their nature, high-frequency data sequences often pose non-trivial problems in time series analysis: non-linearity, non-Normality, non-stationarity, and long memory. These issues can be tackled by modelling the data sequence as...

Data from: Integrating passive acoustic and visual data to model spatial patterns of occurrence in coastal dolphins

Paul M. Thompson, Kate L. Brookes & Line S. Cordes
Fine-scale information on the occurrence of coastal cetaceans is required to support regulation of offshore energy developments and marine spatial planning. In particular, the EU Habitats Directive requires an understanding of the extent to which animals from Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) use adjacent waters, where survey effort is often sparse. Designing survey regimes that can be used to support these assessments is especially challenging because visual sightings are expected to be rare in peripheral...

Data from: Echolocation detections and digital video surveys provide reliable estimates of the relative density of harbour porpoises

Laura D. Williamson, Kate L. Brookes, Beth E. Scott, Isla M. Graham, Gareth Bradbury, Philip S. Hammond & Paul M. Thompson
1. Robust estimates of the density or abundance of cetaceans are required to support a wide range of ecological studies and inform management decisions. Considerable effort has been put into the development of line-transect sampling techniques to obtain estimates of absolute density from aerial and boat-based visual surveys. Surveys of cetaceans using acoustic loggers or digital cameras provide alternative methods to estimate relative density that have the potential to reduce cost and provide a verifiable...

Data from: Food availability modulates differences in parental effort between dispersing and philopatric birds

Charlotte Récapet, Pierre Bize & Blandine Doligez
Dispersal entails costs and might have to be traded off against other life-history traits. Dispersing and philopatric individuals may thus exhibit alternative life-history strategies. Importantly, these differences could also partly be modulated by environmental variation. Our previous results in a patchy population of a small passerine, the collared flycatcher, suggest that, as breeding density, a proxy of habitat quality, decreases, dispersing individuals invest less in reproduction but maintain a stable oxidative balance, whereas philopatric individuals...

Data from: Central place foragers and moving stimuli: a hidden-state model to discriminate the processes affecting movement

Enrico Pirotta, Ewan W.J. Edwards, Leslie New, Paul M. Thompson & Ewan W. J. Edwards
1. Human activities can influence the movement of organisms, either repelling or attracting individuals depending on whether they interfere with natural behavioural patterns or enhance access to food. To discern the processes affecting such interactions, an appropriate analytical approach must reflect the motivations driving behavioural decisions at multiple scales. 2. In this study, we developed a modelling framework for the analysis of foraging trips by central place foragers. By recognising the distinction between movement phases...

Data from: Annual ring growth of a widespread high-arctic shrub reflects past fluctuations in community-level plant biomass

Mathilde Le Moullec, Agata Buchwal, Rene Van Der Wal, Lisa Sandal & Brage B. Hansen
1. Long time-series of primary production are rarely available, restricting our mechanistic understanding of vegetation and ecosystem dynamics under climate change. Dendrochronological tools are increasingly used instead, particularly in the Arctic – the world’s most rapidly warming biome. Yet, high-latitude plant species are subject to strong energy allocation trade-offs, and whether annual allocations to secondary growth (e.g. ‘tree-rings’) actually reflects primary production above-ground remains unknown. Taking advantage of a unique ground-based monitoring time-series of annual...

Data from: Do group dynamics affect colour morph clines during a range shift?

Lesley T. Lancaster, Rachael Y. Dudaniec, Bengt Hansson & Erik I. Svensson
Species exhibiting colour-polymorphism are thought to have an ecological advantage at the landscape scale, because spatial segregation of alternatively-adapted ecotypes into diverse habitats can increase the total species’ niche breadth and thus confer greater geographic range size. However, morph frequencies are also influenced by intra-populational processes such as frequency- or density-dependent social interactions. To identify how social feedback may affect clinal variation in morph frequencies, we investigated reciprocal interactions between morph-specific thermal tolerance, local climatic...

Data from: Sex-specific additive genetic variances and correlations for fitness in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to natural immigration and inbreeding

Matthew Ernest Wolak, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Pirmin Nietlisbach & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying sex-specific additive genetic variance (VA) in fitness, and the cross-sex genetic correlation (rA), is prerequisite to predicting evolutionary dynamics and the magnitude of sexual conflict. Further, quantifying VA and rA in underlying fitness components, and genetic consequences of immigration and resulting gene flow, is required to identify mechanisms that maintain VA in fitness. However, these key parameters have rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation and immigration. We used comprehensive pedigree...

Data from: Short- and long-term effects of litter size manipulation in a small wild-derived rodent

Mikko Lehto Hürlimann, Antoine Stier, Olivier Scholly, François Crisuolo, Pierre Bize, M. Lehto Hurlimann & F. Criscuolo
Iteroparous organisms maximise their overall fitness by optimising their reproductive effort over multiple reproductive events. Hence, changes in reproductive effort are expected to have both short- and long-term consequences on parents and their offspring. In laboratory rodents, manipulation of reproductive efforts during lactation have however revealed little short-term reproductive adjustments, suggesting that female laboratory rodents might express maximal rather than optimal levels of reproductive investments as observed in semelparous organisms. Using a litter size manipulation...

Data from: Daily energy expenditure during lactation is strongly selected in a free-living mammal

Quinn E. Fletcher, John R. Speakman, Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Murray M. Humphries
1. Energy expenditure is a trait of central importance in ecological and evolutionary theory. We examined the correlates of, the strength of selection on, and the heritability of, daily energy expenditure (DEE; kJ/day) during lactation in free-ranging North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). 2. Over seven years, lactating squirrels with greater DEE had higher annual reproductive success (ARS; standardized selection gradient: β’ = 0.47; top 12% of published estimates). Surprisingly, positive fecundity selection on lactation...

Data from: The influence of preceding dive cycles on the foraging decisions of Antarctic fur seals

Takashi Iwata, Kentaro Q. Sakamoto, Ewan W. J. Edwards, Ian J. Staniland, Philip N. Trathan, Yusuke Goto, Katsufumi Sato, Yasuhiko Naito & Akinori Takahashi
The foraging strategy of many animals is thought to be determined by their past experiences. However, few empirical studies have investigated whether this is true in diving animals. We recorded three-dimensional movements and mouth-opening events from three Antarctic fur seals during their foraging trips to examine how they adapt their behaviour based on past experience—continuing to search for prey in the same area or moving to search in a different place. Each dive cycle was...

Data from: Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves

Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi, Saloni Bhatia, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Stephen Redpath & Charudutt Mishra
The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization,...

Data from: Accounting for genetic differences among unknown parents in microevolutionary studies: how to include genetic groups in quantitative genetic animal models

Matthew E. Wolak & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying and predicting microevolutionary responses to environmental change requires unbiased estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations. ‘Animal models’, which utilize pedigree data to separate genetic and environmental effects on phenotypes, provide powerful means to estimate key parameters and have revolutionized quantitative genetic analyses of wild populations. However, pedigrees collected in wild populations commonly contain many individuals with unknown parents. When unknown parents are non-randomly associated with genetic values for focal traits, animal model...

Data from: Modeling effects of nonbreeders on population growth estimates

Aline M. Lee, Jane M. Reid & Steven R. Beissinger
Adult individuals that do not breed in a given year occur in a wide range of natural populations. However, such nonbreeders are often ignored in theoretical and empirical population studies, limiting our knowledge of how nonbreeders affect realized and estimated population dynamics and potentially impeding projection of deterministic and stochastic population growth rates. We present and analyse a general modelling framework for systems where breeders and nonbreeders differ in key demographic rates, incorporating different forms...

Data from: Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time

Isla M. Graham, Nathan D. Merchant, Adrian Farcas, Tim R. Barton, Barbara Cheney, Saliza Bono & Paul M. Thompson
Estimating impacts of offshore windfarm construction on marine mammals requires data on displacement in relation to different noise levels and sources. Using echolocation detectors and noise recorders, we investigated harbour porpoise behavioural responses to piling noise during the 10-month foundation installation of a North Sea windfarm. Current UK guidance assumes total displacement within 26 km of pile driving. In contrast, we recorded a 50 % probability of response within 7.4 km (95 % CI =...

Model output data for \"Negative density-dependent dispersal emerges from the joint evolution of density- and body condition-dependent dispersal strategies\"

Celina Baines, Justin Travis, Shannon McCauley & Greta Bocedi
Empirical studies have documented both positive and negative density-dependent dispersal, yet most theoretical models predict positive density dependence as a mechanism to avoid competition. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of negative density-dependent dispersal, but few of these have been formally modeled. Here, we developed an individual based model of the evolution of density-dependent dispersal. This model is novel in that it considers the effects of density on dispersal directly, and indirectly...

Balancing risks of injury and disturbance to marine mammals when pile driving at offshore windfarms

Paul Thompson, Isla Graham, Barbara Cheney, Tim Barton, Adrian Farcas & Nathan Merchant
1. Offshore windfarms require construction procedures that minimise impacts on protected marine mammals. Uncertainty over the efficacy of existing guidelines for mitigating near-field injury when pile-driving recently resulted in the development of alternative measures, which integrated the routine deployment of acoustic deterrent devices (ADD) into engineering installation procedures without prior monitoring by Marine Mammal Observers. 2. We conducted research around the installation of jacket foundations at the UK’s first deep-water offshore windfarm to address data...

Collateral benefits of targeted supplementary feeding on demography and growth rate of a threatened population

Sarah R. Fenn, Eric M. Bignal, Amanda E. Trask, Davy I. McCracken, Pat Monaghan & Jane M. Reid
1. Effective evidence-based conservation requires full quantification of the impacts of targeted management interventions on focal populations. Such impacts may extend beyond target individuals to also affect demographic rates of non-target conspecifics (e.g. different age classes). However, such collateral (i.e. unplanned) impacts are rarely evaluated, despite their potential to substantially alter conservation outcomes. Subsequent management decisions may then be poorly informed or erroneous. 2. We used 15 years of individual-based demographic data in a “before-after...

Book Review: School Leadership: 2nd Edition

David Eastwood

Book Review: Research with Children: Perspectives and Practices

Carolyn Cooke

Species packing and the latitudinal gradient in local beta-diversity

Ke Cao, Richard Condit, Xiangcheng Mi, Lei Chen, Wubing Xu, David F. R. P. Burslem, Chunrong Cai, Min Cao, Li-Wan Chang, Chengjin Chu, Hu Du, Sisira Ediriweera, C. S. V. Gunatilleke, I. U. A. N. Gunatilleke, Zhanqing Hao, Jinbo Li, Guangze Jin, Buhang Li, Yankun Liu, Yide Li, Michael J. O'Brien, Xiujuan Qiao, Hongwei Ni, Guochun Shen, Xihua Wang … & Jens-Christian Svenning
The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall local species richness (gamma diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. We provide here a novel analytical test, using beta-diversity metrics...

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