16 Works

Data from: Markov switching autoregressive models for interpreting vertical movement data with application to an endangered marine apex predator

Cecilia Pinto & Luigi Spezia
1.Time series of animal movement obtained from bio-loggers are becoming widely used across all taxa. These data are nowadays of high quality, combining high resolution with precision, as the tags are able to collect for longer times and store larger quantities of data. Due to their nature, high-frequency data sequences often pose non-trivial problems in time series analysis: non-linearity, non-Normality, non-stationarity, and long memory. These issues can be tackled by modelling the data sequence as...

Data from: The influence of preceding dive cycles on the foraging decisions of Antarctic fur seals

Takashi Iwata, Kentaro Q. Sakamoto, Ewan W. J. Edwards, Ian J. Staniland, Philip N. Trathan, Yusuke Goto, Katsufumi Sato, Yasuhiko Naito & Akinori Takahashi
The foraging strategy of many animals is thought to be determined by their past experiences. However, few empirical studies have investigated whether this is true in diving animals. We recorded three-dimensional movements and mouth-opening events from three Antarctic fur seals during their foraging trips to examine how they adapt their behaviour based on past experience—continuing to search for prey in the same area or moving to search in a different place. Each dive cycle was...

Data from: Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves

Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi, Saloni Bhatia, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Stephen Redpath & Charudutt Mishra
The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization,...

Data from: Coupling of diversification and pH adaptation during the evolution of terrestrial Thaumarchaeota

Cécile Gubry-Rangin, Christina Kratsch, Tom A. Williams, Alice C. McHardy, T. Martin Embley, James I. Prosser & Daniel J. Macqueen
The Thaumarchaeota is an abundant and ubiquitous phylum of archaea that plays a major role in the global nitrogen cycle. Previous analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA suggest that pH is an important driver of niche specialization in these organisms. Although the ecological distribution and ecophysiology of extant Thaumarchaeota have been studied extensively, the evolutionary rise of these prokaryotes to ecological dominance in many habitats remains poorly understood. To characterize processes leading to their...

Data from: Resolving patterns of population genetic and phylogeographic structure to inform control and eradication initiatives for brown rats Rattus norvegicus on South Georgia

Stuart B. Piertney, Andy Black, Laura Watt, Darren Christie, Sally Poncet & Martin A. Collins
The control and eradication of invasive species is a common management strategy to protect or restore native biodiversity. On South Georgia in the Southern Ocean, the brown rat Rattus norvegicus was brought onto the island with the onset of whaling and sealing activity in the 1800s and has had a significant detrimental impact on key bird species of conservation concern. Efforts to eradicate rats from South Georgia using poisoned bait are ongoing. Despite the South...

Data from: Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success

Sylvain Losdat, Peter Arcese & Jane M. Reid
1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild...

Data from: Genome-wide association and genome partitioning reveal novel genomic regions underlying variation in gastrointestinal nematode burden in a wild bird

Marius A. Wenzel, Marianne C. James, Stuart B. Piertney & Alex Douglas
Identifying the genetic architecture underlying complex phenotypes is a notoriously difficult problem that often impedes progress in understanding adaptive eco-evolutionary processes in natural populations. Host–parasite interactions are fundamentally important drivers of evolutionary processes, but a lack of understanding of the genes involved in the host's response to chronic parasite insult makes it particularly difficult to understand the mechanisms of host life history trade-offs and the adaptive dynamics involved. Here, we examine the genetic basis of...

Data from: Plasma markers of oxidative stress are uncorrelated in a wild mammal

Louise L. Christensen, Colin Selman, Jonathan D. Blount, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jane M. Reid & Daniel H. Nussey
Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between the production of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species versus antioxidant defenses and repair mechanisms, has been proposed as an important mediator of life-history trade-offs. A plethora of biomarkers associated with oxidative stress exist, but few ecological studies have examined the relationships among different markers in organisms experiencing natural conditions or tested whether those relationships are stable across different environments and demographic groups. It is therefore not clear...

Data from: Heritability and genetic correlations of personality traits in a wild population of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

Matthew B. Petelle, Julien G. A. Martin & Daniel T. Blumstein
Describing and quantifying animal personality is now an integral part of behavioural studies because individually distinctive behaviours have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Yet, to fully understand how personality traits may respond to selection, one must understand the underlying heritability and genetic correlations between traits. Previous studies have reported a moderate degree of heritability of personality traits but few of these studies have either been conducted in the wild or estimated the genetic correlations between personality...

Data from: Evolution of the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype

Vincent Careau, Matthew E. Wolak, Patrick A. Carter & Theodore Garland
Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix (G). Yet knowledge of G in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in...

Data from: Additive genetic variance and effects of inbreeding, sex and age on heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in song sparrows

Sylvain Losdat, Peter Arcese, Laura Sampson, Nacho Villar & Jane M. Reid
1. Physiological traits can influence individual fitness and evolutionary changes in stress-related physiological traits have been hypothesized to mediate the evolution of life-history traits and trade-offs. The hypothesis that such physiological variation could drive ongoing life-history evolution requires non-zero additive genetic variance in individual stress-related physiological traits. However, the magnitude of genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation in stress-related physiological traits has not been estimated in fully developed vertebrates under natural environmental conditions. 2....

Data from: Digging for gold nuggets: uncovering novel candidate genes for variation in gastrointestinal nematode burden in a wild bird species

Marius A. Wenzel & Stuart B. Piertney
The extent to which genotypic variation at a priori identified candidate genes can explain variation in complex phenotypes is a major debate in evolutionary biology. Whereas some high-profile genes such as the MHC or MC1R clearly do account for variation in ecologically relevant characters, many complex phenotypes such as response to parasite infection may well be underpinned by a large number of genes, each of small and effectively undetectable effect. Here, we characterize a suite...

Data from: Chronic household air pollution exposure is associated with impaired alveolar macrophage function in Malawian non-smokers

Jamie Rylance, Chikondi Chimpini, Sean Semple, David G. Russell, Malcolm J. Jackson, Robert S. Heyderman & Stephen B. Gordon
Background: Household air pollution in low income countries is an important cause of mortality from respiratory infection. We hypothesised that chronic smoke exposure is detrimental to alveolar macrophage function, causing failure of innate immunity. We report the relationship between macrophage function and prior smoke exposure in healthy Malawians. Methods: Healthy subjects exposed daily to cooking smoke at home volunteered for bronchoalveolar lavage. Alveolar macrophage particulate content was measured as a known correlate of smoke exposure....

Data from: Resolving the conundrum of inbreeding depression but no inbreeding avoidance: estimating sex-specific selection on inbreeding by song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Greta Bocedi, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Matthew Ernest Wolak & Lukas F. Keller
Inbreeding avoidance among interacting females and males is not always observed despite inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, creating an apparent ‘inbreeding paradox’. This paradox could be resolved if selection against inbreeding was in fact weak, despite inbreeding depression. However, the net magnitude and direction of selection on the degree to which females and males inbreed by pairing with relatives has not been explicitly estimated. We used long-term pedigree data to estimate phenotypic selection gradients on...

Data from: The use of an unsupervised learning approach for characterizing latent behaviors in accelerometer data

Marianna Chimienti, Thomas Cornulier, Ellie Owen, Mark Bolton, Ian M. Davies, Justin M. J. Travis, Beth E. Scott & Justin M.J. Travis
The recent increase in data accuracy from high resolution accelerometers offers substantial potential for improved understanding and prediction of animal movements. However, current approaches used for analysing these multivariable datasets typically require existing knowledge of the behaviors of the animals to inform the behavioral classification process. These methods are thus not well-suited for the many cases where limited knowledge of the different behaviors performed exist. Here, we introduce the use of an unsupervised learning algorithm....

Data from: The role of parasite-driven selection in shaping landscape genomic structure in red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica)

Marius A. Wenzel, Alex Douglas, Marianne C. James, Steve M. Redpath & Stuart B. Piertney
Landscape genomics promises to provide novel insights into how neutral and adaptive processes shape genome-wide variation within and among populations. However, there has been little emphasis on examining whether individual-based phenotype-genotype relationships derived from approaches such as genome-wide association (GWAS) manifest themselves as a population-level signature of selection in a landscape context. The two may prove irreconcilable as individual-level patterns may become diluted by high levels of gene flow and complex phenotypic or environmental heterogeneity....

Registration Year

  • 2015
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • University of Aberdeen
    16
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • Marine Scotland
    2
  • University of Newcastle Australia
    1
  • University of California System
    1
  • University of Glasgow
    1
  • Nature Conservation Foundation
    1
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
    1
  • University of Edinburgh
    1
  • British Antarctic Survey
    1