220 Works

Genesis locations of the costliest atmospheric rivers impacting the Western United States (insurance claim data)

Hamish Prince
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are responsible for the vast majority (approximately 88%) of flood damage in the Western U.S, an annual average of USD$1.1 billion. Here, using historical flood insurance data, we investigate the genesis characteristics of damaging ARs in the Western U.S. ARs exceeding USD$20 million in damage (90th percentile), are shown to travel further across the Pacific Ocean, with median genesis locations 8° to 27° further westward compared to typical ARs. Identifying regions of...

Supplementary data for: Reproductive deficits induced by prenatal anti-Mullerian hormone exposure require androgen receptor in kisspeptin cells

Karen Tonsfeldt, Emily Ho, Chengxian Shi, Michelle He, Ryan Nguyen, Genevieve Ryan & Pamela Mellon
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder characterized by elevated androgens and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). These hormones remain elevated throughout pregnancy, and potential effects of hormone exposure on offspring from women with PCOS remain largely unexplored. Expanding on recent reports of prenatal AMH exposure in mice, we have fully characterized the reproductive consequences of prenatal AMH (pAMH) exposure throughout the lifespan of first- and second-generation offspring of both sexes. We also sought to...

Quantifying the potential for biogeochemical feedbacks to create 'refugia' from ocean acidification on tropical coral reefs

Yuichiro Takeshita
Rising sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification (OA) may threaten the ability of calcified organisms to build carbonate reefs, but it is unclear if particular reefs have the capacity to tolerate global change. Current understanding of the effects of OA on coral reefs originates from single-species laboratory studies largely focused on scleractinian corals. Traditionally, these experiments attempt to mimic static future conditions under the assumption that coastal regimes are as constant as -- and will...

Drivers and projections of global surface temperature anomalies at the local scale

Susanne Benz, Steven Davis & Jennifer Burney
More than half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and trends in rural-to-urban migration are expected to continue through the end of the century. Although cities create efficiencies that drive innovation and economic growth, they also alter the local surface energy balance, resulting in urban temperatures that can differ dramatically from surrounding areas. Here we introduce a global 1-km resolution data set of seasonal and diurnal anomalies in urban surface temperatures relative...

Indirect actuation reduces flight power requirements in Manduca sexta via elastic energy exchange

Jeff Gau, Nick Gravish & Simon Sponberg
In many insects, wing movements are generated indirectly via exoskeletal deformations. Measurements of inertial and aerodynamic power suggest that elastic recovery of energy between wingstrokes might reduce power requirements of flight. We tested three questions. 1) Can the thorax itself provide significant energy return? 2) Does a simple damped elastic model describe the bulk mechanical behavior? and 3) Are different regions of the thorax specialized for elastic energy exchange? We measured deformation mechanics of the...

Uneven substrates constrain walking speed in ants through modulation of stride frequency more than stride length

Glenna Clifton, David Holway & Nick Gravish
Natural terrain is rarely flat. Substrate irregularities challenge walking animals to maintain stability, yet we lack quantitative assessments of walking performance and limb kinematics on naturally uneven ground. We measured how continually uneven 3D-printed substrates influence walking performance of Argentine ants by measuring walking speeds of workers from lab colonies and by testing colony-wide substrate preference in field experiments. Tracking limb motion in over 8,000 videos, we used statistical models that associate walking speed with...

No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

Elizabeth Sibert, Michelle Zill, Ella Frigyik & Richard Norris
The Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary ~33.9 million years ago, has been described as a state change in the Earth system marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea sediment cores from around the world. Ichthyolith accumulation rate (a proxy for fish biomass production) shows no synchronous trends across the...

Data from: Stressed connections: cortisol levels following acute psychosocial stress disrupt affiliative mimicry in humans

Jonas P. Nitschke, Cecile S. Sunahara, Evan W. Carr, Piotr Winkielman, Jens C. Pruessner & Jennifer A. Bartz
Mimicry, and especially spontaneous facial mimicry, is a rudimentary element of social–emotional experience that is well-conserved across numerous species. Although such mimicry is thought to be a relatively automatic process, research indicates that contextual factors can influence mimicry, especially in humans. Here, we extend this work by investigating the effect of acute psychosocial stress on spontaneous facial mimicry. Participants performed a spontaneous facial mimicry task with facial electromyography (fEMG) at baseline and approximately one month...

Replication Files for Nutrition and the Gut Microbiota in 10–18-Month Old Children Living in Urban Slums of Mumbai, India

Samantha Huey, Aparna Thorat, Varsha Thakker, Julia L. Finkelstein, Lingjing Jiang, Marcus Fedarko, Daniel McDonald, Cameron Martino, Farhana Ali, David G. Russell, Harsha Chopra, Kripa Rajagopalan, Jere Douglas Haas, Rob Knight, S.A. Udipi & P. Ghugre

Where New Words Are Born: Distributional Semantic Analysis of Neologisms and Their Semantic Neighborhoods

Maria Ryskina, Ella Rabinovich, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, David R. Mortensen & Yulia Tsvetkov

Data from \"Transferability of data-driven, many-body models for CO2 simulations in the vapor and liquid phases\"

Shuwen Yue & Marc Riera Riambau
This dataset comprises of data associated with the publication "Transferability of data-driven, many-body models for CO2 simulations in the vapor and liquid phases", which can be found at https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0080061. The data includes calculations for a Many-Body decomposition, virial coefficient calculations, orientational molecular scan energies, potential energy fields, correlation plots of training and testing data, vapor-liquid equilibrium simulations, liquid density simulations, and solid cell simulations.

Data from: The role of feeding morphology and competition in governing the diet breadth of sympatric stomatopod crustaceans

Maya S. DeVries
Competition for food drives divergence and specialization in feeding morphology. Stomatopod crustaceans have two kinds of highly specialized feeding appendages: either elongate spear-like appendages (spearers) used to ambush soft-bodied evasive prey or hammer-like appendages (smashers) that produce extremely high forces used both to break hard-shelled prey and to capture evasive prey. To evaluate associations between appendage type and feeding ecology, the diet of two small smasher and spearer species (size range: 21–27 mm) that co-occur...

Timing the SARS-CoV-2 index case in Hubei Province

Jonathan Pekar & Joel Wertheim
Understanding when SARS-CoV-2 emerged is critical to evaluating our current approach to monitoring novel zoonotic pathogens and understanding the failure of early containment and mitigation efforts for COVID-19. We employed a coalescent framework to combine retrospective molecular clock inference with forward epidemiological simulations to determine how long SARS-CoV-2 could have circulated prior to the time of the most recent common ancestor. Our results define the period between mid-October and mid-November 2019 as the plausible interval...

Response diversity in corals: hidden differences in bleaching mortality among cryptic Pocillopora species

Scott Burgess, Erika Johnston, Alex Wyatt, James Leichter & Peter Edmunds
Variation among functionally similar species in their response to environmental stress buffers ecosystems from changing states. Functionally similar species may often be cryptic species representing evolutionarily distinct genetic lineages that are morphologically indistinguishable. However, the extent to which cryptic species differ in their response to stress, and could therefore provide a source of response diversity, remains unclear because they are often not identified or are assumed to be ecologically equivalent. Here, we uncover differences in...

Efficient light‐harvesting of mesophotic corals is facilitated by coral optical traits

Netanel Kramer, Raz Tamir, Or Ben Zvi, Steven Jacques, Yossi Loya & Daniel Wangpraseurt
Sustained light-dependent coral reef communities can be found at a wide range of light environments, extending from the sea level to as deep as 150 m (i.e., mesophotic). How mesophotic corals thrive despite extremely limited light conditions still requires further investigation. Here, we undertook a comprehensive ecophysiological and bio-optical study on four depth-generalist coral species aiming to delineate the functional role that optical trait-properties have in light-harvesting, at contrasting light regimes. We show that the...

Analysis of ancestry heterozygosity suggests that hybrid incompatibilities in threespine stickleback are environment-dependent

Ken Thompson, Catherine Peichel, Diana Rennison, Matthew McGee, Arianne Albert, Timothy Vines, Anna Greenwood, Abigail Wark, Yaniv Brandvain, Molly Schumer & Dolph Schluter
Hybrid incompatibilities occur when interactions between opposite-ancestry alleles at different loci reduce the fitness of hybrids. Most work on incompatibilities has focused on those that are 'intrinsic', meaning they affect viability and sterility in the laboratory. Theory predicts that ecological selection can also underlie hybrid incompatibilities, but tests of this hypothesis using sequence data are scarce. In this article, we compiled genetic data for F2 hybrid crosses between divergent populations of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus...

Experiencing Cancer in Appalachian Kentucky

Melanie McComsey, David Ahern, Robin C. Vanderpool, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Meghan Johnson, Michele Ellison, Karen Onyeije, Bradford W. Hesse & Eliah Aronoff-Spencer
Nothing tells the story of people working together better than a community quilt. A diversity of talents, colors, and materials brought together through skill and shared purpose. Perhaps never before have we as Americans needed a stronger reminder that many hands make short work of big problems. The work presented here by the L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative offers a new framework for health care that could be compared to a digital quilt, powered by community-based participatory design,...

Data from: Simultaneous radiation of bird and mammal lice following the K-Pg boundary

Kevin P. Johnson, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Andrew D. Sweet, Bret M. Boyd, Tandy Warnow & Julie M. Allen
The diversification of parasite groups often occurs at the same time as the diversification of their hosts. However, most studies demonstrating this concordance only examine single host-parasite groups. Multiple diverse lineages of ectoparasitic lice occur across both birds and mammals. Here we describe the evolutionary history of lice based on analyses of 1,107 single copy orthologous genes from sequenced genomes of 46 species of lice. We identify three major diverse groups of lice: one exclusively...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Mutation in the intracellular chloride channel CLCC1 associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

Lin Li, Xiaodong Jiao, Ilaria D’Atri, Fumihito Ono, Ralph Nelson, Chi-Chao Chan, Naoki Nakaya, Zhiwei Ma, Yan Ma, Xiaoying Cai, Longhua Zhang, Siying Lin, Abdul Hameed, Barry A. Chioza, Holly Hardy, Gavin Arno, Sarah Hull, Muhammad Imran Khan, James Fasham, V. Gaurav Harlalka, Michel Michaelides, Anthony T. Moore, Zeynep Hande Coban Akdemir, Shalini Jhangiani, James R. Lupski … & Frans P. M. Cremers
We identified a homozygous missense alteration (c.75C>A, p.D25E) in CLCC1, encoding a presumptive intracellular chloride channel highly expressed in the retina, associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in eight consanguineous families of Pakistani descent. The p.D25E alteration decreased CLCC1 channel function accompanied by accumulation of mutant protein in granules within the ER lumen, while siRNA knockdown of CLCC1 mRNA induced apoptosis in cultured ARPE-19 cells. TALEN KO in zebrafish was lethal 11 days post...

Data from: Acquisition of obligate mutualist symbionts during the larval stage is not beneficial for a coral host

Aaron Hartmann, Kristen Marhaver, Anke Klueter, Michael Lovci, Collin Closek, Erika Diaz Almeyda, Valerie Chamberland, Frederick Archer, Dimitri Deheyn, Mark Vermeij & Monica Medina
Theory suggests that the direct transmission of endosymbionts from parents to offspring (vertical transmission) in animal hosts is advantageous and evolutionarily stable, yet many host species instead acquire their symbionts from the environment (horizontal acquisition). An outstanding question in marine biology is why some scleractinian corals do not provision their eggs and larvae with the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates that are necessary for a juvenile’s ultimate survival. We tested whether the acquisition of photosynthetic endosymbionts (family Symbiodiniaceae)...

Data from: Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): the challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD

Xavier Soler, S.Y. Liao, J.M. Marin, G. Lorenzi-Filho, R. Jen, P. DeYoung, R.L. Owens, A.L. Ries & A. Malhotra
The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for...

Data from: Ecological speciation of bacteriophage lambda in allopatry and sympatry

Justin R. Meyer, Devin T. Dobias, Sarah J. Medina, Lisa Servilio, Animesh Gupta & Richard E. Lenski
Understanding the conditions that allow speciation to occur is difficult because most research has focused on either long-lived organisms or asexual microorganisms. We propagated bacteriophage λ, a virus with rapid generations and frequent recombination, on two Escherichia coli host genotypes that expressed either the LamB or OmpF receptor. When supplied with either single host (allopatry), λ improved its binding to the available receptor while losing its ability to use the alternative. When evolving on both...

Data from: Geographic signatures in species turnover: decoupling colonization and extinction across a latitudinal gradient

Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
High latitude communities have low species richness and are rapidly warming with climate change. Thus, temporal changes in community composition are expected to be greatest at high latitudes. However, at the same time traits such as body size can also change with latitude, potentially offsetting or increasing changes to community composition over time. We tested how zooplankton communities (copepods and cladocerans) have changed over a 25-75 year time span by assessing colonization and extinction rates...

Data from: Neonicotinoid pesticides and nutritional stress synergistically reduce survival in honey bees

Simone Tosi, James C. Nieh, Fabio Sgolastra, Riccardo Cabbri & Piotr Medrzycki
The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is a major pollinator whose health is of global concern. Declines in honey bee health are related to multiple factors, including resource quality and pesticide contamination. Intensive agricultural areas with crop monocultures potentially reduce the quality and quantity of available nutrients and expose bee foragers to pesticides. However, there is, to date, no evidence for synergistic effects between pesticides and nutritional stress in animals. The neonicotinoids clothianidin (CLO) and...

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