15 Works

Data from: Lethal and sublethal synergistic effects of a new systemic pesticide, flupyradifurone (Sivanto®) on honey bees

Simone Tosi & James Nieh
The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an important pollinator and a model for pesticide effects on insect pollinators. The effects of agricultural pesticides on honey bee health have therefore raised concern. Bees can be exposed to multiple pesticides that may interact synergistically, amplifying their side-effects. Attention has focused on neonicotinoid pesticides, but flupyradifurone (FPF) is a novel butenolide insecticide that is also systemic and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist. We therefore tested the...

Data from: The impact of pathological high-frequency oscillations on hippocampal network activity in rats with chronic epilepsy

Laura A. Ewell, Kyle B. Fischer, Christian Leibold, Stefan Leutgeb & Jill K. Leutgeb
In epilepsy, brain networks generate pathological high-frequency oscillations (pHFOs) during interictal periods. To understand how pHFOs differ from normal oscillations in overlapping frequency bands and potentially perturb hippocampal processing, we performed high-density single unit and local field potential recordings from hippocampi of behaving rats with and without chronic epilepsy. In epileptic animals, we observed two types of co-occurring fast oscillations, which by comparison to control animals we could classify as ‘ripple-like’ or ‘pHFO’. We compared...

Indirect actuation reduces flight power requirements in Manduca sexta via elastic energy exchange

Jeff Gau, Nick Gravish & Simon Sponberg
In many insects, wing movements are generated indirectly via exoskeletal deformations. Measurements of inertial and aerodynamic power suggest that elastic recovery of energy between wingstrokes might reduce power requirements of flight. We tested three questions. 1) Can the thorax itself provide significant energy return? 2) Does a simple damped elastic model describe the bulk mechanical behavior? and 3) Are different regions of the thorax specialized for elastic energy exchange? We measured deformation mechanics of the...

Bacterial exposure mediates developmental plasticity and resistance to lethal Vibrio lentus Infection in purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) larvae

Nicholas Schuh, Tyler Carrier, Catherine Schrankel, Adam Reitzel, Andreas Heyland & Jonathan Rast
Exposure to and colonization by bacteria during development have wide-ranging beneficial effects on animal biology but can also inhibit growth or cause disease. The immune system is the prime mediator of these microbial interactions and is itself shaped by them. Studies using diverse animal taxa have begun to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and transmission of bacterial symbionts and their interactions with developing immune systems. Moreover, the contexts of these associations are often confounded...

Data from: Cognitive function and mood at high altitude following acclimatization and use of supplemental oxygen and adaptive servoventilation sleep treatments

Erica C. Heinrich, Matea A. Djokic, Dillon Gilbertson, Pamela N. DeYoung, Naa-Oye Bosompra, Lu Wu, Cecilia Y. Anza-Ramirez, Jeremy E. Orr, Frank L. Powell, Atul Malhotra & Tatum S. Simonson
Impairments in cognitive function, mood, and sleep quality occur following ascent to high altitude. Low oxygen (hypoxia) and poor sleep quality are both linked to impaired cognitive performance but their independent contributions at high altitude remain unknown. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) improves sleep quality by stabilizing breathing and preventing central apneas without supplemental oxygen. We compared the efficacy of ASV and supplemental oxygen sleep treatments for improving daytime cognitive function and mood in high-altitude visitors (N...

Data from: Dietary resource overlap among three species of frugivorous bat in Costa Rica

Lauren D. Maynard, Ariana Ananda, Maria F. Sides, Hannah Burk & Susan R. Whitehead
The maintenance of biodiversity in tropical forests is thought to be dependent on fine-scale mechanisms of niche partitioning that allow species to coexist. This study examined whether three species of short-tailed fruit bat that co-occur at a lowland tropical forest site in Costa Rica (Carollia castanea, C. perspicillata, C. sowelli) avoid inter- and intraspecific competition through dietary specialization on species in the genus Piper. First, dietary composition was examined using faecal samples (n = 210),...

Data from: Spatial encoding in primate hippocampus during free navigation

Hristos S. Courellis, Samuel U Nummela, Michael Metke, Geoffrey Diehl, Robert Bussell, Gert Cauwenberghs & Cory T Miller
The hippocampus comprises two neural signals – place cells and theta oscillations - that contribute to facets of spatial navigation. While their complementary relationship has been well established in rodents, their respective contributions in the primate brain during free navigation remains unclear. Here we recorded neural activity in the hippocampus of freely-moving marmosets as they naturally explored a spatial environment to more explicitly investigate this issue. We report place cells in marmoset hippocampus during free-navigation...

Data from: A high-content imaging approach to profile C. elegans embryonic development

Shaohe Wang, Stacy D. Ochoa, Renat N. Khaliullin, Adina Gerson-Gurwitz, Jeffrey M. Hendel, Zhiling Zhao, Ronald Biggs, Andrew D. Chisholm, Arshad Desai, Karen Oegema & Rebecca A. Green
The C. elegans embryo is an important model for analyzing mechanisms of cell fate specification and tissue morphogenesis. Sophisticated lineaging approaches for analyzing embryogenesis have been developed but are labor-intensive and do not naturally integrate morphogenetic readouts. To enable the rapid classification of developmental phenotypes, we developed a high-content method that employs two custom strains: a Germ Layer strain expressing nuclear markers in the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm/pharynx, and a Morphogenesis strain expressing markers labeling...

Data from: Variation in developmental temperature alters adulthood plasticity of thermal tolerance in Tigriopus californicus

Timothy M. Healy, Antonia K. Bock & Ronald S. Burton
In response to environmental change, organisms rely on both genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to adjust key traits that are necessary for survival and reproduction. Given the accelerating rate of climate change, plasticity may be particularly important. For organisms in warming aquatic habitats, upper thermal tolerance is likely to be a key trait, and many organisms express plasticity in this trait in response to developmental or adulthood temperatures. Although plasticity at one life stage may...

Data from: Reprogramming the antigen specificity of B cells using genome-editing technologies

James E. Voss, Alicia Gonzalez-Martin, Raiees Andrabi, Roberta P. Fuller, Ben Murrell, Laura E. McCoy, Katelyn Porter, Deli Huang, Wenjuan Li, Devin Sok, Khoa Le, Bryan Briney, Morgan Chateau, Geoffrey Rogers, Lars Hangartner, Ann J. Feeney, David Nemazee, Paula Cannon & Dennis R. Burton
We have developed a method to introduce novel paratopes into the human antibody repertoire by modifying the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of mature B cells directly using genome editing technologies. We used CRISPR-Cas9 in a homology directed repair strategy, to replace the heavy chain (HC) variable region in B cell lines with that from an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody, PG9. Our strategy is designed to function in cells that have undergone VDJ recombination using any combination...

Metabolic theory of ecology successfully predicts distinct scaling of ectoparasite load on hosts

Ryan Hechinger, Kate Sheehan & Andrew Turner
The impacts of parasites on hosts and the role that parasites play in ecosystems must be underlain by the load of parasites in individual hosts. To help explain and predict parasite load across broad swaths of species, quantitative theory has been developed based on fundamental relationships between organism size, temperature, and metabolic rate. Here, we elaborate on an aspect of that “scaling theory for parasitism”, and test a previously unexplored prediction, using new data for...

Early removal of senescent cells protects retinal ganglion cells loss in experimental ocular hypertension

Michal Krawczyk, Lorena Raquel Rocha, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Claudia Palomino La Torre, Qianlan Xu, Mary Jabari, Robert N. Weinreb & Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk
Experimental ocular hypertension induces senescence of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that mimicks events occurring in human glaucoma. Senescence-related chromatin remodeling leads to profound transcriptional changes including the upregulation of a subset of genes that encode multiple proteins collectively referred to as the senescenceassociated secretory phenotype (SASP). Emerging evidence suggests that the presence of these proinflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules has deleterious effects in a variety of tissues. In the current study, we demonstrated in a transgenic...

Data from: APPLES: Scalable distance-based phylogenetic placement with or without alignments

Metin Balaban, Shahab Sarmashghi & Siavash Mirarab
Placing a new species on an existing phylogeny has increasing relevance to several applications. Placement can be used to update phylogenies in a scalable fashion and can help identify unknown query samples using (meta-)barcoding, skimming, or metagenomic data. Maximum likelihood (ML) methods of phylogenetic placement exist, but these methods are not scalable to reference trees with many thousands of leaves, limiting their ability to enjoy benefits of dense taxon sampling in modern reference libraries. They...

Data from: Parallel changes in gut microbiome composition and function during colonization, local adaptation and ecological speciation

Diana J. Rennison, Seth M. Rudman & Dolph Schluter
The processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation are often strongly shaped by biotic interactions such as competition and predation. One of the strongest lines of evidence that biotic interactions drive evolution comes from repeated divergence of lineages in association with repeated changes in the community of interacting species. Yet, relatively little is known about the repeatability of changes in gut microbial communities and their role in adaptation and divergence of host populations in nature....

Data from: Differences in combinatorial calls among the 3 elephant species cannot be explained by phylogeny

Michael A. Pardo, Joyce H. Poole, Angela S. Stoeger, Peter H. Wrege, Caitlin E. O'Connell-Rodwell, Udaha Kapugedara Padmalal & Shermin De Silva
Understanding why related species combine calls in different ways could provide insight into the selection pressures on the evolution of combinatorial communication. African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana), African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) all combine broadband calls (roars, barks, and cries) and low-frequency calls (rumbles) into single utterances known as “combination calls.” We investigated whether the structure of such calls differs among species and whether any differences are better explained by...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • University of California, San Diego
    15
  • University of Pennsylvania
    1
  • Stanford University School of Medicine
    1
  • Open University of Sri Lanka
    1
  • Autonomous University of Madrid
    1
  • University of Guelph
    1
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
    1
  • Scripps Research Institute
    1
  • University College London
    1
  • Virginia Tech
    1