43 Works

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Dataset marmoset Snowdrift

Alejandro Sanchez Amaro, Judith Burkart & Federico Rossano
Social primates constantly face situations in which their preferences collide and they need to engineer strategies to overcome conflicts of interest. Studies with chimpanzees have found that they use competitive strategies to overcome social dilemmas, maximizing their own benefits while minimizing the loss of rewards. However, little is known about how other primates that rely more on cooperation would overcome similar dilemmas. We therefore presented male-female pairs of common marmosets (cooperative breeders) with two experiments...

Dataset for: Cascading effects of freshwater salinization on plankton communities in the Sierra Nevada

Emma Moffett, Henry Baker, Christine Bonadonna, Jonathan Shurin & Celia Symons
Runoff containing road salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) causes the salinization of inland freshwaters, with potentially severe impacts on aquatic species. We performed a mesocosm experiment to test the effects of salinization on plankton community structure in an oligotrophic mountain lake with a limited history of elevated salt concentrations. We exposed plankton communities to a gradient of 30 salt concentrations ranging from 1-2900 Cl– mg L-1 for six weeks. Adding salt increased zooplankton biomass at concentrations...

Data from: Training data from SPCAM for machine learning in moist physics

Guang Zhang, Yilun Han, Xiaomeng Huang & Yong Wang
Current moist physics parameterization schemes in general circulation models (GCMs) are the main source of biases in simulated precipitation and atmospheric circulation. Recent advances in machine learning make it possible to explore data-driven approaches to developing parameterization for moist physics processes such as convection and clouds. This study aims to develop a new moist physics parameterization scheme based on deep learning. We use a residual convolutional neural network (ResNet) for this purpose. It is trained...

Data from: Laboratory culture of the California Sea Firefly Vargula tsujii (Ostracoda: Cypridinidae): developing a model system for the evolution of marine bioluminescence

Jessica A. Goodheart, Geetanjali Minsky, Mira N. Brynjegard-Bialik, Michael S. Drummond, J. David Munoz, Timothy R. Fallon, Darrin T. Schultz, Jing-Ke Weng, Elizabeth Torres & Todd H. Oakley
Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination...

Questioning to Resolve Transduction Problems

Eric Meinhardt, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic & Adam McCollum

VELB watershed data 2005

Michael Dobbins, Theresa Talley & Marcel Holyoak
The Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle (“VELB,” Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) is a rare and cryptic species that is found on or near its host plant, blue elderberry (Sambucus mexicana), and is native to California’s Central Valley. Over the past 100 years, the riparian forests of Central California have shrunk by over 90%, resulting in highly fragmented, and often isolated, remaining VELB habitat patches. This has created the need for robust monitoring and demographic data to assess...

Efficacy of metabarcoding for identification of fish eggs evaluated with mock communities

Elena Duke & Ron Burton
There is urgent need for effective and efficient monitoring of marine fish populations. Monitoring eggs and larval fish may be more informative that traditional fish surveys since ichthyoplankton surveys reveal the reproductive activities of fish populations, which directly impact their population trajectories. Ichthyoplankton surveys have turned to molecular methods (DNA barcoding & metabarcoding) for identification of eggs and larval fish due to challenges of morphological identification. In this study we examine the effectiveness of using...

Collaborative research: Quantifying the biological, chemical, and physical linkages between chemosynthetic communities and the surrounding deep sea

Oliver Ashford
The deep ocean supplies food, energy, novel drugs and materials, and plays essential roles in the global cycling of carbon, the nutrient replenishment for shallow waters, and the maintenance of biodiversity. Despite the crucial contribution of the deep sea to the larger functioning of global marine ecosystems, there is only a cursory understanding of this vast region and the connectivity among its communities and the rest of the oceans. Cold seeps, active areas of the...

Uneven substrates constrain walking speed in ants through modulation of stride frequency more than stride length

Glenna Clifton, David Holway & Nick Gravish
Natural terrain is rarely flat. Substrate irregularities challenge walking animals to maintain stability, yet we lack quantitative assessments of walking performance and limb kinematics on naturally uneven ground. We measured how continually uneven 3D-printed substrates influence walking performance of Argentine ants by measuring walking speeds of workers from lab colonies and by testing colony-wide substrate preference in field experiments. Tracking limb motion in over 8,000 videos, we used statistical models that associate walking speed with...

Replication Files for Nutrition and the Gut Microbiota in 10–18-Month Old Children Living in Urban Slums of Mumbai, India

Samantha Huey, Aparna Thorat, Varsha Thakker, Julia L. Finkelstein, Lingjing Jiang, Marcus Fedarko, Daniel McDonald, Cameron Martino, Farhana Ali, David G. Russell, Harsha Chopra, Kripa Rajagopalan, Jere Douglas Haas, Rob Knight, S.A. Udipi & P. Ghugre

Where New Words Are Born: Distributional Semantic Analysis of Neologisms and Their Semantic Neighborhoods

Maria Ryskina, Ella Rabinovich, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, David R. Mortensen & Yulia Tsvetkov

Data from: Stressed connections: cortisol levels following acute psychosocial stress disrupt affiliative mimicry in humans

Jonas P. Nitschke, Cecile S. Sunahara, Evan W. Carr, Piotr Winkielman, Jens C. Pruessner & Jennifer A. Bartz
Mimicry, and especially spontaneous facial mimicry, is a rudimentary element of social–emotional experience that is well-conserved across numerous species. Although such mimicry is thought to be a relatively automatic process, research indicates that contextual factors can influence mimicry, especially in humans. Here, we extend this work by investigating the effect of acute psychosocial stress on spontaneous facial mimicry. Participants performed a spontaneous facial mimicry task with facial electromyography (fEMG) at baseline and approximately one month...

No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

Elizabeth Sibert, Michelle Zill, Ella Frigyik & Richard Norris
The Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) boundary ~33.9 million years ago, has been described as a state change in the Earth system marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea sediment cores from around the world. Ichthyolith accumulation rate (a proxy for fish biomass production) shows no synchronous trends across the...

Quantifying the potential for biogeochemical feedbacks to create 'refugia' from ocean acidification on tropical coral reefs

Yuichiro Takeshita
Rising sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification (OA) may threaten the ability of calcified organisms to build carbonate reefs, but it is unclear if particular reefs have the capacity to tolerate global change. Current understanding of the effects of OA on coral reefs originates from single-species laboratory studies largely focused on scleractinian corals. Traditionally, these experiments attempt to mimic static future conditions under the assumption that coastal regimes are as constant as -- and will...

A parallel accumulator model accounts for decision randomness when deciding on risky prospects with different expected value

Jonathon Howlett & Martin Paulus
In decision-making situations individuals rarely have complete information available to select the best option and often show decisional randomness, i.e. given the same amount of knowledge individuals choose different options at different times. Dysfunctional processes resulting in altered decisional randomness can be considered a target process for psychiatric disorders, yet these processes remain poorly understood. Advances in computational modeling of decision-making offer a potential explanation for decisional randomness by positing that decisions are implemented in...

Spatially compartmentalized phase regulation of a Ca2+-cAMP-PKA oscillatory circuit

Brian Tenner
Signaling networks are spatiotemporally organized in order to sense diverse inputs, process information, and carry out specific cellular tasks. In pancreatic β cells, Ca2+, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and Protein Kinase A (PKA) exist in an oscillatory circuit characterized by a high degree of feedback. Here, we describe a mode of regulation within this circuit involving a spatial dependence of the relative phase between cAMP, PKA, and Ca2+. We show that nanodomain clustering of Ca2+-sensitive...

Bacteriophage lambda overcomes a perturbation in its host‐viral genetic network through mutualism and evolution of life history traits

Animesh Gupta, Anechelle N. Soto, Sarah J. Medina, Katherine L. Petrie & Justin R. Meyer
An important driver of viral evolution is natural selection to optimize the use of their hosts’ genetic network. To learn how viruses respond to this pressure, we disrupted the genetic network of Escherichia coli to inhibit replication of its virus, bacteriophage lambda, and then observed how λ evolved to compensate. We deleted E. coli's dnaJ gene, which lambda uses to initiate DNA replication. Lambda partially restored its ability to reproduce with just two adaptive mutations...

Experiencing Cancer in Appalachian Kentucky

Melanie McComsey, David Ahern, Robin C. Vanderpool, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Meghan Johnson, Michele Ellison, Karen Onyeije, Bradford W. Hesse & Eliah Aronoff-Spencer
Nothing tells the story of people working together better than a community quilt. A diversity of talents, colors, and materials brought together through skill and shared purpose. Perhaps never before have we as Americans needed a stronger reminder that many hands make short work of big problems. The work presented here by the L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative offers a new framework for health care that could be compared to a digital quilt, powered by community-based participatory design,...

Dynamic post-translational modification profiling of M. tuberculosis-infected primary macrophages

Jonathan M Budzik, Danielle L Swaney, David Jimenez-Morales, Jeffrey R Johnson, Nicholas E Garelis, Teresa Repasy, Allison W Roberts, Lauren M Popov, Trevor J Parry, Dexter Pratt, Trey Ideker, Nevan J Krogan & Jeffery S Cox
Macrophages are highly plastic cells with critical roles in immunity, cancer, and tissue homeostasis, but how these distinct cellular fates are triggered by environmental cues is poorly understood. To uncover how primary murine macrophages respond to bacterial pathogens, we globally assessed changes in post-translational modifications of proteins during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a notorious intracellular pathogen. We identified hundreds of dynamically regulated phosphorylation and ubiquitylation sites, indicating that dramatic remodeling of multiple host pathways, both...

Data from: The genomic signature of ecological divergence along the benthic-limnetic axis in allopatric and sympatric threespine stickleback

Andreas Härer, Daniel Bolnick & Diana Rennison
The repeated occurrence of similar phenotypes in independent lineages (i.e., parallel evolution) in response to similar ecological conditions can provide compelling insights into the process of adaptive evolution. An intriguing question is to what extent repeated phenotypic changes are underlain by repeated changes at the genomic level and whether patterns of genomic divergence differ with the geographic context in which populations evolve. Here, we combine genomic, morphological and ecological datasets to investigate the genomic signatures...

Scaling considerations for fire whirls

Forman A. Williams
This brief report, based on a presentation made at the Eighth International Symposium on Scale Modeling, held in Portland, Oregon, in September of 2017, summarizes and evaluates different methods for classifying fire whirls and their scaling laws. It is indicated that a number of relevant non-dimensional parameters are known for fire whirls, and future scale-modeling experiments could provide useful additional information and insights.

Introducing the L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative

F. Douglas Scutchfield & Kevin Patrick
The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative: Linking & Amplifying User-Centered Networks through Connected Health: A Demonstration of Broadband-Enabled Connected Health and Community-Based Co-Design brings together a group of organizations that are eager to use Appalachian Kentucky as a site for the development of a project aimed at creating an environment that addresses two of the nation’s major concerns about cancer. First, individuals who live in rural and remote areas are more likely to die of cancer than those...

Barn-Raising on the Digital Frontier

Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie McComsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker & Don Norman
A meta-analysis of oncology papers from around the world revealed that cancer patients who lived more than 50 miles away from hospital centers routinely presented with more advanced stages of disease at diagnosis, exhibited lower adherence to prescribed treatments, presented with poorer diagnoses, and reported a lower quality of life than patients who lived nearer to care facilities. Connected health approaches—or the use of broadband and telecommunications technologies to evaluate, diagnose, and monitor patients beyond...

Antagonistic effects of temperature and dissolved organic carbon on fish growth in California mountain lakes

Celia C. Symons, Marika A. Schulhof, Hamanda B. Cavalheri & Jonathan B. Shurin
Resources and temperature play major roles in determining biological production in lake ecosystems. Lakes have been warming and ‘browning’ over recent decades due to climate change and increased loading of terrestrial organic matter. Conflicting hypotheses and evidence have been presented about whether these changes will increase or decrease fish growth within lakes. Most studies have been conducted in low-elevation lakes where terrestrially derived carbon tends to dominate over carbon produced within lakes. Understanding how fish...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    43

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    34
  • Text
    7
  • Output Management Plan
    2

Affiliations

  • University of California, San Diego
    43
  • University of Kentucky
    5
  • National Institutes of Health
    3
  • University of California, Irvine
    3
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • Netherlands Institute of Ecology
    2
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
    2
  • Federal Communications Commission
    2
  • University of California, Riverside
    2