75 Works

By animal, water, or wind: can dispersal mode predict genetic connectivity in riverine plant species?

Alison Nazareno
Seed dispersal is crucial to gene flow among plant populations. Although the effects of geographic distance and barriers to gene flow are well studied in many systems, it is unclear how seed dispersal mediates gene flow in conjunction with interacting effects of geographic distance and barriers. To test whether distinct seed dispersal modes (i.e. hydrochory, anemochory, and zoochory) have a consistent effect on the level of genetic connectivity (i.e., gene flow) among populations of riverine...

Disentangling the effects of latitudinal and elevational gradients on bee, wasp, and ant diversity in an ancient Neotropical mountain range

Lucas Perillo, Flávio Castro, Ricardo Solar & Frederico Neves
Aim: Ancient tropical mountains are megadiverse, yet little is known about the distribution of their species. We aimed to disentangle the effects of latitudinal and elevational gradients on the distribution of species of Aculeata and to understand the effects of climatic variables across different spatial scales of diversity (α, γ, and β-diversity). Location: Campo rupestre in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, Southeast Brazil. Taxon: Bees, wasps, and ants (Aculeata: Hymenoptera) Methods: We used a unique dataset...

Violência contra a população idosa: uma análise da associação com a incapacidade funcional no contexto brasileiro

Wanderson Costa Bomfim
Olhares sobre o envelhecimento. Estudos interdisciplinares, 191-202. Volume I

Weather fluctuations are linked to nesting success and renesting decisions in saffron finches

Fernando Marques-Santos, Uschi Wischhoff & Marcos Rodrigues
Life‐histories of neotropical birds seem to vary beyond what is expected according to patterns from northern temperate regions. This variation is well exemplified by saffron finches Sicalis flaveola in subtropical Brazil. They breed for five months on a climate that is relatively warm and rainy throughout the year. Females may attempt from one nest with two eggs up to three nests with five eggs per season. Previous work showed that age and individual quality were...

Modeling Dynamic Ideological Behavior in Political Networks

Carlos Henrique Gomes Ferreira, Fabricio Murai Ferreira, Breno de Souza Matos & Jussara Marques de Almeida
In this article, we model and analyze the dynamic behavior of political networks, both at the individual (party member) and ideological community levels. Our study relies on public data covering 15 years of voting sessions of the House of Representatives of two diverse party system, namely, Brazil and the United States. Whereas the former is an example of a highly fragmented party system, the latter illustrates the case of a highly polarized and non-fragmented system....

Alianças audiovisuais em tempos sombrios: Eduardo Coutinho, o Centro de Criação de Imagem Popular (CECIP) e os movimentos civis

Claudia Mesquita & Vinícius Oliveira

Rural landscapes and urban development in Latin America

Leonardo B. Castriota & Betina Adams
Within the expansion of the concept of heritage, in the last decades, some new ideas have gained a decisive and innovative role. "Cultural landscapes", for instance, adopted by UNESCO since the early 1990s, inextricably combines the material and immaterial aspects of the heritage concept, that formerly was often thought separately. It also enhances the significant interactions between man and the natural environment. Thus, this concept seems to offer a rich perspective when applied to the...

Data from: Beta diversity of aquatic invertebrates increases along an altitudinal gradient in a Neotropical mountain

Diego M.P. Castro, Marcos Callisto, Ricardo R. C. Solar, Diego R. Macedo & G. Wilson Fernandes.
Mountains harbor rich biodiversity and high levels of endemism, particularly due to changes in environmental conditions over short spatial distances, which affects species distribution and composition. Studies on mountain ecosystems are increasingly needed, as mountains are highly threatened despite providing ecosystem services, such as water supply for half of the human population. We aimed to understand the patterns and drivers of alpha and beta diversities of aquatic invertebrates in headwater streams along an altitudinal gradient...

Data from: Y chromosome sequences reveal a short Beringian Standstill, rapid expansion, and early population structure of Native American founders

Thomaz Pinotti, Susana Revollo, Cézar Paz-Y-Miño, Ricardo Fujita, Fabrício Rodrigues Santos, Chris Tyler-Smith, Toomas Kivisild, Qasim Ayub, Anders Bergström, Yali Xue, Cinthia Cuellar, Dominique Ohasi, Daniela R. Lacerda, Marilza S. Jota, José E. Santos & Arne Solli
The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15-25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later, and mtDNA analyses to ~25 kya, followed by isolation (‘Beringian Standstill’) for 2.4-9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the...

Data from: Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesis

Bridget R. Deemer, John A. Harrison, Siyue Li, Jake J. Beaulieu, Tonya DelSontro, Nathan Barros, José F. Bezerra-Neto, Stephen M. Powers, Marco A. Dos Santos & J. Arie Vonk
Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, and manage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistencies in methodological approach. Here, we synthesize reservoir CH4, CO2, and N2O emission data with three main objectives: (1) to generate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the best predictors of these emissions, and...

Data from: Kooiichthys jono n. gen. n. sp., a primitive catfish (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the marine Miocene of southern South America

Maria De Las Mercedes Azpelicueta, Alberto Luis Cione, Mario Alberto Cozzuol & Juan Marcos Mirande
A specimen of a remarkable new catfish genus and species was collected in middle/late Miocene marine beds of the Puerto Madryn Formation at the base of the marine cliff of the sea lion colony area near Puerto Pirámide, southern coast of Península Valdés, northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. Siluriforms (catfishes) constitute a most important monophyletic ostariophysan group of mainly freshwater fishes that occurs in almost all continents but it is especially diverse in South America. Catfishes are...

Web wars: Males of the golden orb-web spider invest more in fights for mated and aggregated females

Amanda Vieira Da Silva, Reisla Oliveira & Paulo Enrique Cardoso Peixoto
In addition to resource value, the cost of finding mates may affect how much males invest in fights for females. The cost of finding females may be imposed through natural factors extrinsic to males, such as female spatial distribution and predation pressure, which can be challenging to simulate in laboratory conditions. Therefore, studies under natural conditions may be suitable for understanding how the costs of finding mating partners affect male investment in fights. We used...

Data from: Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar

Lilian Patricia Sales, Bruno R. Ribeiro, Matt Warrington Hayward, Adriano P. Paglia, Marcelo Passamani & Rafael Loyola
1.Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species’ fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unraveling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. 2.Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Genetic evaluation of migratory fish: implications for conservation and stocking programs

Juliana Pimentel, Sandra Ludwig, Leonardo Resende, Pedro Brandão-Dias, Adriana Pereira, Nazaré Abreu, Izinara Rosse, Ana Paula Martins, Susanne Facchin, João Lopes, Gilmar Santos, Carlos Alves & Evanguedes Kalapothakis
Fish stocking programs have been implemented to mitigate the blockage of original riverbeds by the construction of hydropower dams, which affects the natural migration of fish populations. However, this method raises concerns regarding the genetic rescue of the original populations of migratory fish species. We present the first study to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow (migration) of the Neotropical migratory fish Prochilodus costatus in the Três Marias dam in São Francisco...

Evento colisional e eventos térmicos proterozóicos registados pela monazite inclusa em corindo da região de Itaguara (Cratão São Francisco meridional, Brasil)

Alexandre Chaves & A. Dutra

Social Solidarity and the Ontological Foundations of Exclusionary Nationalism

C. J. Eland & Nicole L. M. T. de Pontes
This paper seeks to explore the dynamics of contemporary authoritarian populism from a historical perspective, relying on the approaches of Durkheim’s experimental sociology and Levinas’s ethical phenomenology. By reading the works of these two thinkers in concert, a pathology is exposed within this particular form of politics in that the State must necessarily close itself off to the critique of exteriority. Our reading of Durkheim explores the social pathology of nationalism while our reading of...

Data from: Human activities influence the occupancy probability of mammalian carnivores in the Brazilian Caatinga

Douglas De Matos Dias, Rodrigo Lima Massara, Claudia Bueno De Campos & Flávio Henrique Guimarães Rodrigues.
The Caatinga is a semi-arid domain, characterized by reduced humidity and high rates of anthropogenic impact. In addition to the low availability of water, carnivorous mammals are still exposed to a number of threats related to landscape modifications. We used data from camera traps and occupancy models to investigate the habitat use by carnivores in an area of Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. We found a negative correlation between the presence of wind farms and the...

Data from: Multi-proxy evidence highlights a complex evolutionary legacy of maize in South America

Logan Kistler, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio De Souza, Natalia A. S. Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R. Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P. Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Fabio De Oliveira Freitas & Robin G. Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9,000 BP, traversed Central America by ~7,500 BP, and spread into South America by ~6,500 BP. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then...

Data from: High frequency echolocation, ear morphology, and the marine–freshwater transition: a comparative study of extant and extinct toothed whales

Carolina S. Gutstein, Constanza P. Figueroa-Bravo, Nicholas D. Pyenson, Roberto E. Yury-Yañez, Mario A. Cozzuol & Mauricio Canals
This study compares the bony ear morphology of freshwater and marine odontocetes (toothed whales). Odontocetes are unique among marine mammals in two important respects: 1) they use echolocation; 2) at least three lineages have independently evolved obligate freshwater habits from marine ancestries. Freshwater odontocetes include the so-called “river dolphins,” a paraphyletic group that each evolved convergent external morphological characters that distinguish them from oceanic dolphins (Delphinoidea). In addition to their convergent external morphology, “river dolphins”...

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: Experimentally reducing species abundance indirectly affects food web structure and robustness

Milton Barbosa, G. Wilson Fernandes, Owen T. Lewis & Rebecca J. Morris
Studies on the robustness of ecological communities suggest that the loss or reduction in abundance of individual species can lead to secondary and cascading extinctions. However, most such studies have been simulation-based analyses of the effect of primary extinction on food web structure. In a field experiment we tested the direct and indirect effects of reducing the abundance of a common species, focusing on the diverse and self-contained assemblage of arthropods associated with an abundant...

Data from: Climate, physiological tolerance, and sex-biased dispersal shape genetic structure of Neotropical orchid bees

Margarita M. Lopez-Uribe, Kelly R. Zamudio, Carolina F. Cardoso & Bryan N. Danforth
Understanding the impact of past climatic events on the demographic history of extant species is critical for predicting species’ responses to future climate change. Paleoclimatic instability is a major mechanism of lineage diversification in taxa with low dispersal and small geographic ranges in tropical ecosystems. However, the impact of these climatic events remains questionable for the diversification of species with high levels of gene flow and large geographic distributions. In this study, we investigate the...

Data from: Safety and immunogenicity of the Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine in Brazilian and American adults

Amar Jariwala, Anna Yakovleva, Carlos Geraldo Fraga, David J. Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Frederico Talles, Guangzhao Li, Janaína Freire, Jeffrey Bethony, Jill Brelsford, Jin Peng, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli, Maria Victoria Periago, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Martin Enk, Peter Hotez, Robert Hamilton, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Shannon Grahek & Vanderson Valente
Necator americanus Glutathione-S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) plays a role in the digestion of host hemoglobin by adult N. americanus hookworms. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-GST-1 is associated with significant protection from challenge infection. Recombinant Na-GST-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Alhydrogel) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. Two Phase 1 trials were conducted in 142 healthy adult volunteers in the United States and Brazil, first in hookworm-naïve individuals and...

Data from: Floral antagonists counteract pollinator-mediated selection on attractiveness traits in the hummingbird-pollinated Collaea cipoensis (Fabaceae)

Irene Gélvez-Zúñiga, Alberto L. Teixido, Ana Carolina O. Neves & Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
Pollinator-mediated selection towards larger and abundant flowers is common in naturally pollen-limited populations. However, floral antagonists may counteract this effect, maintaining smaller- and few-flowered individuals within populations. We quantified pollinator and antagonist visit rates and determined a multiplicative female fitness component from attacked and non-attacked flowers of the Brazilian hummingbird-pollinated shrub Collaea cipoensis to determine the selective effects of pollinators and floral antagonists on flower size and number. We predicted that floral antagonists reduce the...

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