15 Works

Phylogeographic and phenotypic outcomes of brown anole colonization across the Caribbean provide insight into the beginning stages of an adaptive radiation

Jason J. Kolbe, Richard E. Glor, Marta López‐Darias, C. Verónica Gómez Pourroy, Alexis S. Harrison, Kevin De Queiroz, Liam J. Revell, Jonathan B. Losos & Robert Graham Reynolds
Some of the most important insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes of diversification and speciation have come from studies of island adaptive radiations, yet relatively little research has examined how these radiations initiate. We suggest that Anolis sagrei is a candidate for understanding the origins of the Caribbean Anolis adaptive radiation and how a colonizing anole species begins to undergo allopatric diversification, phenotypic divergence and, potentially, speciation. We undertook a genomic and morphological analysis...

Data from: Effects of arthropod inquilines on growth and reproductive effort among metacommunities of the purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea var. montana)

Rebecca Hale, Elise Powell, Leila Beikmohamadi & Mara Alexander
Many plant species harbor communities of symbionts that release nutrients used by their host plants. However, the importance of these nutrients to plant growth and reproductive effort is not well understood. Here, we evaluate the relationship between the communities that colonize pitcher plant phytotelmata and the pitcher plants’ vegetative growth and flower production to better understand the symbiotic role played by phytotelma communities. We focus on the mountain variety purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea var....

Coping with Epistemic Trauma

Jeremias Zunguze
This article discusses how Frantz Fanon diagnoses the epistemic trauma that African people have experienced, resulting from Eurocentric epistemic violence, while prescribing the pursuit of new humanism as a coping mechanism. In the last five centuries, European modernity’s racialized ideals of humanity have mapped the world by excluding African people, disrupting their sense of humanism, and throwing them into existential downward spiral. In fact, Western modernity questioned whether African people are “humans”, and it concluded...

Data from: Fixation and preservation contribute to distortion in vertebrate museum specimens: a ten-year study with the lizard Anolis sagrei

R. Graham Reynolds, Inbar Maayan, Rachel M. Goodman, Paul M. Hime, Ryan Bickel, E. Allen Luck & Jonathan B. Losos
Preservation of museum specimens depends on chemical fixation and preservation, processes that might distort the original material. Relatively few studies have examined preservation effects in potentially susceptible soft-bodied taxa like herpetofauna, and those that have rarely extend over more than a few months. We collected six common morphological measurements from the same set of radiographed specimens of the Neotropical lizard Anolis sagrei over nearly ten years to investigate whether morphometric changes result from fixation in...

A Metacognitive Approach to Trust and a Case Study: Artificial Agency

Ioan Muntean
Trust is defined as a belief of a human H (`the trustor') about the ability of an agent A (the `trustee') to perform future action(s). We adopt here dispositionalism and internalism about trust: H trusts A iff A has some internal dispositions as competences. The dispositional competences of A are high-level metacognitive requirements, in the line of a naturalized virtue epistemology. (Sosa, Carter) We advance a Bayesian model of two (i) confidence in the decision...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Preventing Moral Injury in Medicine

Katharine R. Meacham
“Physicians aren’t burning out; they are experiencing moral injury” (Talbot and Dean). That claim has struck a nerve among physicians. Moral injury occurs when people lose a sense of integrity—when what Buddhists call “right livelihood” is impossible, given the contradictions between their core values and identity and what they find themselves doing daily and in a system that ignores that lived experience. Moral injury results from traumatic ruptures between what people do and who they...

Data from: The response of migratory populations to phenological change: a Migratory Flow Network modelling approach

Caz M. Taylor, Andrew J. Laughlin & Richard J. Hall
1. Declines in migratory species have been linked to anthropogenic climate change through phenological mismatch, which arises due to asynchronies between the timing of life-history events (such as migration) and the phenology of available resources. Long-distance migratory species may be particularly vulnerable to phenological change in their breeding ranges, since the timing of migration departure is based on environmental cues at distant non-breeding sites. 2. Migrants may, however, be able to adjust migration speed en...

The Need for Philosophy in Times of Trauma

Melissa Burchard
For many years, trauma has been seen as a frequent “elephant-in-the-room,” one of those features of life that we do not wish to strengthen by acknowledging its presence. Many people try to shun that elephant, averting their eyes and covering their ears, because the pain of it is not what anyone wants, and the effort of responding to it seems more than what many are willing to bear. Unfortunately, ignoring trauma does not make it...

Data from: Egg mass polymorphism in Ambystoma maculatum is not associated with larval performance or survival, or with cell density of the algal symbiont Oophila amblystomatis

Rebecca Hale, Mischa D'Errico & Caroline Kennedy
These data are from a 2018 study of larval morphology, performance, and survival in the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). We examined larvae of two egg mass color morphs: clear and white. We also quantified the density of algal (Oophila amblystomatis) cells on the egg capsules of embryos. The data correspond to our publication in Evolutionary Ecology.

Data from: A range-wide domino effect and resetting of the annual cycle in a migratory songbird

Elizabeth A. Gow, Lauren Burke, David W. Winkler, Samantha M. Knight, Robert G. Clark, Marc Bélisle, Lisha L. Berzins, Tricia Blake, Eli S. Bridge, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Dany Garant, Geoff Holroyd, Andrew G. Horn, David J.T. Hussell, Olga Lansdorp, Andrew J. Laughlin, Marty L. Leonard, Fanie Pelletier, Dave Shutler, Lynn Siefferman, Caz M. Taylor, Helen Trefry, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck … & D. Ryan Norris
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographic variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) originating from 12 North American breeding populations. A swallow’s breeding latitude influenced timing of breeding, which then carried over to affect...

Historical allopatry and secondary contact or primary intergradation in the Puerto Rican Crested Anole, Anolis cristatellus, on Vieques Island

Liam J Revell, R. Graham Reynolds & Quynh N. Quach
Recent work revealed surprisingly deep mitochondrial genetic divergence in the lizard Anolis cristatellus among samples obtained from the small Caribbean island of Vieques. We sought to determine whether this had resulted from natural or anthropogenic causes, and (if the former), whether divergence occurred in a biogeographic context of allopatry followed by secondary contact, or via isolation-by-distance across the species’ historical range. We first estimated a mitochondrial gene tree for 379 samples and then genotyped 3,407...

Data for: Genetic architecture modulates diet induced hepatic mRNA and miRNA expression profiles

Excel Que, Kristen L. James, Alisha R. Coffey, Tangi L. Smallwood, Jody Albright, M. Nazmul Huda, Daniel Pomp, Praveen Sethupathy & Brian J. Bennett
Genetic approaches in model organisms have consistently demonstrated that molecular traits such as gene expression are under genetic regulation, similar to clinical traits. The resulting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have revolutionized our understanding of genetic regulation and identified numerous candidate genes for clinically-relevant traits. More recently, these analyses have been extended to other molecular traits such as protein abundance, metabolite levels, and miRNA expression. Here we performed global hepatic eQTL and miRNA expression quantitative...

Dewlap color variation in Anolis sagrei is maintained among habitats within islands of the West Indies

Raphaël Scherrer, Colin M Donihue, R Graham Reynolds, Jonathan B Losos & Anthony J Geneva
Animal signals evolve in an ecological context. Locally adapting animal sexual signals can be especially important for initiating or reinforcing reproductive isolation during the early stages of speciation. Previous studies have demonstrated that dewlap color in Anolis lizards can be highly variable between populations in relation to both biotic and abiotic adaptive drivers at relatively large geographical scales. Here, we investigated differentiation of dewlap coloration among habitat types at a small spatial scale, within multiple...

Data from: Phylogenomics and historical biogeography of West Indian Rock Iguanas (genus Cyclura)

Robert Graham Reynolds & Aryeh Miller
The genus Cyclura includes nine extant species and six subspecies of West Indian Rock Iguanas and is one of the most imperiled genera of squamate reptiles globally. An understanding of species diversity, evolutionary relationships, diversification, and historical biogeography in this group is crucial for implementing sound long-term conservation strategies. We collected DNA samples from 1–10 individuals per taxon from all Cyclura taxa (n = 70 ingroup individuals), focusing where possible on incorporating individuals from different...

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