11 Works

Global biogeography and diversification of a group of brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) driven by clade-specific evolutionary processes

Christophe Vieira, Frederique Steen, Sofie D'hondt, Quinten Bafort, Cindy Fernandez-García, Brian Wysor, Lennert Tyberghein, Ana Tronholm, Lydiane Mattio, Claude Payri, Gary Saunders, Frederik Leliaert, Heroen Verbruggen & Olivier De Clerck
Aim: Historical processes that shaped current diversity patterns of seaweeds remain poorly understood. Using Dictyotales, a globally distributed order of brown seaweeds as a model, we test if historical biogeographical and diversification patterns are comparable across clades. Dictyotales contain some 22 genera, three of which, Dictyota, Lobophora and Padina, are exceptionally diverse. Specifically we test if the evolutionary processes in these clades that shaped their latitudinal diversity patterns are in line with the tropical conservatism,...

Variation in symbiont density is linked to changes in constitutive immunity in the facultatively symbiotic coral, Astrangia poculata

Lauren Fuess, Isabella Changsut, Haley Womack, Alicia Shickle & Koty Sharp
Scleractinian corals are essential ecosystem engineers, forming the basis of coral reef ecosystems. However, these organisms are in decline globally, in part due to rising disease prevalence. Most corals are dependent on symbiotic interactions with single-celled algae from the family Symbiodiniaceae to meet their nutritional needs, however suppression of host immunity may be essential to this relationship. To explore immunological consequences of algal symbioses in scleractinian corals, we investigated constitutive immune activity in the facultatively...

Supplementary data, code, validation statistics, and other information for ‘Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia’ (PNAS, Mann et al. 2008)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, M.K. Hughes, R.S. Bradley, S.K. Miller, S. Rutherford & F. Ni
Following the suggestions of a recent National Research Council report [NRC (National Research Council) (2006) Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (Natl Acad Press, Washington, DC).], we reconstruct surface temperature at hemispheric and global scale for much of the last 2,000 years using a greatly expanded set of proxy data for decadal-to-centennial climate changes, recently updated instrumental data, and complementary methods that have been thoroughly tested and validated with model simulation experiments. Our...

Data from: El Niño drives a widespread ulcerative skin disease outbreak in Galapagos marine fishes

Robert W. Lamb, Franz Smith, Anaide W. Aued, Pelayo Salinas-De-León, Jenifer Suarez, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Roxanna Smolowitz, Cem Giray & Jon D. Witman
Climate change increases local climatic variation and unpredictability, which can alter ecological interactions and trigger wildlife disease outbreaks. Here we describe an unprecedented multi-species outbreak of wild fish disease driven by a climate perturbation. The 2015–16 El Niño generated a +2.5 °C sea surface temperature anomaly in the Galapagos Islands lasting six months. This coincided with a novel ulcerative skin disease affecting 18 teleost species from 13 different families. Disease signs included scale loss and...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Robustness of Proxy-Based Climate Field Reconstruction Methods’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, E. Wahl & C. Ammann
We present results from continued investigations into the fidelity of covariance-based climate field reconstruction (CFR) approaches used in proxy-based climate reconstruction. Our experiments employ synthetic ‘‘pseudoproxy’’ data derived from simulations of forced climate changes over the past millennium. Using networks of these pseudoproxy data, we investigate the sensitivity of CFR performance to signal-to-noise ratios, the noise spectrum, the spatial sampling of pseudoproxy locations, the statistical representation of predictors used, and the diagnostic used to quantify...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Underestimation of volcanic cooling in tree-ringbased reconstructions of hemispheric temperatures’ (Nature Geoscience, Mann et al. 2012)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford & J.D. Fuentes
The largest eruption of a tropical volcano during the past millennium occurred in AD 1258–1259. Its estimated radiative forcing was several times larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption1 . Radiative forcing of that magnitude is expected to result in a climate cooling of about 2 ?C. This effect, however, is largely absent from tree-ring reconstructions of temperature, and is muted in reconstructions that employ a mix of tree-rings and other proxy data. This discrepancy has...

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Discussion of: A Statistical Analysis of Multiple Temperature Proxies: Are Reconstructions of Surface Temperatures over the Last 1000 Years Reliable’

G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann & S. Rutherford
McShane and Wyner (2011) (henceforth MW) analyze a dataset of “proxy” climate records previously used by Mann et al. (2008) (henceforth M08) to attempt to assess their utility in reconstructing past temperatures. MW introduce new methods in their analysis, which is welcome. However, the absence of both proper data quality control and appropriate “pseudoproxy” tests to assess the performance of their methods invalidate their main conclusions.

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Discrepancies between the modeled and proxy-reconstructed response to volcanic forcing over the past millennium: Implications and possible mechanisms(Journal of Geophysical Research, Mann et al. 2013)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, A. Schurer, Simon F.B. Tett & J.D. Fuentes
We show that a systematic discrepancy between model simulations and proxy reconstructions of hemispheric temperature changes over the past millennium appears to arise from a small number of radiatively large volcanic eruptions. Past work has shown that accounting for this mismatch alone appears to reconcile inconsistencies between the overall amplitude of simulated and proxy-reconstructed temperature changes. We provide empirical support for the previously posited hypothesis that this discrepancy may arise from threshold growth effects in...

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (Science, Mann et al. 2009)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, S. Rutherford, R.S. Bradley, M.K. Hughes, D. Shindall, C. Ammann, G. Faluvegi & F. Ni
Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña–like conditions in...

Data from: Patterns, dynamics and consequences of microplastic ingestion by the temperate coral, Astrangia poculata

Randi D. Rotjan, Koty H. Sharp, Anna E. Gauthier, Rowan Yelton, Eliya M Baron Lopez, Jessica Carilli, Jonathan C. Kagan & Juanita Urban-Rich
Microplastics (less than 5 mm) are a recognized threat to aquatic food webs because they are ingested at multiple trophic levels and may bioaccumulate. In urban coastal environments, high densities of microplastics may disrupt nutritional intake. However, behavioural dynamics and consequences of microparticle ingestion are still poorly understood. As filter or suspension feeders, benthic marine invertebrates are vulnerable to microplastic ingestion. We explored microplastic ingestion by the temperate coral Astrangia poculata. We detected an average...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Testing the Fidelity of Methods Used in Proxy-based Reconstructions of Past Climate’ (Journal of Climate, Mann et al. 2005)

M. Mann, S. Rutherford, E. Wahl & C. Ammann
Two widely used statistical approaches to reconstructing past climate histories from climate “proxy” data such as tree rings, corals, and ice cores are investigated using synthetic “pseudoproxy” data derived from a simulation of forced climate changes over the past 1200 yr. These experiments suggest that both statistical approaches should yield reliable reconstructions of the true climate history within estimated uncertainties, given estimates of the signal and noise attributes of actual proxy data networks.

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  • Roger Williams University
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Goddard Institute for Space Studies
  • Alfred University
  • University of Arizona
  • Ghent University
  • New England Aquarium
  • University of Rhode Island