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SAM Filtering Pipeline (SFP): Algorithm for the determination of integration sites from next generation sequencing data

Sofie A O'Brien & Wei-Shou Hu
The locus at which a vector harboring a product transgene integrates into the genome can have a profound effect on the transgene’s transcript level and the stability of the resulting cell line. In order to identify integration site(s) of a transfected vector from next generation genome sequencing data, the SAM filtering pipeline (SFP) was created. It is best suited for targeted sequence data, such as that from sequence capture of probed vector regions. However, it...

Minnesota Solvation Database (MNSOL) version 2012

Aleksandr V Marenich, Casey P Kelly, Jason D Thompson, Gregory D Hawkins, Candy C Chambers, David J Giesen, Paul Winget, Christopher J Cramer & Donald G Truhlar
The Minnesota Solvation Database consists of a collection of 3037 experimental free energies of solvation or transfer free energies for 790 unique solutes in 92 solvents (including water) and gas-phase M06-2X/MG3S optimized molecular geometries in Cartesian coordinates for the corresponding solutes. All of the 790 solutes in this database (541 neutrals and 249 singly-charged ions) contain at most the following elements: H, C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl, Br, and I.

R Code and Output Supporting: Resampling-Based Methods for Biologists

John Fieberg, Kelsy Vitense & Douglas H. Johnson

Data for: The long-term impacts of deer herbivory in determining temperate forest stand and canopy structural complexity

Samuel Reed, Alejandro Royo, Alexander Fotis, Kathleen Knight, Charles Flower & Peter Curtis
1. Ungulates place immense consumptive pressure on forest vegetation globally, leaving legacies of reduced biodiversity and simplified vegetative structure. However, what remains unresolved is whether browse-induced changes occurring early in succession ultimately manifest themselves in the developed forest canopy. Understanding the development and persistence of these legacies is critical as canopy structure is an important determinant of forest ecosystem functions like carbon sequestration and wildlife habitat. 2. We measured how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browse...

Data from: Meta-analytic and economic approaches for evaluation of pesticide impact on Sclerotinia stem rot control and soybean yield in the North Central U.S.

Jaime F. Willbur, Paul Mitchell, Mamadou L. Fall, Adam M. Byrne, Scott Chapman, Crystal M. Floyd, Carl A. Bradley, Keith Ames, Martin I. Chilvers, Nathan Kleczewski, Dean Malvick, Brian Mueller, Daren Mueller, Mehdi Kabbage, Shawn P. Conley & Damon Smith
As complete host resistance in soybean has not been achieved, Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum continues to be of major economic concern for farmers. Thus, chemical control remains a prevalent disease management strategy. Pesticide evaluations were conducted in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin from 2009 to 2016, for a total of 25 site-years (n = 2057 plot-level data points). These studies were used in network meta-analyses to evaluate the...

Data from: Feline immunodeficiency virus in puma: estimation of force of infection reveals insights into transmission

Jennifer Reynolds, Scott Carver, Mark Cunningham, Ken Logan, Winston Vickers, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & Meggan Craft
Determining parameters that govern pathogen transmission (such as the force of infection, FOI), and pathogen impacts on morbidity and mortality, is exceptionally challenging for wildlife. Vital parameters can vary, for example across host populations, between sexes and within an individual's lifetime. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus affecting domestic and wild cat species, forming species-specific viral--host associations. FIV infection is common in populations of puma (Puma concolor), yet uncertainty remains over transmission parameters and...

Variation in mouse pelvic morphology maps to locations enriched in Sox9 Class II and Pitx1 regulatory features

Charles Roseman, Terrence Capellini, Evelyn Jagoda, Scott Williams, Mark Grabowski, Christine O'Connor, John Polk & James Cheverud
Variation in pelvic morphology has a complex genetic basis and its patterning and specification is governed by conserved developmental pathways. Whether the mechanisms underlying the differentiation and specification of the pelvis also produce the morphological covariation on which natural selection may act is still an open question in evolutionary developmental biology. We use high-resolution Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F34 generation of an advanced intercross experiment (LG,SM-G34) to characterize the genetic architecture of...

Habitat fragmentation influences genetic diversity and differentiation: Fine-scale population structure of Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud)

Meher Ony, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah Boggess, William Klingeman, John Zobel, Robert Trigiano & Denita Hadziabdic
Forest fragmentation may negatively affect plants through reduced genetic diversity and increased population structure due to habitat isolation, decreased population size, and disturbance of pollen-seed dispersal mechanisms. However, in the case of tree species, effective pollen-seed dispersal, mating system, and ecological dynamics may help the species overcome the negative effect of forest fragmentation. A fine-scale population genetics study can shed light on the postfragmentation genetic diversity and structure of a species. Here, we present the...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Assessing zinc tolerance in two butterfly species: consequences for conservation in polluted environments

Alexander Shephard
1. Zinc is a widespread pollutant released from industrial combustion, auto- mobile residue, and mining. Zinc accumulates in soils and mobilises into plant tissue where it may be consumed to potentially toxic levels by leaf feeding insects, including developing pollinators. 2. While zinc tolerance thresholds have been previously assessed in insect pollinators, most observations are limited to model organisms and pest species. We lack understand- ing of zinc tolerance in insects of conservation concern. 3....

Data from: Surf and Turf Vision: Patterns and predictors of visual acuity in compound eye evolution

Kathryn Feller, Lorian Schweikert, Camilla Sharkey, Alyssa McDuffee-Altekruse, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Nathan Lord & Megan Porter
Eyes have the flexibility to evolve to meet the ecological demands of their users. Relative to camera-type eyes, the fundamental limits of optical diffraction in arthropod compound eyes restricts the ability to resolve fine detail (visual acuity) to much lower degrees. We tested the capacity of several ecological factors to predict arthropod visual acuity, while simultaneously controlling for shared phylogenetic history. In this study, we have generated the most comprehensive review of compound eye visual...

Diversification or collapse of self-incompatibility haplotypes as a rescue process

Alexander Harkness, Emma Goldberg & Yaniv Brandvain
In angiosperm self-incompatibility systems, pollen with an allele matching the pollen recipient at the self-incompatibility locus is rejected. Extreme allelic polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent selection favoring rare alleles. However, two challenges result in a "chicken-egg"problem for the spread of a new allele (a tightly linked haplotype in this case) under the widespread "collaborative non-self recognition" mechanism. A novel pollen-function mutation alone would merely grant compatibility with a nonexistent style-function allele: a neutral change at...

Ictal source imaging in epilepsy patients - Supplementary Data

Shuai Ye, Lin Yang, Yunfeng Lu, Michal Kucewicz, Benjamin Brinkmann, Cindy Nelson, Abbas Sohrabpour, Gregory Worrell & Bin He
Objective Localization of seizure onset zone in focal epilepsy patients is a crucial step prior to surgical planning. Noninvasively achieving this goal would have a tremendous impact on clinical management of intractable seizure. Methods In a total of 39 focal epilepsy patients, we recorded and extracted 138 seizures and 1,325 interictal epileptic discharges using high-density EEG. We have investigated a novel approach for directly imaging sources of seizures and interictal spikes from high density EEG...

Data from: Consequences of aboveground invasion by non-native plants into restored vernal pools do not prompt changes in belowground processes

Amber Churchill & Akasha Faist
Given the frequent overlap between biological plant invasion and ecological restoration efforts it is important to investigate their interactions to sustain desirable plant communities and modify long-term legacies both above and belowground. To address this relationship, we used natural reference, invaded, and constructed vernal pools in the Central Valley of California to examine potential changes in direct and indirect plant effects on soils associated with biological invasion and active restoration ecosystem disturbances. Our results showed...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

Exploring whole-genome duplicate gene retention with complex genetic interaction analysis

Elena Kuzmin, Benjamin VanderSluis, Alex N. Nguyen Ba, Wen Wang, Elizabeth N. Koch, Matej Usaj, Anton Khmelinskii, Mojca Mattiazzi Usaj, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Oren Kraus, Amy Tresenrider, Michael Pryszlak, Ming-Che Hu, Brenda Varriano, Michael Costanzo, Michael Knop, Alan Moses, Chad L. Myers, Brenda J. Andrews & Charles Boone
Whole-genome duplication has played a central role in genome evolution of many organisms, including the human genome. Most duplicated genes are eliminated and factors that influence the retention of persisting duplicates remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a systematic complex genetic interaction analysis with yeast paralogs derived from the whole-genome duplication event. Mapping digenic interactions for a deletion mutant of each paralog and trigenic interactions for the double mutant provides insight into their roles and...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Natural and sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons: a quantitative genetic analysis

Jacob D. Berson, Marlene Zuk & Leigh W. Simmons
While the reproductive benefits of sexual displays have been widely studied, we have relatively limited evidence of the fitness costs associated with most display traits. Insect cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles are sexually selected traits that also protect against desiccation. These two functions are thought to oppose each other, with investment in particular compounds believed to increase attractiveness at the expense of compounds that protect against water-loss. We investigated this potential trade-off in a quantitative genetic...

Data from: Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

Bryce A. Richardson, Justin T. Page, Prabin Bajgain, Stewart C. Sanderson & Joshua A. Udall
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation in diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, or as autotetraploids of diploid subspecies tridentata and vaseyana. Few details are available as to how these tetraploids are formed or how they are related to diploid subspecies. METHODS: We used...

Data from: Mixed-source reintroductions lead to outbreeding depression in second-generation descendents of a native North American fish

David D Huff, Loren M Miller, Christopher J Chizinski & Bruce Vondracek
Reintroductions are commonly employed to preserve intraspecific biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. However, reintroduced populations are frequently smaller and more geographically isolated than native populations. Mixing genetically divergent sources is often proposed to attenuate potentially low genetic diversity in reintroduced populations that may result from small effective population sizes. However, a possible negative tradeoff for mixing sources is outbreeding depression in hybrid offspring. We examined the consequences of mixed-source reintroductions on several fitness surrogates at nine...

Data from: The early diversification history of didelphid marsupials: a window into South America’s “Splendid Isolation”

Sharon A. Jansa, F. Keith Barker & Robert S. Voss
The geological record of South American mammals is spatially biased because productive fossil sites are concentrated at high latitudes. As a result, the history of mammalian diversification in Amazonia and other tropical biomes is largely unknown. Here we report diversification analyses based on a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of opossums (Didelphidae), a species-rich clade of mostly tropical marsupials descended from a Late Oligocene common ancestor. Optimizations of habitat and geography on this phylogeny suggest that (1)...

Data from: Trace DNA from insect skins: a comparison of five extraction protocols and direct PCR on chironomid pupal exuviae

Petra Kranzfelder, Torbjørn Ekrem & Elisabeth Stur
Insect skins (exuviae) are of extracellular origin and shed during moulting. The skins do not contain cells or DNA themselves, but epithelial cells and other cell-based structures might accidentally attach as they are shed. This source of trace DNA can be sufficient for PCR amplification and sequencing of target genes and aid in species identification through DNA barcoding or association of unknown life stages. Species identification is essential for biomonitoring programs, as species vary in...

Data from: Attracting Common Carp to a bait site with food reveals strong positive relationships between fish density, feeding activity, environmental DNA, and sex pheromone release that could be used in invasive fish management

Ratna Ghosal, Jessica J. Eichmiller, Bruce A. Witthuhn & Peter W. Sorensen
Measurement of environmental DNA (eDNA) is becoming a common technique to survey for rare and invasive fish due to its sensitivity and specificity. However, its utility is limited by an incomplete understanding of factors governing its sources and fates. Failure to detect eDNA is especially difficult to interpret so surveillance techniques often collect large numbers of samples across broad regions. If, however, fish could be reliably attracted to a single location where their eDNA could...

Data from: Role of climate and competitors in limiting fitness across range edges of an annual plant

John Stanton-Geddes, Peter Tiffin & Ruth G. Shaw
It is often assumed that the geographic distributions of species match their climatic tolerances, but this assumption is not frequently tested. Moreover, few studies examine the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors for limiting species ranges. We combined multiple approaches to assess the extent to which fitness of a widespread native annual legume, Chamaecrista fasciculata decreases at and beyond its northern and western range edges, and how this is influenced by the presence of...

Data from: Bee communities along a prairie restoration chronosequence: similar abundance and diversity, distinct composition

Rebecca K. Tonietto, John S. Ascher & Daniel J. Larkin
Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the Midwestern USA, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to...

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