970 Works

Data from: A comparative analysis reveals little evidence for niche conservatism in aquatic macrophytes among four areas on two continents

Janne Alahuhta, Frauke Ecke, Lucinda B. Johnson, Laura Sass & Jani Heino
One of the most intriguing questions in current ecology is the extent to which the ecological niches of species are conserved in space and time. Niche conservatism has mostly been studied using coarse-scale data of species' distributions, although it is at the local habitat scales where species' responses to ecological variables primarily take place. We investigated the extent to which niches of aquatic macrophytes are conserved among four study regions (i.e. Finland, Sweden and the...

Data from: Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula

Concetta Burgarella, Nathalie Chantret, Laurène Gay, Jean-Marie Prosperi, Maxime Bonhomme, Peter Tiffin, Nevin D. Young & Joelle Ronfort
Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time and in many species flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large M. truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both...

Data from: Adaptation to elevated CO2 in different biodiversity contexts

Elizabeth J. Kleynhans, Sarah P. Otto, Peter B. Reich & Mark Vellend
In the absence of migration, species persistence depends on adaption to a changing environment, but whether and how adaptation to global change is altered by community diversity is not understood. Community diversity may prevent, enhance or alter how species adapt to changing conditions by influencing population sizes, genetic diversity and/or the fitness landscape experienced by focal species. We tested the impact of community diversity on adaptation by performing a reciprocal transplant experiment on grasses that...

Data from: Resilience of tropical dry forests – a meta-analysis of changes in species diversity and composition during secondary succession

Géraldine Derroire, Patricia Balvanera, Carolina Castellanos-Castro, Guillaume Decocq, Deborah K. Kennard, Edwin Lebrija-Trejos, Jorge A. Leiva, Per-Christer Odén, Jennifer S. Powers, Víctor Rico-Gray, Mulualem Tigabu & John R. Healey
Assessing the recovery of species diversity and composition after major disturbance is key to understanding the resilience of tropical forests through successional processes, and its importance for biodiversity conservation. Despite the specific abiotic environment and ecological processes of tropical dry forests, secondary succession has received less attention in this biome than others and changes in species diversity and composition have never been synthesised in a systematic and quantitative review. This study aims to assess in...

Data from: Bayesian estimates of male and female African lion mortality for future use in population management

Julia A. Barthold, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Craig Packer & Fernando Colchero
The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. Various demographic models evaluate consequences of hunting on lion population growth. However, none of the models use unbiased estimates of male age-specific mortality because such estimates do not exist. Until now, estimating mortality from resighting records...

Data from: Covariation between the physiological and behavioral components of pathogen transmission: host heterogeneity determines epidemic outcomes

Lauren A. White, James D. Forester & Meggan E. Craft
Although heterogeneity in contact rate, physiology, and behavioral response to infection have all been empirically demonstrated in host–pathogen systems, little is known about how interactions between individual variation in behavior and physiology scale-up to affect pathogen transmission at a population level. The objective of this study is to evaluate how covariation between the behavioral and physiological components of transmission might affect epidemic outcomes in host populations. We tested the consequences of contact rate covarying with...

Data from: Parasite infection induces size-dependent host dispersal: consequences for parasite persistence

Akira Terui, Keita Ooue, Hirokazu Urabe & Futoshi Nakamura
Host dispersal is now recognized as a key predictor of the landscape-level persistence and expansion of parasites. However, current theories treat post-infection dispersal propensities as a fixed trait, and the plastic nature of host’s responses to parasite infection has long been underappreciated. Here, we present a mark-recapture experiment in a single-host parasite system (larval parasites of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera laevis and its salmonid fish host Oncorhynchus masou masou) and provide the first empirical evidence...

Data from: Edaphic factors, successional status, and functional traits drive habitat associations of trees in naturally regenerating tropical dry forests

Leland K. Werden, Justin M. Becknell & Jennifer S. Powers
1. Many studies have examined individual environmental drivers of tropical tree species distributions, but edaphic and successional gradients have not been considered simultaneously. Furthermore, determining how functional traits influence species distributions along these gradients may help to elucidate mechanisms behind community assembly. 2. To assess the influence of environmental filtering on tropical dry forest (TDF) tree species distributions we used forest inventory data from sites with large edaphic and successional gradients in NW Costa Rica....

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Variation in home-field advantage and ability in leaf litter decomposition across successional gradients

G.F. Ciska Veen, Ashley D. Keiser, Wim H. Van Der Putten, David A. Wardle & G. F. Ciska Veen
1. It is increasingly recognized that interactions between plants and soil (a)biotic conditions can influence local decomposition processes. For example, decomposer communities may become specialized in breaking down litter of plant species that they are associated with, resulting in accelerated decomposition, known as ‘home-field advantage’ (HFA). Also, soils can vary inherently in their capacity to degrade organic compounds, known as ‘ability’. However, we have a poor understanding how environmental conditions drive the occurrence of HFA...

Data from: The role of diversification in the continental scale community assembly of the American oaks (Quercus)

Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Shan Kothari, José Eduardo Meireles, Matthew A. Kaproth, Paul S. Manos & Andrew L. Hipp
Premise of the study: Evolutionary and biogeographic history, including past environmental change and diversification processes, are likely to have influenced the expansion, migration, and extinction of populations, creating evolutionary legacy effects that influence regional species pools and the composition of communities. We consider the consequences of the diversification process in shaping trait evolution and assembly of oak-dominated communities throughout the continental U.S. Methods: Within the US oaks, we tested for phylogenetic and functional trait patterns...

Data from: Resilience of seed production to a severe El Niño‐induced drought across functional groups and dispersal types

Michael J. O'Brien, Daniel Peréz-Aviles & Jennifer S. Powers
More frequent and severe El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) are causing episodic periods of decreased rainfall. Although the effects of these ENSO-induced droughts on tree growth and mortality have been well studied, the impacts on other demographic rates such as reproduction are less well known. We use a four-year seed rain dataset encompassing the most severe ENSO-induced drought in more than 30 years to assess the resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery) of the seed composition...

Data from: Activation recovery interval imaging of premature ventricular contraction

Ting Yang, Long Yu, Qi Jin, Liqun Wu & Bin He
Dispersion of ventricular repolarization due to abnormal activation contributes to the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. However, the global pattern of repolarization is difficult to assess clinically. Activation recovery interval (ARI) has been used to understand the properties of ventricular repolarization. In this study, we developed an ARI imaging technique to noninvasively reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) ARI maps in 10 premature ventricular contraction (PVC) patients and evaluated the results with the endocardial ARI maps recorded by a...

Data from: Little plant, big city: a test of adaptation to urban environments in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

Amanda J. Gorton, David A. Moeller & Peter Tiffin
A full understanding of how cities shape adaptation requires characterizing genetically-based phenotypic and fitness differences between urban and rural populations under field conditions. We used a reciprocal transplant experiment with the native plant common ragweed, (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), and found that urban and rural populations have diverged in flowering time, a trait that strongly affects fitness. Although urban populations flowered earlier than rural populations, plants growing in urban field sites flowered later than plants in rural...

Data from: Systematic analysis of complex genetic interactions

Elena Kuzmin, Benjamin VanderSluis, Wen Wang, Guihong Tan, Raamesh Deshpande, Yiqun Chen, Matej Usaj, Attila Balint, Mojca Mattiazzi Usaj, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Elizabeth N. Koch, Carles Pons, Andrius Jonas Dagilis, Michael Pryszlak, Jason Zi Yang Wang, Julia Hanchard, Margot Riggi, Kaicong Xu, Hamed Heydari, Bryan-Joseph San Luis, Ermira Shuteriqi, Hongwei Zhu, Nydia Van Dyk, Sara Sharifpoor, Michael Costanzo … & Chad L. Myers
To systematically explore complex genetic interactions, we constructed ~200,000 yeast triple mutants and scored negative trigenic interactions. We selected double-mutant query genes across a broad spectrum of biological processes, spanning a range of quantitative features of the global digenic interaction network and tested for a genetic interaction with a third mutation. Trigenic interactions often occurred among functionally related genes, and essential genes were hubs on the trigenic network. Despite their functional enrichment, trigenic interactions tended...

Data from: Cracking the case: seed traits and phylogeny predict time to germination in prairie restoration species

Rebecca S. Barak, Taran M. Lichtenberger, Alyssa Wellman-Houde, Andrea T. Kramer & Daniel J. Larkin
1. Traits are important for understanding how plant communities assemble and function, providing a common currency for studying ecological processes across species, locations, and habitat types. However, most studies relating species traits to community assembly rely upon vegetative traits of mature plants. Seed traits, which are understudied relative to whole-plant traits, are key to understanding assembly of plant communities. This is particularly true in restored communities, which are typically started from seed, making germination a...

Web Scale Discovery and Resource Usage at the University of California, Berkeley

Lisa Ngo, Ian Knabe & Cody Hennesy
Dataset contains monthly usage data for select ejournal platforms, ebook platforms, and abstract & indexing databases at UC Berkeley from July 2013 through June 2017.

Data from: Here and there, but not everywhere: repeated loss of uncoupling protein 1 in amniotes

Suzanne McGaugh & Tonia S. Schwartz
Endothermy is an evolutionary innovation in eutherian mammals and birds. In eutherian mammals, UCP1 is a key protein in adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). Although ucp1 arose early in the vertebrate lineage, the loss of ucp1 was previously documented in several reptile species (including birds). Here we determine that ucp1 was lost at the base of the reptile lineage, as we fail to find ucp1 in every major reptile lineage. Furthermore, though UCP1 plays a key...

Data from: An auditory illusion reveals the role of streaming in the temporal misallocation of perceptual objects

Anahita H. Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J. Oxenham & Shihab A. Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's ‘octave illusion’, in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high–low–high … and a low–high–low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of...

Data from: Lianas reduce community-level canopy tree reproduction in a Panamanian forest

María M. García León, Laura Martínez Izquierdo, Felipe Nery Arantes Mello, Jennifer S. Powers & Stefan A. Schnitzer
Lianas are a key component of tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, reducing tree recruitment, growth and survival. One of the most important potential outcomes of liana competition is the reduction of tree reproduction; however, no previous study has experimentally determined the effects of lianas on tree reproduction beyond a single tree species. We used a large-scale liana removal experiment to quantify the effect of lianas on community-level canopy and understorey tree and...

Data from: Density dependence in demography and dispersal generates fluctuating invasion speeds

Lauren L. Sullivan, Bingtuan Li, Tom E. X. Miller, Michael G. Neubert & Allison K. Shaw
Density dependence plays an important role in population regulation and is known to generate temporal fluctuations in population density. However, the ways in which density dependence affects spatial population processes, such as species invasions, are less understood. Although classical ecological theory suggests that invasions should advance at a constant speed, empirical work is illuminating the highly variable nature of biological invasions, which often exhibit nonconstant spreading speeds, even in simple, controlled settings. Here, we explore...

Data from: Balancing selection maintains sex determining alleles in multiple-locus complementary sex determination

Jerome J. Weis, Paul J. Ode & George E. Heimpel
Hymenopteran species in which sex is determined through a haplo-diploid mechanism known as complementary sex determination (CSD) are vulnerable to a unique form of inbreeding depression. Diploids heterozygous at one or more CSD loci develop into females but diploids homozygous at all loci develop into diploid males, which are generally sterile or inviable. Species with multiple polymorphic CSD loci (ml-CSD) may have lower rates of diploid male production than species with a single CSD locus...

Data from: Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

Nicky Rollings, Emily J. Uhrig, Randolf W. Krohmer, Heather L. Waye, Robert T. Mason, Mats Olsson, Camilla M. Whittington, Christopher R. Friesen & Randolph W. Krohmer
Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between...

Data from: Food webs obscure the strength of plant diversity effects on primary productivity

Eric W. Seabloom, Linda Kinkel, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yann Hautier, Rebecca A. Montgomery & David Tilman
Plant diversity experiments generally find that increased diversity causes increased productivity; however, primary productivity is typically measured in the presence of a diverse food web, including pathogens, mutualists and herbivores. If food web impacts on productivity vary with plant diversity, as predicted by both theoretical and empirical studies, estimates of the effect of plant diversity on productivity may be biased. We experimentally removed arthropods, foliar fungi and soil fungi from the longest-running plant diversity experiment....

Data from: Validating genome-wide association candidates controlling quantitative variation in nodulation

Shaun J. Curtin, Peter Tiffin, Joseph Guhlin, Diana I. Trujillo, Liana T. Burghart, Paul Atkins, Nicholas J. Baltes, Roxanne Denny, Daniel F. Voytas, Robert M. Stupar, Nevin Dale Young & Liana T. Burghardt
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies offer the opportunity to identify genes that contribute to naturally occurring variation in quantitative traits. However, GWA relies exclusively on statistical association, so functional validation is necessary to make strong claims about gene function. We used a combination of gene-disruption platforms (Tnt1 retrotransposons, hairpin RNA-interference constructs, and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases) together with randomized, well-replicated experiments to evaluate the function of genes that an earlier GWA study in Medicago truncatula had identified as...

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