970 Works

Data from: Noninvasive electroencephalogram based control of a robotic arm for reach and grasp tasks

Jianjun Meng, Shuying Zhang, Angeliki Bekyo, Jaron Olsoe, Bryan Baxter & Bin He
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13...

Data from: Butterflies do not alter conspecific avoidance in response to variation in density

Sarah Jaumann & Emilie C. Snell-Rood
High conspecific densities are associated with increased levels of intraspecific competition and a variety of negative effects on performance. However, changes in life history strategy could compensate for some of these effects. For instance, females in crowded conditions often have fewer total offspring, but they may invest more in each one. Such investment could include the production of larger offspring, more time spent engaging in parental care, or more choosy decisions about where offspring are...

Data from: Solar-powered flow-through system for aquatic field studies

Connor Neill, Sehoya Cotner & Brian Wisenden
1 Laboratory-based research provides great control over individual experimental replicates, but lacks the ecological realism of field work. Therefore, results from lab-based work may not reflect natural processes. Field-based studies have the advantage of ecological realism but often lack control over environmental variables and have low rates of within-experiment replication and as a result can have low statistical power to detect effects. 2 Here, we present a method for creating a standardized system for experimental...

Data from: Ecological and functional effects of fungal endophytes on wood decomposition

Lauren C. Cline, Jonathan S. Schilling, Jon Menke, Emily Groenhof & Peter G. Kennedy
1.Despite the central role of saprotrophic fungi in wood decomposition and terrestrial carbon cycling, the diversity and functioning of wood endophytes (i.e., fungi that asymptomatically colonize living plant tissue) on decay remains poorly understood. 2.In a four-year field experiment in a boreal forest in the upper midwestern United States, we investigated whether endophytes influenced fungal community structure and subsequent wood decomposition via priority effects. We compared decay of sterilized and non-sterilized birch (Betula papyrifera) logs...

Data from: Habitat restoration benefits wild bees: a meta-analysis

Rebecca K. Tonietto & Daniel J. Larkin
1.Pollinator conservation is of increasing interest in light of managed honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines, and declines in some species of wild bees. Much work has gone into understanding the effects of habitat enhancements in agricultural systems on wild bee abundance, richness, and pollination services. However, the effects of ecological restoration targeting “natural” ecological endpoints (e.g., restoring former agricultural fields to historic vegetation types or improving degraded natural lands) on wild bees have received relatively little...

Data from: American black bears perceive the risks of crossing roads

Mark A. Ditmer, Spencer J. Rettler, John R. Fieberg, Paul A. Iaizzo, Timothy G. Laske, Karen V. Noyce & David L. Garshelis
Roadways may negatively impact wildlife species through vehicular-related mortality and spatial displacement or obstruction. Here we investigated physiological responses, which provide insights into the animal’s perception of its environment. We deployed GPS-collars in combination with cardiac biologgers on American black bears (Ursus americanus; 18 bear-years) in areas with differing road densities across Minnesota, USA. We tested whether bears exhibited acute stress responses, as defined by significant increases in heart rate (HR), associated with road crossings....

Data from: Group density, disease, and season shape territory size and overlap of social carnivores

Ellen Brandell, Nicholas Fountain-Jones, Marie Gilbertson, Paul Cross, Peter Hudson, Douglas Smith, Daniel Stahler, Craig Packer & Meggan Craft
1. The spatial organization of a population can influence the spread of information, behaviour, and pathogens. Territory size and territory overlap, components of spatial organization, provide key information as these metrics may be indicators of habitat quality, resource dispersion, contact rates, and environmental risk (e.g., indirectly transmitted pathogens). Furthermore, sociality and behaviour can also shape space use, and subsequently, how space use and habitat quality together impact demography. 2. Our study aims to identify factors...

An effect size statistical framework for investigating sexual dimorphism in non-avian dinosaurs and other extinct taxa

Evan Saitta, Maximilian Stockdale, Nicholas Longrich, Vincent Bonhomme, Michael Benton, Innes Cuthill & Peter Makovicky
Despite reports of sexual dimorphism in extinct taxa, such claims in non-avian dinosaurs have been underrepresented recently (~the last decade) and often criticized. Since dimorphism is widespread in sexually reproducing organisms today, underrepresentation might suggest either methodological shortcomings or that this diverse group exhibited highly unusual reproductive biology. Univariate significance testing, especially for bimodality, is ineffective and prone to false negatives. Species recognition and mutual sexual selection hypotheses, therefore, may not be required to explain...

Infection state can affect host migratory decisions

Naven Narayanan Venkatanarayanan, Allison K. Shaw & Sandra Ann Binning
Organisms across a wide range of taxa use migration as a strategy to avoid, reduce or recover from parasitic infection. Previous work has identified three different processes by which migration can help reduce infection risk and/or costs: migratory escape from infection, migratory culling of infected individuals, and migratory recovery from infection. However, most theoretical modelling of host migration in response to infection assumes that individuals have a single strategy during both infected and susceptible states,...

Biogeographic differences in plant-soil biota relationships contribute to the invasion exotic range expansion of Verbascum thapsus

Julia Dieskau, Helge Bruelheide, Alexandra Erfmeier & Jessica Gutknecht
Exotic plant species can evolve adaptations to environmental conditions in the exotic range. Furthermore, soil biota can foster exotic spread in the absence of negative soil pathogen-plant interactions or because of increased positive soil biota-plant feedbacks in the exotic range. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary dimension of plant-soil biota interactions when comparing native and introduced ranges. To assess the role of soil microbes for rapid evolution in plant invasion, we subjected Verbascum thapsus,...

Data and code from: Vector demography, dispersal, and the spread of disease: Experimental epidemics under elevated resource supply

Alexander Strauss, Jeremiah Henning, Anita Porath-Krause, Ashley Asmus, Allison Shaw, Elizabeth Borer & Eric Seabloom
1. The spread of many diseases depends on the demography and dispersal of arthropod vectors. Classic epidemiological theory typically ignores vector dynamics and instead makes the simplifying assumption of frequency-dependent transmission. Yet vector ecology may be critical for understanding the spread of disease over space and time and how disease dynamics respond to environmental change. 2. Here, we ask how environmental change shapes vector demography and dispersal, and how these traits of vectors govern the...

Experimental alluvial-river and landsliding response to base-level fall

Andrew D. Wickert, Olivia P Beaulieu, Elizabeth D Witte & Stefanie Tofelde
We observed the incisional response of an alluvial river to base-level fall. We conducted the experiment in a 3.9 × 2.4 × 0.4 m box that we filled with uniform 0.140±0.04 mm sand. We dropped base level by lowering the elevation of an "ocean" pool at the river outlet. As the initial condition, we cut a 10±2 cm wide channel to a steadily increasing depth, from 3±0.5 cm at the inlet, where we supplied water...

Data from: Comparative genomics reveals high rates of horizontal transfer and strong purifying selection on rhizobial symbiosis genes

Brendan Epstein & Peter Tiffin
Horizontal transfer (HT) alters the repertoire of symbiosis genes in rhizobial genomes and may play an important role in the on-going evolution of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. To gain insight into the extent of HT of symbiosis genes with different functional roles (nodulation, N-fixation, host benefit, and symbiont fitness), we conducted comparative genomic and selection analyses of the full genome sequences from 27 rhizobial genomes. We find that symbiosis genes experience high rates of HT among...

Data from: Invasion complexity at large spatial scales is an emergent property of interactions among landscape characteristics and invader traits

Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S. Davis, Nicholas R. Jordan & James D. Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and...

Data from: Pathogens manipulate the preference of vectors, slowing disease spread in a multi-host system

Lauren G. Shoemaker, Evelyn Hayhurst, Christopher P. Weiss-Lehman, Alexander T. Strauss, Anita Porath-Krause, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom & Allison K. Shaw
The spread of vector‐borne pathogens depends on a complex set of interactions among pathogen, vector, and host. In single‐host systems, pathogens can induce changes in vector preferences for infected vs. healthy hosts. Yet it is unclear if pathogens also induce changes in vector preference among host species, and how changes in vector behaviour alter the ecological dynamics of disease spread. Here, we couple multi‐host preference experiments with a novel model of vector preference general to...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of stalk biomass and anatomical traits in maize

Mona Mazaheri, Marlies Heckwolf, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joseph L. Gage, Brett Burdo, Sven Heckwolf, Kerrie Barry, Anna Lipzen, Camila Bastos Ribeiro, Thomas J. Y. Kono, Heidi F. Kaeppler, Edgar P. Spalding, Candice N. Hirsch, C. Robin Buell, Natalia De Leon & Shawn M. Kaeppler
Background: Maize stover is an important source of crop residues and a promising sustainable energy source in the United States. Stalk is the main component of stover, representing about half of stover dry weight. Characterization of genetic determinants of stalk traits provide a foundation to optimize maize stover as a biofuel feedstock. We investigated maize natural genetic variation in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to detect candidate genes associated with traits related to stalk biomass (stalk...

Data from: The downed and dead wood inventory of forests in the United States

Christopher W. Woodall, Vicente J. Monleon, Shawn Fraver, Matthew B. Russell, Mark H. Hatfield, John L. Campbell & Grant M. Domke
The quantity and condition of downed dead wood (DDW) is emerging as a major factor governing forest ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling, fire behavior, and tree regeneration. Despite this, systematic inventories of DDW are sparse if not absent across major forest biomes. The Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the United States (US) Forest Service has conducted an annual DDW inventory on all coterminous US forest land since 2002 (~1 plot per 38,850 ha),...

Data from: Invasive species removal increases species and phylogenetic diversity of wetland plant communities

Shane C. Lishawa, Beth A. Lawrence, Dennis A. Albert, Daniel J. Larkin & Nancy C. Tuchman
Plant invasions result in biodiversity losses and altered ecological functions, though quantifying loss of multiple ecosystem functions presents a research challenge. Plant phylogenetic diversity correlates with a range of ecosystem functions, and can be used as a proxy for ecosystem multifunctionality. Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands are ideal systems for testing invasive species management effects because they support diverse biological communities, provide numerous ecosystem services, and are increasingly dominated by invasive macrophytes. Invasive cattails are...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Data from: Land use change increases climatic vulnerability of migratory birds: insights from integrated population modelling

Qing Zhao, Todd W. Arnold, James H. Devries, David W. Howerter, Robert G. Clark & Mitch D. Weegman
1. Knowledge of land use patterns that could affect animal population resiliency or vulnerability to environmental threats such as climate change is essential, yet the interactive effects of land use and climate on demography across space and time can be difficult to study. This is particularly true for migratory species, which rely on different landscapes throughout the year. 2. Unlike most North American migratory waterfowl, populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta; hereafter pintails) have not...

Data from: Social living simultaneously increases infection risk and decreases the cost of infection

Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Katherine E.L. Worsley-Tonks & Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks
Elevated parasite infection risk is considered to be a near universal cost of social living. However, living in groups may also provide benefits that reduce the negative impacts of infection. These potential ‘tolerance’ benefits of living socially are theoretically possible, but have rarely been described. In this study, we used an anthelmintic treatment experiment in wild Grant’s gazelles (Nanger granti), who are commonly infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), to show that social living confers both...

Data from: Quantifying how constraints limit the diversity of viable routes to adaptation

Samuel Yeaman, Aleeza C. Gerstein, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Michael C. Whitlock & Sam Yeaman
Convergent adaptation can occur at the genome scale when independently evolving lineages use the same genes to respond to similar selection pressures. These patterns provide insights into the factors that facilitate or constrain the diversity of genetic responses that contribute to adaptive evolution. A first step in studying such factors is to quantify the observed amount of repeatability relative to expectations under a null hypothesis. Here, we formulate a novel metric to quantify the constraints...

Data from: Expression of additive genetic variance for fitness in a population of partridge pea in two field sites

Seema Nayan Sheth, Mason W. Kulbaba, Rachel E. Pain & Ruth G. Shaw
Despite the importance of adaptation in shaping biological diversity over many generations, little is known about populations’ capacities to adapt at any particular time. Theory predicts that a population's rate of ongoing adaptation is the ratio of its additive genetic variance for fitness, VA (W), to its mean absolute fitness, W̅. We conducted a transplant study to quantify W̅ and standing VA (W) for a population of the annual legume Chamaecrista fasciculata in one field...

Data from: Species-specific spatiotemporal patterns of leopard, lion and tiger attacks on humans

Craig Packer, Shweta Shivakumar, Vidya Athreya, Meggan E. Craft, Harshawardhen Dhanwatey, Poonam Dhanwatey, Bhim Gurung, Anup Joshi, Hadas Kushnir, John D.C. Linnell, Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones & John D. C. Linnell
1. Large carnivores of the genus Panthera can pose serious threats to public safety. Although the annual number of attacks on humans is rare compared to livestock depredation, such incidents undermine popular support for wildlife conservation and require immediate responses to protect human life. 2. We used a space-time scan method to perform a novel spatiotemporal analysis of 908 attacks on humans by lions, leopards and tigers to estimate the risks of further attacks in...

Recovery from infection is more likely to favor the evolution of migration than social escape from infection

Allison Shaw & Sandra Binning
1. Pathogen and parasite infections are increasingly recognized as powerful drivers of animal movement, including migration. Yet, infection-related migration benefits can result from a combination of environmental and/or social conditions, which can be difficult to disentangle. 2. Here, we focus on two infection-related mechanisms that can favor migration: moving to escape versus recover from infection. By directly comparing the evolution of migration in response to each mechanism, we can evaluate the likely importance of changing...

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  • University of Minnesota
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