Data from: Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cottonAdam Ralph Zeilinger, Dawn M. Olson & David A. Andow
The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions, has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern United States, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug...
Data from: Optimizing techniques to capture and extract environmental DNA for detection and quantification of fishJessica J. Eichmiller, Loren M. Miller & Peter W. Sorensen
Few studies have examined capture and extraction methods for environmental DNA (eDNA) to identify techniques optimal for detection and quantification. In this study, precipitation, centrifugation and filtration eDNA capture methods and six commercially available DNA extraction kits were evaluated for their ability to detect and quantify common carp (Cyprinus carpio) mitochondrial DNA using quantitative PCR in a series of laboratory experiments. Filtration methods yielded the most carp eDNA, and a glass fibre (GF) filter performed...
Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship,...
Data from: Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest treesJohn B. Vincent, George D. Weiblen & Georgiana May
Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea....
Species' geographic ranges vary enormously, and even closest relatives may differ in range size by several orders of magnitude. With data from hundreds of species spanning 20 genera in 15 families, we show that plant species that autonomously reproduce via self-pollination consistently have larger geographic ranges than their close relatives that generally require two parents for reproduction. Further analyses strongly implicate autonomous self-fertilisation in causing this relationship, as it is not driven by traits such...
Data from: An indexed, mapped mutant library enables reverse genetics studies of biological processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiXiaobo Li, Ru Zhang, Weronika Patena, Spencer S. Gang, Sean R. Blum, Nina Ivanova, Rebecca Yue, Jacob M. Robertson, Paul A. Lefebvre, Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon, Arthur R. Grossman & Martin C. Jonikas
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a leading single-celled model for dissecting biological processes in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, its usefulness has been limited by difficulties in obtaining mutants in genes of interest. To allow generation of large numbers of mapped mutants, we developed high-throughput methods which: (1) Enable easy propagation on agar and cryogenic maintenance of tens of thousands of C. reinhardtii strains; (2) Identify mutant insertion sites and physical coordinates in such collections; (3)...
Geckos are the only major lizard group consisting mostly of nocturnal species. Nocturnality is presumed to have evolved early in gecko evolution and geckos possess numerous adaptations to functioning in low light and at low temperatures. However, not all gecko species are nocturnal and most diurnal geckos have their own distinct adaptations to living in warmer, sunlit environments. We reconstructed the evolution of gecko activity patterns using a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny. Our results provide...
Comparative analyses of central molecular networks uncover variation that can be targeted by biomedical research to develop insights and interventions into disease. The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) molecular network regulates metabolism, growth, and aging. With the development of new molecular resources for reptiles, we show that genes in IIS/TOR are rapidly evolving within amniotes (mammals and reptiles, including birds). Additionally, we find evidence of natural selection that diversified the hormone-receptor binding relationships...
Data from: Raccoon contact networks predict seasonal susceptibility to rabies outbreaks and limitations of vaccinationJennifer J. H. Reynolds, Ben T. Hirsch, Stanley D. Gehrt & Meggan E. Craft
1. Infectious disease transmission often depends on the contact structure of host populations. Although it is often challenging to capture the contact structure in wild animals, new technology has enabled biologists to obtain detailed temporal information on wildlife social contacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of raccoon contact patterns on rabies spread using network modelling. 2. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) play an important role in the maintenance of rabies in the United States. It...
Premise of the study: Flower color is one of the best-studied floral traits in terms of its genetic basis and ecological significance, yet few studies have examined the processes that shape its evolution across deep timescales. Advances in comparative methods along with larger phylogenies for floral radiations offer new opportunities for investigating the macroevolution of flower color. Methods: We examined the tempo and mode of flower color evolution in four clades (Antirrhineae, Iochrominae, Loeselieae, Quamoclit)...
Memory is among the most important and neglected forces that shapes animal movement patterns. Research on the movement-memory interface is crucial to understand how animals use spatial learning to navigate across space because memory-biased navigation is directly linked to animals’ space use and home range behaviour; however, because memory cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to account for. Here, we incorporated spatial memory into Step Selection Functions (SSF) to understand how resource selection and...
Data from: Plasticity in social communication and its implications for the colonization of novel habitatsTerry J. Ord, Grace K. Charles, Meredith Palmer & Judy A. Stamps
Behavioral plasticity is expected to facilitate the colonization of novel habitats by allowing populations to respond rapidly to abrupt environmental change. We studied contextual plasticity—a form of plasticity that allows an immediate phenotypic response to stimuli—in the territorial communication of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards and considered the role it might play in facilitating colonization. In these lizards, the detection of territorial visual displays by receivers is acutely dependent on fluctuating levels of visual noise from...
University of Minnesota37
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute4
University of California System3
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor2
United States Department of Agriculture2
University of Wisconsin-Madison2
Western Sydney University2