72 Works

Data from: Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Elizabeth T. Borer, Jonathan M. Chase, John Downing, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Christopher T. Filstrup, W. Stanley Harpole, Dorothee Hodapp, Stefano Larsen, Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Eric W. Seabloom, Dedmer B. Van De Waal, Alexey B. Ryabov & John A. Downing
1. Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is far from trivial, however, as recently documented by meta-analyses which report little if any net change of local species richness through time. 2. Here, we summarize several limitations of species richness as a metric...

Data from: Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity

Bo Zhang, Alex Kula, Keenan M.L. Mack, Lu Zhai, Arrix L. Ryce, Wei-Ming Ni, Donald L. DeAngelis & J. David Van Dyken
A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial...

Data from: Big groups attract bad eggs: brood parasitism correlates with but does not cause cooperative breeding

Michael T. Wells & F. Keith Barker
There has been great interest in how complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding evolve and are maintained; however, it is still unclear what exact phenomena trigger the transition to cooperative breeding. Recent work in birds has suggested a number of factors associated with cooperative breeding, including environmental uncertainty and brood parasitism. One recent study found a correlation between brood parasitism and cooperative breeding, but it examined this relationship from a geographically restricted perspective. We...

Data from: Range expansion and increasing Borrelia burgdorferi infection of the tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iowa, 1990-2013

Jonathan D. Oliver, Steve W. Bennett, Lorenza Beati & Lyric C. Bartholomay
A passive surveillance program monitored ticks submitted by the public in Iowa from 1990–2013. Submitted ticks were identified to species and life stage, and Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi. An average of 2.6 of Iowa’s 99 counties submitted first reports of I. scapularis per year over the surveillance period, indicating expansion of this tick species across the state. The proportion of vector ticks infected by B....

Data from: Survey of haemosporidian parasites in resident and migrant game birds of Illinois

Kendall L. Annetti, Nelda A. Rivera, John E. Andrews & Nohra Mateus-Pinilla
Haemosporidian parasites are globally distributed in avian species, capable of leading to decreased reproductive success, weakness and mortality. Haemosporidian parasites that affect reproduction and population growth are of interest to bird conservation groups and to organizations concerned with the health and immunological status of avian populations. Haemosporidian infection data are not always available for some avian species in specific regions yet. These data provides the starting points to evaluate geographical and temporal changes in the...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Evaluating population viability and efficacy of conservation management using integrated population models

Sarah P. Saunders, Francesca J. Cuthbert & Elise F. Zipkin
Predicting population responses to environmental conditions or management scenarios is a fundamental challenge for conservation. Proper consideration of demographic, environmental and parameter uncertainties is essential for projecting population trends and optimal conservation strategies. We developed a coupled integrated population model-Bayesian population viability analysis to assess the (1) impact of demographic rates (survival, fecundity, immigration) on past population dynamics; (2) population viability 10 years into the future; and (3) efficacy of possible management strategies for the...

Data from: Specialization and accuracy of host-searching butterflies in complex and simple environments

Meredith K. Steck & Emilie C. Snell-Rood
Populations that have access to a variety of resources are often composed of individuals that specialize on different subsets of resources. Understanding the behavioral mechanisms that drive such individual specialization will help us predict the strength of this specialization across different environments. Here, we explore the idea that individual specialization may be a consequence of constraints on an individual’s ability to process information. Because many environments contain an overwhelming number of resources and associated stimuli,...

Data from: Deactivation in the posterior mid-cingulate cortex reflects perceptual transitions during binocular rivalry: evidence from simultaneous EEG-fMRI

Abhrajeet V. Roy, Keith W. Jamison, Sheng He, Stephen A. Engel & Bin He
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon in which perception spontaneously shifts between two different images that are dichoptically presented to the viewer. By elucidating the cortical networks responsible for these stochastic fluctuations in perception, we can potentially learn much about the neural correlates of visual awareness. We obtained concurrent EEG-fMRI data for a group of 20 healthy human subjects during the continuous presentation of dichoptic visual stimuli. The two eyes’ images were tagged with different temporal...

Data from: The signal in noise: acoustic information for soundscape orientation in two North American tree frogs

Alejandro Velez, Noah M. Gordon & Mark A. Bee
Diverse animals use environmental sounds to orient in ecological soundscapes. Yet, we know little about how acoustic information use drives behavioral decisions to orient. Although the sound generated by frog choruses functions as noise that impairs signal reception by listeners in the aggregation, it can also serve as an informative ecological signal that allows other individuals to orient toward and localize active breeding aggregations. Here, we investigated the acoustic cues that elicit orientation toward the...

Data from: Trophic position determines functional and phylogenetic recovery after disturbance within a community

Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones, Gregory J. Jordan, Christopher Burridge, Timothy J. Wardlaw, Thomas P. Baker, Lynette Forster, Morgana Petersfeld, Susan C. Baker, Christopher P. Burridge & Morgana Petersfield
1. The roles that functional traits and/or evolutionary history of species from co-occuring trophic groups have in determining community recovery following disturbance are poorly understood. Functional traits help determine how species interact with their environment, thus functional traits are likely to change with time since logging. However, traits of species may also be phylogenetically constrained depending on their evolutionary history. Because beetles are trophically diverse, the effects of phylogenetic and functional aspects of community recovery...

Data from: Exacerbated nitrogen limitation ends transient stimulation of grassland productivity by increased precipitation

Haiyan Ren, Zhuwen Xu, Forest Isbell, Jianhui Huang, Xingguo Han, Shiqiang Wan, Shiping Chen, Ruzhen Wang, De-Hui Zeng, Yong Jiang & Yunting Fang
Given that plant growth is often water-limited in grasslands, it has been proposed that projected increases in precipitation could increase plant productivity and carbon sequestration. However, the existing evidence for this hypothesis comes primarily from observational studies along natural precipitation gradients or from short-term manipulative experiments. It remains unclear whether long-term increased precipitation persistently stimulates grassland productivity. In the world's largest remaining temperate grassland, we found that experimentally increased precipitation enhanced net primary production, soil...

Data from: Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

Malcolm S. Itter, Andrew O. Finley, Anthony W. D'Amato, Jane R. Foster & John B. Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth...

Data from: Ploidy tug-of-war: evolutionary and genetic environments influence the rate of ploidy drive in a human fungal pathogen

Aleeza C. Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman & Meleah A. Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term ‘ploidy drive’. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation...

Data from: Macroevolutionary synthesis of flowering plant sexual systems

Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto, Jana C. Vamosi, Itay Mayrose, Niv Sabath, Ray Ming & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Sexual system is a key determinant of genetic variation and reproductive success, affecting evolution within populations and within clades. Much research in plants has focused on evolutionary transitions away from the most common state of hermaphroditism and toward the rare state of dioecy (separate sexes). Rather than transitions predominantly toward greater sexual differentiation, however, evolution may proceed in the direction of lesser sexual differentiation. We analyzed the macroevolutionary dynamics of sexual system in angiosperm genera...

Data from: Melanization of mycorrhizal fungal necromass structures microbial decomposer communities

Christopher W. Fernandez & Peter G. Kennedy
Mycorrhizal fungal necromass is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to soil organic carbon pools, particularly in forest ecosystems. While its decomposition rate is primarily determined by biochemical composition, how traits such as melanin content affect the structure of necromass decomposer communities remains poorly understood. To assess the role of biochemical traits on microbial decomposer community composition and functioning, we incubated melanized and non-melanized necromass of the mycorrhizal fungus Meliniomyces bicolor in Pinus- and Quercus-dominated...

Data from: Effects of gene action, marker density, and time since selection on the performance of landscape genomic scans of local adaptation

Jeremy B. Yoder & Peter Tiffin
Genomic “scans” to identify loci that contribute to local adaptation are becoming increasingly common. Many methods used for such studies have assumed that local adaptation is created by loci experiencing antagonistic pleiotropy and that the selected locus itself is assayed, and few consider how signals of selection change through time. However, most empirical data sets have marker density too low to assume that a selected locus itself is assayed, researchers seldom know when selection was...

Data from: Comparing forest structure and biodiversity on private and public land: secondary tropical dry forests in Costa Rica

Moana McClellan, Rebecca Montgomery, Kristen Nelson & Justin Becknell
Secondary forests constitute a substantial proportion of tropical forestlands. These forests occur on both public and private lands and different underlying environmental variables and management regimes may affect post‐abandonment successional processes and resultant forest structure and biodiversity. We examined whether differences in ownership led to differences in forest structure, tree diversity, and tree species composition across a gradient of soil fertility and forest age. We collected soil samples and surveyed all trees in 82 public...

Data from: Identifying environmental drivers of greenhouse gas emissions under warming and reduced rainfall in boreal-temperate forests

Catarina S. C. Martins, Loïc Nazaries, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Catriona A. Macdonald, Ian C. Anderson, Sarah E. Hobbie, Rhodney T. Venterea, Peter B. Reich, Brajesh K. Singh & Rodney T. Venterea
1.Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are predicted to increase as a consequence of fossil fuel emissions and the impact on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Forest ecosystems in general, and forest soils in particular, can be sinks or sources for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Environmental studies traditionally target soil temperature and moisture as the main predictors of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) flux from different ecosystems; however, these emissions are primarily biologically...

Data from: Using beta diversity to inform agricultural policies and conservation actions on Mediterranean farmland

Joana Santana, Miguel Porto, Luis Reino, Francisco Moreira, Paulo Flores Ribeiro, José Lima Santo, John T. Rotenberry & Pedro Beja
1. Spatial variation in species composition (β-diversity) is an important component of farmland biodiversity, which together with local richness (α-diversity) drives the number of species in a region (γ-diversity). However, β-diversity is seldom used to inform conservation, due to limited understanding of its responses to agricultural management, and lack of clear links between β-diversity changes and conservation outcomes. 2. We explored the value of β-diversity to guide conservation on farmland, by quantifying the contribution of...

Data from: Linking social and spatial networks to viral community phylogenetics reveals subtype-specific transmission dynamics in African lions

Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones, Craig Packer, Jennifer L. Troyer, Kimberly VanderWaal, Stacie Robinson, Maude Jacquot & Meggan E. Craft
1.Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. 2.Here we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. 3.We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle) in African lions (Panthera leo)...

Data from: Varyingly hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

Simon T. Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M. Redmond, Margaret E. Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D. Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of plant host use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here we used standardised food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions...

Data from: Sympatric parallel diversification of major oak clades in the Americas and the origins of Mexican species diversity

Andrew L. Hipp, Paul S. Manos, Antonio Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Marlene Hahn, Matthew Kaproth, John D. McVay, Susana Valencia Avalos & Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood...

Data from: Cold adaptation drives variability in needle structure and anatomy in Pinus sylvestris L. along a 1,900 km temperate–boreal transect

Artur Jankowski, Tomasz P. Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Bengt Nihlgård, Peter B. Reich & Jacek Oleksyn
1. Occupancy of cold habitats by evergreen species requires structural modification of photosynthetic organs for stress resistance and longevity. Such modifications have been described at inter-specific level while intra-specific variation has been underexplored. 2. To identify structural and anatomical traits that may be adaptive in cold environments, we studied intra-specific variability of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), a wide-ranging tree, along a 1900 km temperate-boreal transect in Europe. 3. Needles from 20 sites...

Data from: Correlates of decisional dynamics in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Habiba Azab & Benjamin Y. Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    72

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    72

Affiliations

  • University of Minnesota
    72
  • Western Sydney University
    5
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    3
  • Australian National University
    3
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Northwestern University
    2
  • Field Museum of Natural History
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • Oregon State University
    2