73 Works

Census of Population, 1880: Public Use Sample (1 in 1000 Preliminary Subsample)

Russell R. Menard & Steven Ruggles
This collection is a nationally representative--although clustered--1 in 1000 preliminary subsample of the United States population in 1880. The subsample is based on every tenth microfilm reel of enumeration forms (there are a total of 1,454 reels) and, within each reel, on the census page itself. In terms of the Public Use Sample as a whole, a sample density of 1 person per 100 was chosen so that a single sample point was randomly generated...

Data from: Specialization and accuracy of host-searching butterflies in complex and simple environments

Meredith K. Steck & Emilie C. Snell-Rood
Populations that have access to a variety of resources are often composed of individuals that specialize on different subsets of resources. Understanding the behavioral mechanisms that drive such individual specialization will help us predict the strength of this specialization across different environments. Here, we explore the idea that individual specialization may be a consequence of constraints on an individual’s ability to process information. Because many environments contain an overwhelming number of resources and associated stimuli,...

Data from: Survey of haemosporidian parasites in resident and migrant game birds of Illinois

Kendall L. Annetti, Nelda A. Rivera, John E. Andrews & Nohra Mateus-Pinilla
Haemosporidian parasites are globally distributed in avian species, capable of leading to decreased reproductive success, weakness and mortality. Haemosporidian parasites that affect reproduction and population growth are of interest to bird conservation groups and to organizations concerned with the health and immunological status of avian populations. Haemosporidian infection data are not always available for some avian species in specific regions yet. These data provides the starting points to evaluate geographical and temporal changes in the...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Big groups attract bad eggs: brood parasitism correlates with but does not cause cooperative breeding

Michael T. Wells & F. Keith Barker
There has been great interest in how complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding evolve and are maintained; however, it is still unclear what exact phenomena trigger the transition to cooperative breeding. Recent work in birds has suggested a number of factors associated with cooperative breeding, including environmental uncertainty and brood parasitism. One recent study found a correlation between brood parasitism and cooperative breeding, but it examined this relationship from a geographically restricted perspective. We...

Data from: Melanization of mycorrhizal fungal necromass structures microbial decomposer communities

Christopher W. Fernandez & Peter G. Kennedy
Mycorrhizal fungal necromass is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to soil organic carbon pools, particularly in forest ecosystems. While its decomposition rate is primarily determined by biochemical composition, how traits such as melanin content affect the structure of necromass decomposer communities remains poorly understood. To assess the role of biochemical traits on microbial decomposer community composition and functioning, we incubated melanized and non-melanized necromass of the mycorrhizal fungus Meliniomyces bicolor in Pinus- and Quercus-dominated...

Data from: Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity

Bo Zhang, Alex Kula, Keenan M.L. Mack, Lu Zhai, Arrix L. Ryce, Wei-Ming Ni, Donald L. DeAngelis & J. David Van Dyken
A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial...

Data from: Evaluating population viability and efficacy of conservation management using integrated population models

Sarah P. Saunders, Francesca J. Cuthbert & Elise F. Zipkin
Predicting population responses to environmental conditions or management scenarios is a fundamental challenge for conservation. Proper consideration of demographic, environmental and parameter uncertainties is essential for projecting population trends and optimal conservation strategies. We developed a coupled integrated population model-Bayesian population viability analysis to assess the (1) impact of demographic rates (survival, fecundity, immigration) on past population dynamics; (2) population viability 10 years into the future; and (3) efficacy of possible management strategies for the...

Data from: Plant traits of propagule banks and standing vegetation reveal flooding alleviates impacts of agriculture on wetland restoration

Samantha K. Dawson, David I. Warton, Richard T. Kingsford, Peter Berney, David A. Keith & Jane A. Catford
1. Restoration of degraded plant communities requires understanding of community assembly processes. Human land use can influence plant community assembly by altering environmental conditions and species’ dispersal patterns. Flooding, including from environmental flows, may counteract land use effects on wetland vegetation. We examined the influence of land use history and flood frequency on the functional composition of wetland plant communities along a regulated river. 2. We applied fourth corner modelling to determine species’ trait-based responses...

Data from: FiSSE: A simple non-parametric test for the effects of a binary character on lineage diversification rates

Daniel L. Rabosky & Emma E. Goldberg
It is widely assumed that phenotypic traits can influence rates of speciation and extinction, and several statistical approaches have been used to test for correlations between character states and lineage diversification. Recent work suggests that model-based tests of state-dependent speciation and extinction are sensitive to model inadequacy and phylogenetic pseudoreplication. We describe a simple non-parametric statistical test ("FiSSE") to assess the effects of a binary character on lineage diversification rates. The method involves computing a...

Data from: Nitrogen, phosphorus, and cation use efficiency in stands of regenerating tropical dry forest

Bonnie G. Waring, Justin M. Becknell & Jennifer S. Powers
Plants on infertile soils exhibit physiological and morphological traits that support conservative internal nutrient cycling. However, potential trade-offs among use efficiencies for N, P, and cations are not well explored in species-rich habitats where multiple elements may limit plant production. We examined uptake efficiency and use efficiency of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Na in plots of regenerating tropical dry forests spanning a gradient of soil fertility. Our aim was to determine whether...

Data from: Reconstructing the spectrotemporal modulations of real-life sounds from fMRI response patterns

Roberta Santoro, Michelle Moerel, Federico De Martino, Giancarlo Valente, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub & Elia Formisano
Ethological views of brain functioning suggest that sound representations and computations in the auditory neural system are optimized finely to process and discriminate behaviorally relevant acoustic features and sounds (e.g., spectrotemporal modulations in the songs of zebra finches). Here, we show that modeling of neural sound representations in terms of frequency-specific spectrotemporal modulations enables accurate and specific reconstruction of real-life sounds from high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response patterns in the human auditory cortex....

Data from: Morphological and molecular evolution and their consequences for conservation and taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)

Hernán Vázquez-Miranda, Josie A. Griffin, Jay M. Sheppard, Jordan M. Herman, Octavio Rojas-Soto & Robert M. Zink
We evaluated geographic variation and subspecific taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) by analyzing DNA sequences from 16 nuclear loci, one mitochondrial DNA locus, and four study skin characters, and compared these data sets with previously published data on plumage coloration and different mtDNA genes. Morphological support for the southernmost taxon, T. l. arenicola, is relatively weak: multivariate analyses of morphometrics or back coloration do not provide diagnostic support, although one color character...

Data from: The challenge of modeling niches and distributions for data-poor species: a comprehensive approach to model complexity

Peter J. Galante, Babatunde Alade, Robert Muscarella, Sharon A. Jansa, Steven M. Goodman & Robert P. Anderson
Models of species ecological niches and geographic distributions now represent a widely used tool in ecology, evolution, and biogeography. However, the very common situation of species with few available occurrence localities presents major challenges for such modeling techniques, in particular regarding model complexity and evaluation. Here, we summarize the state of the field regarding these issues and provide a worked example using the technique Maxent for a small mammal endemic to Madagascar (the nesomyine rodent...

Data from: Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradient

Sean F. Ryan, Michaël C. Fontaine, J. Mark Scriber, Michael E. Pfrender, Shawn T. O'Neil & Jessica J. Hellmann
Hybrid zones are a valuable tool for studying the process of speciation and for identifying the genomic regions undergoing divergence and the ecological (extrinsic) and non-ecological (intrinsic) factors involved. Here, we explored the genomic and geographic landscape of divergence in a hybrid zone between Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Using a genome scan of 28,417 ddRAD SNPs, we identified genomic regions under possible selection and examined their distribution in the context of previously identified candidate...

Data from: Is a larger refuge always better? Dispersal and dose in pesticide resistance evolution

Daisuke Takahashi, Takehiko Yamanaka, Masaaki Sudo & David A. Andow
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and non-treated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size and...

Data from: Herbivores safeguard plant diversity by reducing variability in dominance

Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, Stan W. Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom & W. Stanley Harpole
1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability...

Data from: On the inconsistency of pollinator species traits for predicting either response to land-use change or functional contribution

Ignasi Bartomeus, Daniel P. Cariveau, Tina Harrison & Rachael Winfree
The response and effect trait framework, if supported empirically, would provide for powerful and general predictions about how biodiversity loss leads to loss in ecosystem function. This framework proposes that species traits will explain how different species respond to disturbance (i.e. response traits) as well as their contribution to ecosystem function (i.e. effect traits). However, predictive response and effect traits remain elusive for most systems. Here, we use data on crop pollination services provided by...

Data from: Urban landscapes can change virus gene flow and evolution in a fragmentation-sensitive carnivore

Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones, Meggan E. Craft, W. Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl R. Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S. Lee, Sue VandeWoude & Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a...

Data from: Specialized specialists and the narrow niche fallacy: a tale of scale-feeding fishes

Matthew A. Kolmann, Jonathan M. Huie, Kory Evans & Adam P. Summers
Although rare within the context of 30,000 species of extant fishes, scale-feeding as an ecological strategy has evolved repeatedly across the teleost tree of life. Scale-feeding (lepidophagous) fishes are diverse in terms of their ecology, behavior, and specialized morphologies for grazing on scales and mucus of sympatric species. Despite this diversity, the underlying ontogenetic changes in functional and biomechanical properties of associated feeding morphologies in lepidophagous fishes are less understood. We examined the ontogeny of...

Data from: A tale of two studies: detection and attribution of the impacts of invasive plants in observational surveys

Kevin E. Mueller, Alexandra G. Lodge, Alexander M. Roth, Timothy J. S. Whitfeld, Sarah E. Hobbie & Peter B. Reich
1.Short-term experiments cannot characterize how long-lived, invasive shrubs influence ecological properties that can be slow to change, including native diversity and soil fertility. Observational studies are thus necessary, but often suffer from methodological issues. 2.To highlight ways of improving the design and interpretation of observational studies that assess the impacts of invasive plants, we compare two studies of nutrient cycling and earthworms along two separate gradients of invasive shrub abundance. By considering the divergent sampling...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of leaf trait variation among and within species during tropical dry forest succession in Costa Rica

Geraldine Derroire, Jennifer S. Powers, Catherine M. Hulshof, Luis E. Cárdenas Varela & John R. Healey
A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to...

Data from: The origin and evolution of coral species richness in a marine biodiversity hotspot

Danwei Huang, Emma E. Goldberg, Loke Ming Chou & Kaustuv Roy
The Coral Triangle region of the Indo-Pacific realm harbors an extraordinary number of species, with richness decreasing away from this biodiversity hotspot. Despite multiple competing hypotheses, the dynamics underlying this regional diversity pattern remain poorly understood. Here we use a time-calibrated evolutionary tree of living reef coral species, their current geographic ranges, and model-based estimates of regional rates of speciation, extinction, and geographic range shifts to show that origination rates within the Coral Triangle are...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Minnesota
  • Western Sydney University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Australian National University
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Stanford University
  • Northwestern University
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University