102 Works

Data from: Health insurance coverage with or without a nurse-led task shifting strategy for hypertension control: a pragmatic cluster randomized trial in Ghana

Gbenga Ogedegbe, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Joyce Gyamfi, William Chaplin, Michael Ntim, Kingsley Apusiga, Juliet Iwelunmor, Kwasi Yeboah Awudzi, Kofi Nana Quakyi, Jazmin N. Mogavero, Kiran Khurshid, Bamidele Tayo & Richard Cooper
Rationale: Poor access to care and physician shortage are major barriers to hypertension control in sub-Saharan Africa. Implementation of evidence-based systems-level strategies targeted at these barriers are lacking. Objective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of provision of health insurance coverage (HIC) alone versus a nurse-led task-shifting strategy for hypertension control (TASSH) plus HIC on systolic BP reduction among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Ghana. Methods and Findings: Using a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial, 32 community health...

Data from: State-aware detection of sensory stimuli in the cortex of the awake mouse

Audrey J. Sederberg, Aurelie Pala, He J. V. Zheng, Biyu J. He & Garrett B. Stanley
Cortical responses to sensory inputs vary across repeated presentations of identical stimuli, but how this trial-to-trial variability impacts detection of sensory inputs is not fully understood. Using multi-channel local field potential (LFP) recordings in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of the awake mouse, we optimized a data-driven cortical state classifier to predict single-trial sensory-evoked responses, based on features of the spontaneous, ongoing LFP recorded across cortical layers. Our findings show that, by utilizing an ongoing prediction...

Data from: Electricity and water conservation on college and university campuses in response to national competitions among dormitories: quantifying relationships between behavior, conservation strategies and psychological metrics

John E. Petersen, Cynthia M. Frantz, , Tess M. Yanisch, Evan Tincknell & Noel Myers
“Campus Conservation Nationals” (CCN) is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition’s effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively). In 2010, overall reductions during the competition...

Data from: Encephalization and longevity evolved in a correlated fashion in Euarchontoglires but not in other mammals

Alex R. DeCasien, Nicole A. Thompson, Scott A. Williams & Milena R. Shattuck
Across mammals, encephalization and longevity show a strong correlation. It is not clear, however, whether these traits evolved in a correlated fashion within mammalian orders, or when they do, whether one trait drives changes in the other. Here, we compare independent and correlated evolutionary models to identify instances of correlated evolution within six mammalian orders. In cases of correlated evolution, we subsequently examined transition patterns between small/large relative brain size and short/long lifespan. In four...

Data from: The complex geography of domestication of the African rice Oryza glaberrima

Jae Young Choi, Maricris Zaidem, Rafal Gutaker, Katherine Dorph, Rakesh Kumar Singh & Michael D. Purugganan
While the domestication history of Asian rice has been extensively studied, details of the evolution of African rice remain elusive. The inner Niger delta has been suggested as the center of origin but molecular data to support this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary and domestication history of African rice. By analyzing whole genome re-sequencing data from 282 individuals of domesticated African rice Oryza glaberrima and its progenitor O....

Disentangling ecological and taphonomic signals in ancient food webs

Jack Shaw, Emily Coco, Kate Wootton, Dries Daems, Andrew Gillreath-Brown, Anshuman Swain & Jennifer Dunne
Analyses of ancient food webs reveal important paleoecological processes and responses to a range of perturbations throughout Earth’s history, such as climate change. These responses can inform our forecasts of future biotic responses to similar perturbations. However, previous analyses of ancient food webs rarely accounted for key differences between modern and ancient community data, particularly selective loss of soft-bodied taxa during fossilization. To consider how fossilization impacts inferences of ancient community structure we (1) analyzed...

Female ornaments: is red skin color attractive to males and related to condition in rhesus macaques?

James Higham, Clare Kimock, Tara Mandalaywala, Michael Heistermann, Julie Cascio, Megan Petersdorf, Sandra Winters, Will Allen & Constance Dubuc
Sexual selection produces extravagant male traits, such as colorful ornaments, via female mate choice. More rarely, in mating systems in which males allocate mating effort between multiple females, female ornaments may evolve via male mate choice. Females of many anthropoid primates exhibit ornaments that indicate intra-individual cyclical fertility, but which have also been proposed to function as inter-individual quality signals. Rhesus macaque females are one such species, exhibiting cyclical facial color variation that indicates ovulatory...

Figure e-1.- Effect of APOE alleles on cognitive domain-specific composite measures.

Alberto Serrano-Pozo, Jing Qian, Rebecca Betensky & Bradley Hyman
Supplemental Figure of our original article "Association of APOE Genotype with Heterogeneity of Cognitive Decline Rate in Alzheimer's Disease" published in Neurology showing model 1-based trajectories of cognitive domain-specific composite measures by APOE genotype, as well as the difference of the APOEe2 and APOEe4 groups with respect to the APOEe3/e3 reference group.

Data from: Experimental evidence that primate trichromacy is well suited for detecting primate social colour signals

Chihiro Hiramatsu, Amanda D. Melin, William L. Allen, Constance Dubuc & James P. Higham
Primate trichromatic colour vision has been hypothesized to be well tuned for detecting variation in facial coloration, which could be due to selection on either signal wavelengths or the sensitivities of the photoreceptors themselves. We provide one of the first empirical tests of this idea by asking whether, when compared with other visual systems, the information obtained through primate trichromatic vision confers an improved ability to detect the changes in facial colour that female macaque...

Data from: Inferring subjective states through the observation of actions

Deevia Patel, Steve M. Flemming, James M. Kilner & S. M. Fleming
Estimating another person’s subjective confidence is crucial for social interaction, but how this inference is achieved is unknown. Previous research has demonstrated that the speed at which people make decisions is correlated with their confidence in their decision. Here we show that 1) subjects’ are able to infer the subjective confidence of another person simply through the observation of their actions and 2) this inference is dependent upon the performance of each subject when executing...

Structure Here, Bias There: Hierarchical Generalization by Jointly Learning Syntactic Transformations

Karl Mulligan, Robert Frank & Tal Linzen

Joint effects of genes underlying a temperature specialization tradeoff in yeast

Faisal AlZaben, Rachel Brem, Julie Chuong & Melanie Abrams
A central goal of evolutionary genetics is to understand, at the molecular level, how organisms adapt to their environments. For a given trait, the answer often involves the acquisition of variants at unlinked sites across the genome. Genomic methods have achieved landmark successes in pinpointing adaptive loci. To figure out how a suite of adaptive alleles work together, and to what extent they can reconstitute the phenotype of interest, requires their transfer into an exogenous...

Worldwide savanna monkey (Chlorocebus spp.) body measures

Christopher A. Schmitt, Trudy R. Turner, Jennifer Danzy Cramer, Joseph Lorenz, J. Paul Grobler, Clifford J. Jolly & Nelson B. Freimer
Objectives: Direct comparative work in morphology and growth on widely dispersed wild primate taxa is rarely accomplished, yet critical to understanding ecogeographic variation, plastic local varia- tion in response to human impacts, and variation in patterns of growth and sexual dimorphism. We investigated population variation in morphology and growth in response to geographic variables (i.e., latitude, altitude), climatic variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall), and human impacts in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus spp.). Methods: We trapped...

Data from: Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon: a genome-wide view

Pu Huang, Jeanmaire Molina, Jonathan M. Flowers, Samara Rubinstein, Scott A. Jackson, Michael D. Purugganan & Barbara A. Schaal
Asian wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) that ranges widely across the eastern and southern part of Asia is recognized as the direct ancestor of cultivated Asian rice (O. sativa). Studies of the geographic structure of O. rufipogon, based on chloroplast and low-copy nuclear markers, reveal a possible phylogeographic signal of subdivision in O. rufipogon. However, this signal of geographic differentiation is not consistently observed among different markers and studies, with often conflicting results. To more precisely...

Data from: Inferring fitness landscapes and selection on phenotypic states from single-cell genealogical data

Takashi Nozoe, Edo Kussell & Yuichi Wakamoto
Recent advances in single-cell time-lapse microscopy have revealed non-genetic heterogeneity and temporal fluctuations of cellular phenotypes. While different phenotypic traits such as abundance of growth-related proteins in single cells may have differential effects on the reproductive success of cells, rigorous experimental quantification of this process has remained elusive due to the complexity of single cell physiology within the context of a proliferating population. We introduce and apply a practical empirical method to quantify the fitness...

Data from: Is male rhesus macaque facial coloration under intrasexual selection?

Megan Petersdorf, Constance Dubuc, Alexander V. Georgiev, Sandra Winters & James P. Higham
Exaggerated male traits can evolve under intra- or intersexual selection, but it remains less clear how often both mechanisms act together on trait evolution. While the males of many anthropoid primate species exhibit colorful signals that appear to be badges of status under intrasexual selection, the red facial coloration of male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) appears to have evolved primarily under intersexual selection and female mate choice. Nonetheless, experiments show that red color is salient...

Data from: Phenotypic integration of the cervical vertebrae in the Hominoidea (Primates)

Catalina Isabel Villamil
Phenotypic integration and modularity represent important factors influencing evolutionary change. The mammalian cervical vertebral column is particularly interesting in regards to integration and modularity because it is highly constrained to seven elements, despite widely variable morphology. Previous research has found a common pattern of integration among quadrupedal mammals, but integration patterns also evolve in response to locomotor selective pressures like those associated with hominin bipedalism. Here, I test patterns of covariation in the cervical vertebrae...

Data from: The impact of bottlenecks on microbial survival, adaptation and phenotypic switching in host-pathogen interactions

Richard Moxon & Edo Kussell
Microbial pathogens and viruses can often maintain sufficient population diversity to evade a wide range of host immune responses. However, when populations experience bottlenecks, as occurs frequently during initiation of new infections, pathogens require specialized mechanisms to regenerate diversity. We address the evolution of such mechanisms, known as stochastic phenotype switches, which are prevalent in pathogenic bacteria. We analyze a model of pathogen diversification in a changing host environment that accounts for selective bottlenecks, wherein...

Data from: Experimental evidence that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) perceive variation in male facial masculinity

Kevin A. Rosenfield, Stuart Semple, Alexander V. Georgiev, Dario Maestripieri, James P. Higham & Constance Dubuc
Among many primate species, face shape is sexually dimorphic, and male facial masculinity has been proposed to influence female mate choice and male-male competition. However, whether conspecifics pay attention to facial masculinity has only been assessed in humans. Here, working with free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, we used a two-alternative look-time experiment to test whether females perceive male facial masculinity. We presented 107 females with pairs of images of male faces – one more masculine...

Data from: Strong effects of lab-to-field environmental transitions on the bacterial intestinal microbiota of Mus musculus are modulated by Trichuris muris infection

Julian Bär, Jacqueline Leung, Christina Hansen, P'ng Loke, Alex Hall, Laura Conour & Andrea Graham
Studies of controlled lab animals and natural populations represent two insightful extremes of microbiota research. We bridged these two approaches by transferring lab-bred female C57BL/6 mice from a conventional mouse facility to an acclimation room and then to an outdoor enclosure, to investigate how the gut microbiota changes with environment. Mice residing under constant conditions served as controls. Using 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples, we found that the shift in temperature and humidity, as...

Anonymized source data files for figures in: Recurrent processes support a cascade of hierarchical decisions

Laura Gwilliams & Jean-Remi King
Perception depends on a complex interplay between feedforward and recurrent processing. Yet, while the former has been extensively characterized, the computational organization of the latter remains largely unknown. Here, we use magneto-encephalography to localize, track and decode the feedforward and recurrent processes of reading, as elicited by letters and digits whose level of ambiguity was parametrically manipulated. We first confirm that a feedforward response propagates through the ventral and dorsal pathways within the first 200...

2011 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

US and Canada Public Pension System Data 2008-2018

Ingo Walter, Clive Lipshitz, Fernando Falbo, Patricio Cox & Lebogang Mahlare
This dataset comprises eleven years of historical data (2008 through 2018) for the 25 largest U.S. public pension plans and the ten largest Canadian public pension plans.

Modeling Morphological Processing in Human Magnetoencephalography

Yohei Oseki & Alec Marantz

BLiMP: A Benchmark of Linguistic Minimal Pairs for English

Alex Warstadt, Alicia Parrish, Haokun Liu, Anhad Mohananey, Wei Peng, Sheng-Fu Wang & Samuel R. Bowman

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  • New York University
  • Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University
  • Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan
  • SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Center for Data Science, New York University
  • Columbia University
  • Lockheed Martin Solar & Astrophysics Laboratory
  • SETI Institute
  • Southwest Research Institute