13 Works

XYZ coordinates of middle lumbar vertebrae - 3D GM analysis for: A nearly complete lower back of Australopithecus sediba

Scott Williams & Prang Thomas
Adaptations of the lower back to bipedalism are frequently discussed but infrequently demonstrated in early fossil hominins. Newly discovered lumbar vertebrae contribute to a near-complete lower back of Malapa Hominin 2 (MH2), offering additional insights into posture and locomotion in Australopithecus sediba. We show that MH2 demonstrates a lower back consistent with lumbar lordosis and other adaptations to bipedalism, including an increase in the width of intervertebral articular facets from the upper to lower lumbar...

Quantitative assessment of agricultural sustainability reveals divergent priorities among nations

Guolin Yao, Xin Zhang, Srishti Vishwakarma, Carole Dalin, Adam Komarek, David Kanter, Kyle Davis, Kimberly Pfeifer, Jing Zhao, Tan Zou, Paolo D'Odorico, Christian Folberth, Fernando Galeana Rodriguez, Jessica Fanzo, Lorenzo Rosa, William Dennison, Mark Musumba, Amy Heyman & Eric Davidson
Agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of sustainable agriculture and capacities to measure it remain elusive. Independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability are needed to gauge progress, encourage accountability, and inform policy. Here, we developed a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) to quantify national performance indicators in agriculture and to investigate the tradeoffs and synergies based on historical data for most countries of the world....

Structure Here, Bias There: Hierarchical Generalization by Jointly Learning Syntactic Transformations

Karl Mulligan, Robert Frank & Tal Linzen

Joint effects of genes underlying a temperature specialization tradeoff in yeast

Faisal AlZaben, Rachel Brem, Julie Chuong & Melanie Abrams
A central goal of evolutionary genetics is to understand, at the molecular level, how organisms adapt to their environments. For a given trait, the answer often involves the acquisition of variants at unlinked sites across the genome. Genomic methods have achieved landmark successes in pinpointing adaptive loci. To figure out how a suite of adaptive alleles work together, and to what extent they can reconstitute the phenotype of interest, requires their transfer into an exogenous...

The expression of care: alloparental care frequency predicts neural control of facial muscles in primates

Paola Cerrito & Alex DeCasien
The adaptive value of facial expressions has been debated in evolutionary biology ever since Darwin’s seminal work. Amongst mammals, primates, including humans, exhibit the most intricate facial displays. Although previous work has focused on the role of sociality in the evolution of primate facial expressions, this relationship has not been verified in a wide sample of species. Here, we examine the relationship between allomaternal care (paternal or alloparental) and the morphology of three orofacial brainstem...

Worldwide savanna monkey (Chlorocebus spp.) body measures

Christopher A. Schmitt, Trudy R. Turner, Jennifer Danzy Cramer, Joseph Lorenz, J. Paul Grobler, Clifford J. Jolly & Nelson B. Freimer
Objectives: Direct comparative work in morphology and growth on widely dispersed wild primate taxa is rarely accomplished, yet critical to understanding ecogeographic variation, plastic local varia- tion in response to human impacts, and variation in patterns of growth and sexual dimorphism. We investigated population variation in morphology and growth in response to geographic variables (i.e., latitude, altitude), climatic variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall), and human impacts in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus spp.). Methods: We trapped...

Figure e-1.- Effect of APOE alleles on cognitive domain-specific composite measures.

Alberto Serrano-Pozo, Jing Qian, Rebecca Betensky & Bradley Hyman
Supplemental Figure of our original article "Association of APOE Genotype with Heterogeneity of Cognitive Decline Rate in Alzheimer's Disease" published in Neurology showing model 1-based trajectories of cognitive domain-specific composite measures by APOE genotype, as well as the difference of the APOEe2 and APOEe4 groups with respect to the APOEe3/e3 reference group.

Inventories, Markups and Real Rigidities in Sticky Price Models of the Canadian Economy

Oleksiy Kryvtsov & Virgiliu Midrigan
Recent New Keynesian models of macroeconomy view nominal cost rigidities, rather than nominal price rigidities, as the key feature that accounts for the observed persistence in output and inflation. Kryvtsov and Midrigan (2010a,b) reassess these conclusions by combining a theory based on nominal rigidities and storable goods with direct evidence on inventories for the U.S. This paper applies Kryvtsov and Midrigan's model to the case of Canada. The model predicts that if costs of production...

Dataset from: Ardipithecus hand provides evidence that humans and chimpanzees evolved from an ancestor with suspensory adaptations

Thomas Cody Prang, Kristen Ramirez, Mark Grabowski & Scott Williams
The morphology and positional behavior of the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees are critical for understanding the evolution of bipedalism. Early 20th century anatomical research supported the view that humans evolved from a suspensory ancestor bearing some resemblance to apes. However, the hand of the 4.4 million-year-old hominin Ardipithecus ramidus, purportedly provides evidence that the hominin hand was derived from a more generalized form. Here we use morphometric and phylogenetic comparative methods to...

Female fertile phase synchrony, and male mating and reproductive skew, in the crested macaque

James Higham, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Anja Widdig & Antje Engelhardt
High social status is the primary determinant of reproductive success among group-living male mammals. Primates living in multimale–multifemale groups show the greatest variation in the strength of this link, with marked variation in reproductive skew by male dominance among species, dependent on the degree of female fertile phase synchrony, and the number of competing males. Here, we present data on two groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra), living in the Tangkoko Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia....

Switch-like and persistent learning in individual Drosophila larvae

Amanda Lesar, Javan Tahir, Jason Wolk, Marc Gershow & Marc Gershow
Associative learning allows animals to use past experience to predict future events. The circuits underlying memory formation support immediate and sustained changes in function, often in response to a single example. Larval Drosophila is a genetic model for memory formation that can be accessed at molecular, synaptic, cellular, and circuit levels, often simultaneously, but existing behavioral assays for larval learning and memory do not address individual animals, and it has been dicult to form long...

Distinct population code for movement kinematics and changes of ongoing movements in human subthalamic nucleus

Dennis London, Arash Fazl, Kalman Katlowitz, Marisol Soula, Michael Pourfar, Alon Mogilner & Roozbeh Kiani
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is theorized to globally suppress movement through connections with downstream basal ganglia structures. Current theories are supported by increased STN activity when subjects withhold an uninitiated action plan, but a critical test of these theories requires studying STN responses when an ongoing action is replaced with an alternative. We perform this test in subjects with Parkinson’s disease using an extended reaching task where the movement trajectory changes mid-action. We show that...

AI and Procurement: A Primer

Mona Sloane
Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are increasingly deployed in the public sector. As these technologies can harm citizens and pose a risk to society, existing public procurement processes and standards are in urgent need of revision and innovation. This issue is particularly pressing in the context of recession-induced budget constraints and increasing regulatory pressures. The AI Procurement Primer sets out to equip individuals, teams, and organizations with the knowledge and tools they need to kick-off procurement...

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