21 Works

Data from: Cretophengodidae, a new Cretaceous beetle family sheds light on the evolution of bioluminescence

Chenyang Cai
Bioluminescent beetles of the superfamily Elateroidea (fireflies, fire beetles, glow-worms) are the most speciose group of terrestrial light-producing animals. The evolution of bioluminescence in elateroids is associated with unusual morphological modifications, such as soft-bodiedness and neoteny, but the fragmentary nature of the fossil record discloses little about the origin of these adaptations. We report the discovery of a new bioluminescent elateroid beetle family from the mid-Cretaceous of northern Myanmar (ca. 99 Ma), Cretophengodidae fam. nov....

Verifiability of genus-level classification under quantification and parsimony theories: a case study of follicucullid radiolarians

Yifan Xiao, Noritoshi Suzuki, Weihong He, Michael Benton, Tinglu Yang & Chenyang Cai
The classical taxonomy of fossil invertebrates is based on subjective judgments of morphology, which can cause confusion since there are no codified standards for the classification of genera. Here, we explore the validity of the genus taxonomy of 75 species and morphospecies of the Follicucullidae, a Late Paleozoic family of radiolarians, using a new method, Hayashi’s quantification theory II (HQT-II), a general multivariate statistical method for categorical datasets relevant to discriminant analysis. We identify a...

Data from: Mesozoic cupules and the origin of the angiosperm second integument

Gongle Shi, Fabiany Herrera, Patrick Herendeen, Elizabeth Clark & Peter Crane
The second integument of the angiosperm ovule is unique among seed plants, with developmental genetics that are distinct from those of the inner integument. Understanding how the second integument should be compared to structures in other seed plants is therefore crucial to resolving the long-standing question of the origins of angiosperms. Attention has focused on several extinct plants with recurved cupules that are reminiscent of the anatropous organization of the basic bitegmic ovules of angiosperms,...

Stratigraphic column of the Xiazhen Formation with the 18 stromatoporoid-bearing intervals (clathrodictyid stromatoporoids)

Juwan Jeon
Clathrodictyids are the most abundant stromatoporoids in the Upper Ordovician Xiazhen Formation (middle to upper Katian) of South China. A total of nine species belonging to four clathrodictyid genera are identified in the formation, including Clathrodictyon idense (Webby and Banks, 1976), Clathrodictyon cf. Cl. microundulatum (Nestor, 1964), Clathrodictyon cf. Cl. mammillatum (Schmidt, 1858), Clathrodictyon megalamellatum Jeon n. sp., Clathrodictyon plicatum (Webby and Banks, 1976), Ecclimadictyon nestori Webby, 1969, Ecclimadictyon undatum (Webby and Banks, 1976), Camptodictyon...

Data from: The Collins’ monster, a spinous suspension-feeding lobopodian from the Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia

Jean-Bernard Caron & Cédric Aria
Lobopodians, a paraphyletic group of Palaeozoic vermiform animals bearing metameric appendages, are key to the origin of extant panarthropods. First discovered in 1983 on Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia), the Cambrian (Wuliuan) Burgess Shale lobopodian nicknamed “Collins’ monster” is formally described as Collinsovermis monstruosus gen. et sp. nov. A formal systematic revision of the poorly known lobopodian Acinocricus stichus from Utah is also provided. The body of Collinsovermis is plump and compact, lacking...

Fossil evidence unveils an early Cambrian origin for Bryozoa

Zhiliang Zhang, Zhifei Zhang, Junye Ma, Paul Taylor, Luke Strotz, Sarah Jacquet, Christian Skovsted, Feiyang Chen, Jian Han & Glenn Brock
Bryozoans (ectoprocts or moss animals) are aquatic, dominantly sessile, filter-feeding lophophorates that construct an organic or calcareous modular colonial (clonal) exoskeleton. The presence of six major orders of bryozoans with advanced polymorphisms in lower Ordovician rocks strongly suggests a Cambrian origin for the largest and most diverse lophophorate phylum. However, a lack of convincing bryozoan fossils from the Cambrian has hampered resolution of the true origins and character assembly of earliest members of the group....

A new Late Devonian flora from Sonid Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China

Lingqi Bai, Pu Huang, Ning Yang, Wenxin Ju, Jianbo Liu, James Basinger, Honghe Xu & Jinzhuang Xue
The Silurian and Devonian plant fossil record is the basis for our understanding of the early evolution of land plants, yet our appreciation of early global phytogeographic evolution has been constrained by the focus of most studies on deposits from Europe, North America, and more recently South China. Devonian plants have been rarely recorded from northeastern China, and among previous records, few plants have been illustrated and formally described. In this article, megafossil plants representing...

Detailed description of the new genus and speceis, Cretophengodes azari Li, Kundrata, Tihelka and Cai sp. nov.

Yan-Da Li, Robin Kundrata, Erik Tihelka, Zhenhua Liu, Diying Huang & Chenyang Cai
Bioluminescent beetles of the superfamily Elateroidea (fireflies, fire beetles, glow-worms) are the most speciose group of terrestrial light-producing animals. The evolution of bioluminescence in elateroids is associated with unusual morphological modifications, such as soft-bodiedness and neoteny, but the fragmentary nature of the fossil record discloses little about the origin of these adaptations. We report the discovery of a new bioluminescent elateroid beetle family from the mid-Cretaceous of northern Myanmar (ca. 99 Ma), Cretophengodidae fam. nov....

Data from: A grazing Gomphotherium in Middle Miocene Central Asia, 10 million years prior to the origin of the Elephantidae

Yan Wu, Tao Deng, Yaowu Hu, Jiao Ma, Xinying Zhou, Limi Mao, Hanwen Zhang, Jie Ye & Shi-Qi Wang
Feeding preference of fossil herbivorous mammals, concerning the coevolution of mammalian and floral ecosystems, has become of key research interest. In this paper, phytoliths in dental calculus from two gomphotheriid proboscideans of the middle Miocene Junggar Basin, Central Asia, have been identified, suggesting that Gomphotherium connexum was a mixed feeder, while the phytoliths from G. steinheimense indicates grazing preference. This is the earliest-known proboscidean with a predominantly grazing habit. These results are further confirmed by...

Data from: New armoured scalidophorans (Ecdysozoa, Cycloneuralia) from the Cambrian Fortunian Zhangjiagou Lagerstätte, South China

Yunhuan Liu, Jiachen Qin, Qi Wang, Andreas Maas, Baichuan Duan, Yanan Zhang, Hu Zhang, Tiequan Shao & Huaqiao Zhang
Although molecular studies estimated that cycloneuralians might have originated in the Ediacaran Period and diversified in the early Cambrian, it was not until 2014 that they were first reported from the Cambrian Fortunian Stage. To date only two species and five indeterminate forms have been described. Here, we report new three‐dimensionally phosphatized microfossils of cycloneuralians from the Fortunian Zhangjiagou Lagerstätte, South China. Two new genera and species, Qinscolex spinosus gen. et sp. nov. and Shanscolex...

Data from: Middle Permian fusulines from the Thitsipin Formation of Shan State, Myanmar and their palaeobiogeographical and palaeogeographical implications

Yichun Zhang, Kyipyar Aung, Shuzhong Shen, Hua Zhang, Than Zaw, Lin Ding, Fulong Cai & Kyain Sein
Fusuline faunas including 29 species belonging to 19 genera/subgenera are described from the Thitsipin Formation in eight sections/localities on the Shan Plateau in eastern Myanmar. These fusulines broadly indicate a Midian (middle Permian, Guadalupian) age. The lower diversity and the presence of some genera, such as Monodiexodina and Eopolydiexodina, suggest that the Sibumasu Block belonged to the palaeobiogeographic Cimmerian Province during the Midian. Furthermore, quantitative cluster analyses of middle Permian fusulines from the Shan Plateau...

Data and code for a high-resolution summary of Cambrian to Early Triassic marine invertebrate biodiversity

Jun-Xuan Fan, Shu-Zhong Shen, Xiang-Dong Wang, Yue Wang, Hua Zhang, Xu Chen, Guo-Xiang Li, Yi-Chun Zhang, Yu-Kun Shi, Dong-Xun Yuan, Qing Chen, Lin-Na Zhang, Ying-Ying Zhao, Jiao Yang, Xu-Dong Hou & Peter M. Sadler
Data compilation and standardization were conducted through the Geobiodiversity Database from 2013 to 2017. The raw dataset contained 266,110 local Cambrian to Triassic records of 45,318 taxonomic units from 3,766 published stratigraphic sections. These were collected from all major Chinese tectonic plates. The authors spent three years verifying the taxonomic assignments into a consistent paleontological taxonomic classification system. Identifications to genus or higher taxonomic ranks were omitted. All non-marine fossil groups (e.g., plants, vertebrates, pollen,...

Stratigraphic column of the Xiazhen Formation with the 18 stromatoporoid-bearing intervals

Juwan Jeon, Kun Liang, Jino Park, Stephen Kershaw & Yuandong Zhang
A diverse labechiid stromatoporoid assemblage that includes 16 species in 8 genera was found in the Upper Ordovician Xiazhen Formation (mid-late Katian) at Zhuzhai, Jiangxi Province of South China. The assemblage is characterized by a combination of: a) North China provincial species succeeding from their origination in the Darriwilian, including Pseudostylodictyon poshanense Ozaki, 1938, Labechia shanhsiensis Yabe and Sugiyama, 1930, Lb. variabilis Yabe and Sugiyama, 1930 and Labechiella regularis (Yabe and Sugiyama, 1930), and b)...

Data from: Revision of Ordovician chitinozoan Lagenochitina esthonica sensu lato: morphometrics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography

Yan Liang, Jaak Nõlvak, Honghe Xu, Yansen Chen & Olle Hints
Data presented here contribute to the results documented in the paper: Liang, Y., Nõlvak, J., Xu, H., Chen, Y. and Hints, O. (2021) Revision of Ordovician chitinozoan Lagenochitina esthonica sensu lato: morphometrics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography. Journal of Paleontology, in press. Two datasets are included, one is Supplemental Data 1 cited in Liang et al. (2021) which contains detailed information of the occurrence data of previously published Lagenochitina esthonica. The other is Supplemental Data 2 cited...

Data from: A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran theropod with preserved evidence of membranous wings

Xing Xu, Xiaoting Zheng, Corwin Sullivan, Xiaoli Wang, Lida Xing, Yan Wang, Xiaomei Zhang, Jingmai K. O'Connor, Fucheng Zhang & Yanhong Pan
The wings of birds and their closest theropod relatives share a uniform fundamental architecture, with pinnate flight feathers as the key component. Here we report a new scansoriopterygid theropod, Yi qi gen. et sp. nov., based on a new specimen from the Middle–Upper Jurassic period Tiaojishan Formation of Hebei Province, China. Yi is nested phylogenetically among winged theropods but has large stiff filamentous feathers of an unusual type on both the forelimb and hindlimb. However,...

Data from: There is no general model for occlusal kinematics in conodonts

Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Pablo Plasencia, David Jones, Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Jingeng Sha, Hector Botella, Philip C. J. Donoghue & Philip C.J. Donoghue
Knowledge of conodont element function is based largely on analysis of morphologically similar P1 elements of few comparatively closely related species known from abundant articulated remains. From these, a stereotypical pattern of rotational occlusion has been inferred, leading to the suggestion that this may represent a general model for ozarkodinin P1 elements at the very least. We test the generality of this occlusal model through functional analysis of Pseudofurnishius murcianus P1 elements which, though superficially...

A ten-faced hexangulaconulariid from Cambrian Stage 2 of South China

Junfeng Guo, Jian Han, Heyo Van Iten, Zuchen Song, Yaqin Qiang, Wenzhe Wang, Zhifei Zhang & Guoxiang Li
Hexangulaconulariids (Cambrian stages 1‒2) are an extinct group of medusozoan polyps having a biradially symmetrical, fan-shaped periderm that is distinct from those of medusozoan polyps showing three-, four-, five-, or six-fold radial symmetry. Hexangulaconulariids exhibit substantial variation in gross morphology, including variation in the number of faces on each of the two major sides of the periderm. An intermediate taxon of hexangulaconulariids with ten faces (five on each major side) was expected. Here we describe...

Data from: Evolution of the conodont Diplognathodus ellesmerensis from D. benderi sp. nov. at the Bashkirian-Moscovian (Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian) boundary in South China

Keyi Hu, Nicholas Hogancamp, Lance Lambert, Yuping Qi & Jitao Chen
Conodont assemblages from the Bashkirian-Moscovian boundary interval in the Naqing section, South China have been studied in detail. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis to study the evolution of Diplognathodus ellesmerensis is presented. This analysis helped recognize a distinct new species, D. benderi sp. nov., which represents the direct evolutionary ancestor of D. ellesmerensis. The potential of using the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of D. ellesmerensis as the Bashkirian-Moscovian boundary marker is re-evaluated via biostratigraphic correlations...

Burmorussidae, a new family of parasitic wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber

Zhang Qi, Kopylov Dmitry, Rasnitsyn Alexandr, Zheng Yan & Zhang Haichun
A new genus and species, Burmorussus mirabilis, is described based on two specimens from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, and considered to be a specialized parasitic wasp of wood-living hosts. The new taxon is characterized by an orussid-like ocellar crown, big eyes, antennae attached well above the clypeus, and antennal grooves or ventral transverse frontal carinae absent. Additionally, all legs carry a prominent lanceolate lobe on the 3rd tarsomere. A similar structure is found, but organized...

Data from: First record of organic-walled microfossils from the Tonian Shiwangzhuang Formation of the Tumen Group in western Shandong, North China

Chun-Mei Han, Lei Chen, Guang-Jin Li, Ke Pang, Wei Wang, Guang-Zhao Zhou, Le Yang, Wei-Guo Lyu, Kai Wang, Zhen-Hua Zhong, Cheng-Xi Wu & Feng-Jie Yang
Organic-walled microfossils offer an important window onto the biospheric evolution in pre-Cryogenian and provide biostratigraphic implications for many Proterozoic fossiliferous sequences which are poorly age constrained for the lack of reliable radiometric date. Recently, macroscopic carbonaceous compression fossils have been reported for the first time from the Tonian Shiwangzhuang Formation of the Tumen Group in western Shandong, North China. However, organic-walled microfossils have never been discovered in the Shiwangzhuang Formation before. To improve our knowledge...

Data from: A new approach for investigating spatial relationships of ichnofossils: a case study of Ediacaran–Cambrian animal traces

Emily Mitchell, Scott Evans, Zhe Chen & Shuhai Xiao
Abstract — Trace fossils record foraging behaviours, the search for resources in patchy environments, of animals in the rock record. Quantification of the strength, density and nature of foraging behaviours enables the investigation of how these may have changed through time. Here, we present a novel approach to explore such patterns using spatial point process analyses to quantify the scale and strength of ichnofossil spatial distributions on horizontal bedding planes. To demonstrate the utility of...

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