404 Works

Data from: Seasonality in communication and collective decision-making in ants

Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Caroline Jordan, Gregory Mayer, Sarah Hovsepian, Martin Giurfa & Nigel R. Franks
The ability of animals to adjust their behaviour according to seasonal changes in their ecology is crucial for their fitness. Eusocial insects display strong collective behavioural seasonality, yet the mechanisms underlying such changes are poorly understood. We show that nest preference by emigrating Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies is influenced by a season-specific modulatory pheromone that may help tune decision-making according to seasonal constraints. The modulatory pheromone triggers aversion towards low-quality nests and enhances colony cohesion...

Data from: Performance of individual vs group sampling for inferring dispersal under isolation by distance

Natacha Luximon, Eric J. Petit & Thomas Broquet
Models of isolation-by-distance formalize the effects of genetic drift and gene flow in a spatial context where gene dispersal is spatially limited. These models have been used to show that, at an appropriate spatial scale, dispersal parameters can be inferred from the regression of genetic differentiation against geographic distance between sampling locations. This approach is compelling because it is relatively simple and robust, and has rather low sampling requirements. In continuous populations, dispersal can be...

Data from: Male cognitive performance declines in the absence of sexual selection

Brian Hollis & Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of male ornaments and armaments, but its role in the evolution of cognition—the ability to process, retain and use information—is largely unexplored. Because successful courtship is likely to involve processing information in complex, competitive sexual environments, we hypothesized that sexual selection contributes to the evolution and maintenance of cognitive abilities in males. To test this, we removed mate choice and mate competition from experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster...

Data from: Homologous sex chromosomes in three deeply divergent anuran species

Alan Brelsford, Matthias Stöck, Caroline Betto-Colliard, Sylvain Dubey, Christophe Dufresnes, Hélène Jourdan-Pineau, Nicolas Rodrigues, Romain Savary, Roberto Sermier & Nicolas Perrin
Comparative genomic studies are revealing that, in sharp contrast with the strong stability found in birds and mammals, sex determination mechanisms are surprisingly labile in cold-blooded vertebrates, with frequent transitions between different pairs of sex chromosomes. It was recently suggested that, in context of this high turnover, some chromosome pairs might be more likely than others to be co-opted as sex chromosomes. Empirical support, however, is still very limited. Here we show that sex-linked markers...

Data from: Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects

Tanja Schwander, Bernard J. Crespi, Regine Gries & Gerhard Gries
Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the...

Data from: The balanced-lethal system of crested newts: a ghost of sex chromosomes past?

Christine Grossen, Samuel Neuenschwander & Nicolas Perrin
Balanced lethal systems are more than biological curiosities: As theory predicts, they should quickly be eliminated through the joint forces of recombination and selection. That such systems might become fixed in natural populations poses a challenge to evolutionary theory. Here we address the case of a balanced lethal system fixed in crested newts and related species, which makes 50% of offspring die early in development. All adults are heteromorphic for chromosome pair 1. The two...

Data from: Genetic compatibility affects division of labor in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile

Romain Libbrecht & Laurent Keller
Division of labor is central to the organization of insect societies. Within-colony comparisons between subfamilies of workers (patrilines or matrilines) revealed genetic effects on division of labor in many social insect species. Although this has been taken as evidence for additive genetic effects on division of labor, it has never been experimentally tested. To determine the relative roles of additive and non-additive genetic effects (e.g., genetic compatibility, epistasis and parent-of-origin imprinting effects) on worker behavior,...

Data from: Automated quantitative histology reveals vascular morphodynamics during Arabidopsis hypocotyl secondary growth

Martial Sankar, Kaisa Nieminen, Laura Ragni, Ioannis Xenarios & Christian S. Hardtke
Among various advantages, their small size makes model organisms preferred subjects of investigation. Yet, even in model systems detailed analysis of numerous developmental processes at cellular level is severely hampered by their scale. For instance, secondary growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls creates a radial pattern of highly specialized tissues that comprises several thousand cells starting from a few dozen. This dynamic process is difficult to follow because of its scale and because it can only be...

Data from: Systematics of snow voles (Chionomys, Arvicolinae) revisited

Glenn Yannic, Reto Burri, Vladimir G. Malikov & Peter Vogel
To elucidate the evolutionary history of snow voles, genus Chionomys, we studied the phylogeography of Chionomys nivalis across its range and investigated its relationships with two congeneric species, C. gud and C. roberti, using independent molecular markers. Analyses were based on mitochondrial (~940 bp cyt b) and Y-chromosomal (~2020 bp from three introns) genetic variation. Our data provide conclusive evidence for a Caucasian and Middle Eastern origin for the three species and a subsequent westward...

Data from: Maternal and paternal contributions to pathogen resistance dependent on development stage in a whitefish (Salmonidae)

Emily S. Clark, Manuel Pompini, Lucas Marques Da Cunha & Claus Wedekind
1. It is often assumed that maternal and paternal contributions to offspring phenotype change over the lifetime of an individual. However, studies on parental effects typically suffer from the problems that heritabilities and maternal environmental effects are difficult to separate, and that both may depend on environmental factors and developmental stage 2. In order to experimentally disentangle maternal from paternal contributions and the likely effects of developmental stage from ecological effects, we sampled a natural...

Data from: Tracking individuals shows spatial fidelity is a key regulator of ant social organization

Danielle P. Mersch, Alessandro Crespi & Laurent Keller
Ants live in organized societies with a marked division of labor among workers, but little is known about how this is generated. We use a tracking system to continuously monitor individually-tagged workers in six colonies of the ant Camponotus fellah over 41 days. Network analyses of over 9 million interactions revealed three distinct groups that differ in behavioral repertoires. Each group represents a functional behavioral unit with workers moving from one group to the next...

Data from: Corticosterone regulates multiple colour traits in Lacerta [Zootoca] vivipara males

Luis M. San-Jose & Patrick S. Fitze
Ornamental colours usually evolve as honest signals of quality, which is supported by the fact that they frequently depend on individual condition. It has generally been suggested that some, but not all types of ornamental colours are condition dependent, indicating that different evolutionary mechanisms underlie the evolution of multiple types of ornamental colours even when these are exhibited by the same species. Stress hormones, which negatively affect condition, have been shown to affect colour traits...

Data from: Diversifying selection and color-biased dispersal in the asp viper

Sylvain Dubey, Valérie Zwahlen, Konrad Mebert, Jean-Claude Monney, Philippe Golay, Thomas Ott, Thierry Durand, Gilles Thiery, Laura Kaiser, Silvia N. Geser & Sylvain Ursenbacher
Background: The presence of intraspecific color polymorphism can have multiple impacts on the ecology of a species; as a consequence, particular color morphs may be strongly selected for in a given habitat type. For example, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) shows a high level of color polymorphism. A blotched morph (cryptic) is common throughout its range (central and western Europe), while a melanistic morph is frequently found in montane populations, presumably for thermoregulatory reasons. Besides,...

Data from: Genomic evidence for role of inversion 3RP of Drosophila melanogaster in facilitating climate change adaptation

Rahul V. Rane, Lea Rako, Siu Fai Lee, Ary A. Hoffmann & Martin Kapun
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are common in animals and plants, and recent models suggest that alternative arrangements spread by capturing different combinations of alleles acting additively or epistatically to favour local adaptation. It is also thought that inversions typically maintain favoured combinations for a long time by suppressing recombination between alternative chromosomal arrangements. Here, we consider patterns of linkage disequilibrium and genetic divergence in an old inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster (In(3R)Payne) known to be associated...

Data from: Timeframe of speciation inferred from secondary contact zones in the European tree frog radiation (Hyla arborea group)

Christophe Dufresnes, Alan Brelsford, Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailović, Nikolay Tzankov, Petros Lymberakis & Nicolas Perrin
Background: Hybridization between incipient species is expected to become progressively limited as their genetic divergence increases and reproductive isolation proceeds. Amphibian radiations and their secondary contact zones are useful models to infer the timeframes of speciation, but empirical data from natural systems remains extremely scarce. Here we follow this approach in the European radiation of tree frogs (Hyla arborea group). We investigated a natural hybrid zone between two lineages (Hyla arborea and Hyla orientalis) of...

Data from: The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement: methods for arriving at consensus and developing reporting guidelines

Stuart G. Nicholls, Pauline Quach, Erik Von Elm, Astrid Guttmann, David Moher, Irene Petersen, Henrik T. Sørensen, Liam Smeeth, Sinéad M. Langan & Eric I. Benchimol
Objective: Routinely collected health data, collected for administrative and clinical purposes, without specific a priori research questions, are increasingly used for observational, comparative effectiveness, health services research, and clinical trials. The rapid evolution and availability of routinely collected data for research has brought to light specific issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines. The aim of the present project was to determine the priorities of stakeholders in order to guide the development of the REporting...

Data from: Geographic variation in sex-chromosome differentiation in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Nicolas Rodrigues, Juha Merilä, Cécile Patrelle & Nicolas Perrin
In sharp contrast with birds and mammals, sex-determination systems in ectothermic vertebrates are often highly dynamic and sometimes multifactorial. Both environmental and genetic effects have been documented in common frogs (Rana temporaria). One genetic linkage group, mapping to the largest pair of chromosomes and harboring the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1, associates with sex in several populations throughout Europe, but association varies both within and among populations. Here we show that sex association at this linkage...

Data from: Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers

Caroline Betto-Colliard, Roberto Sermier, Spartak Litvinchuk, Nicolas Perrin & Matthias Stöck
Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages...

Data from: Additive genetic variation for tolerance to estrogen pollution in natural populations of Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp., Salmonidae)

Gregory Brazzola, Nathalie Chèvre & Claus Wedekind
The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within...

Data from: Evolution of reduced postcopulatory molecular interactions in Drosophila populations lacking sperm competition

Brian Hollis, David Houle & Tadeusz J. Kawecki
In many species with internal fertilization, molecules transferred in the male ejaculate trigger and interact with physiological changes in females. It is controversial to what extent these interactions between the sexes act synergistically to mediate the female switch to a reproductive state or instead reflect sexual antagonism evolved as a byproduct of sexual selection on males. To address this question, we eliminated sexual selection by enforcing monogamy in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for 65 generations...

Data from: Systematic site selection for multispecies monitoring networks

Silvia B. Carvalho, João Gonçalves, Antoine Guisan & João Honrado
The importance of monitoring biodiversity to detect and understand changes throughout time and to inform management is increasingly recognized. Monitoring schemes should be globally unified, spatially integrated across scales, long term, and cost-efficient. We propose a framework to design optimized multispecies-targeted monitoring networks over large areas. The method builds upon previous developments on systematic conservation planning in terms of optimizing resource allocation in space, and comprises seven steps: (a) determine which questions will be addressed,...

Data from: Individual learning performance and exploratory activity are linked to colony foraging success in a mass-recruiting ant

Grégoire Pasquier & Christoph Grüter
Learning plays an important role in the life of many animals. In social insects, colony foraging success depends on the combined actions of many individuals and learning contributes to individual foraging success. In many ants, for example, route learning helps foragers to navigate between the nest and a food source. Here, we studied if the foraging success of a colony depends on the route-learning performance of its individuals. We used a doubly bifurcating T-maze to...

Data from: The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment

Jessica Purcell & Michel Chapuisat
Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we...

Data from: Sex-chromosome turnovers induced by deleterious mutation load

Olivier Blaser, Christine Grossen, Samuel Neuenschwander & Nicolas Perrin
In sharp contrast with mammals and birds, many cold-blooded vertebrates present homomorphic sex chromosomes. Empirical evidence supports a role for frequent turnovers, which replace non-recombining sex chromosomes before they have time to decay. Three main mechanisms have been proposed for such turnovers, relying either on neutral processes, sex-ratio selection, or intrinsic benefits of the new sex-determining genes (due e.g. to linkage with sexually antagonistic mutations). Here we suggest an additional mechanism, arising from the load...

Data from: Resprouter fraction in Cape Restionaceae assemblages varies with climate and soil type

Rafael O. Wüest, Glenn Litsios, Félix Forest, Christian Lexer, H. Peter Linder, Nicolas Salamin, Niklaus E. Zimmermann & Peter B. Pearman
While fire-induced changes in biodiversity are well documented, less is known about how fire impacts life-history variation and diversity of functional traits that represent distinct strategies for persistence in fire-driven ecosystems. One example is the dichotomy in which ‘resprouter’ species usually survive fires to produce new growth, while ‘reseeder’ species perish and re-establish from seed. Variable relative numbers of reseeder and resprouter species in local assemblages of Restionaceae (Poales) of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR),...

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