381 Works

Des testicules au cerveau. Convertir chirurgicalement un corps homosexuel (1916-1960)

Thierry Delessert
Chapitre 1 à : H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 17-34). Lausanne : Éditions HETSL

La fabrique chirurgicale du sexe. Une histoire de la sexuation des corps trans en Suisse romande (1940-1960)

Taline Garibian
Chapitre 2 à: In H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 35-49). Lausanne : Éditions HETSL

Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui

Hélène Martin & Marta Roca i Escoda
Avec les contributions de : Hélène Martin, Marta Roca i Escoda, Thierry Delessert, Taline Garibian, Rebecca Bendjama, Raphaëlle Bessette-Viens, Cynthia Kraus, Véronique Mottier, Vincent Barras, Marilène Vuille, Alexandra Afsary, Edmée Ballif, Anastasia Meidani et Arnaud Alessandrin. Par quelles technologies et en fonction de quelles idéologies la médecine participe-t-elle à façonner des corps "bien" sexués ? Comment les pratiques médicales contribuent-elles à l'établissement et au renouvellement des normes de sexe et de sexualité ? Les études...

New opabiniid diversifies the weirdest wonders of the euarthropod stem group

Joanna Wolfe, Stephen Pates, Rudy Lerosey-Aubril, Allison C. Daley & Javier Ortega-Hernández
Once considered ‘weird wonders’ of the Cambrian, the emblematic Burgess Shale animals Anomalocaris and Opabinia are now recognized as lower stem group euarthropods and have provided crucial data for constraining the polarity of key morphological characters in the group. Anomalocaris and its relatives (radiodonts) had a worldwide distribution and survived until at least the Devonian. However, despite intense study, Opabinia remains the only formally described opabiniid to date. Here we reinterpret a fossil from the...

Accepting and Modeling Uncertainty

Michael Piotrowski
Die Modellierung des Zweifels – Schlüsselideen und -konzepte zur graphbasierten Modellierung von Unsicherheiten. [Ausgewählte Beiträge der Tagung 19.-20.01.2018 an der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz] Hg. von Andreas Kuczera / Thorsten Wübbena / Thomas Kollatz. Wolfenbüttel 2019. (= Zeitschrift für digitale Geisteswissenschaften / Sonderbände, 4)

UBIPose

Skanda Muralidhar, Laurent Son Nguyen, Denise Frauendorfer, Jean-Marc Odobez, Marianne Schmid Mast, Daniel Gatica-Perez, Yu Yu & Kenneth Alberto Funes Mora
The UBIPose dataset is intended for the evaluation of head pose estimation algorithms in natural and challenging cenarios. This dataset provides the annotation of the positions of 6 facial landmarks (two corners of two eyes, nasal root and nose tip) in 14.4 K frames and 3D head poses (roll, pitch, yaw) in 10.4 K frames.

Les héritages en Suisse : évolution depuis 1911 et importance pour les impôts

Marius Bruelhart

Eidgenössische Wahlen 2019. Wahlteilnahme und Wahlentscheid

Anke Tresch, Lukas Lauener, Laurent Bernhard, Georg Lutz & Laura Scaperrotta

Data from: Disentangling the processes driving plant assemblages in mountain grasslands across spatial scales and environmental gradients

Daniel Scherrer, Heidi K. Mod, Julien Pottier, Anne Dubuis-Litsios, Loïc Pellissier, Pascal Vittoz, Lars Götzenberger, Martin Zobel & Antoine Guisan
Habitat filtering and limiting similarity are well‐documented ecological assembly processes that hierarchically filter species across spatial scales, from a regional pool to local assemblages. However, information on the effects of fine‐scale spatial partitioning of species, working as an additional mechanism of coexistence, on community patterns is much scarcer. In this study, we quantified the importance of fine‐scale spatial partitioning, relative to habitat filtering and limiting similarity in structuring grassland communities in the western Swiss Alps....

Data from: Isotopic variation ccross the Audubon’s-myrtle warbler hybrid zone

David P. L. Toews, Alan Brelsford & Darren E. Irwin
Differences in seasonal migratory behaviours are thought to be an important component of reproductive isolation in many organisms. Stable isotopes have been used with success in estimating the location and qualities of disjunct breeding and wintering areas. However, few studies have used isotopic data to estimate the movements of hybrid offspring in species that form hybrid zones. Here, we use stable hydrogen to estimate the wintering locations and migratory patterns of two common and widespread...

Data from: Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa

Daniel K. Fabian, Justin B. Lack, Vinayak Mathur, Christian Schlötterer, Paul S. Schmidt, John E. Pool & Thomas Flatt
Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this species remains poorly understood. Moreover, most previous work has been performed on derived European, American and Australian populations, but whether...

Data from: Predation drives local adaptation of phenotypic plasticity

Julia Reger, Martin I. Lind, Matthew R. Robinson & Andrew P. Beckerman
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual genotype to alter aspects of its phenotype depending on the current environment. It is central to the persistence, resistance and resilience of populations facing variation in physical or biological factors. Genetic variation in plasticity is pervasive, which suggests its local adaptation is plausible. Existing studies on the adaptation of plasticity typically focus on single traits and a few populations, while theory about interactions among genes (for example,...

Data from: Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress toward speciation between European river and brook lampreys

Quentin Rougemont, Arnaud Gaigher, Emilien Lasne, Jessica Côte, Maïra Coke, Anne-Laure Besnard, Sophie Launey & Guillaume Evanno
Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetics analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000...

Data from: Patterns of earthworm, enchytraeid and nematode diversity and community structure in urban soils of different ages

Joël Amossé, Klára Dózsa-Farkas, Gergely Boros, Guy Rochat, Gauthier Sandoz, Bertrand Fournier, Edward A.D. Mitchell & Renée-Claire Le Bayon
Annelids (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and nematodes are common soil organisms and play important roles in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and creation of soil structure and porosity. However, these three groups have rarely been studied together and only few studies exist for urban soils. We studied the diversity and community composition of annelids and nematodes in soils spanning more than two centuries of urban soil development in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) and assessed the relationships 1) among...

Data from: Hybridization as a threat in climate relict Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae)

Nils Arrigo, Sébastien Bétrisey, Larissa Graff, Julia Bilat, Emmanuel Gerber & Gregor Kozlowski
Field studies and conceptual work on hybridization-mediated extinction risk in climate relicts are extremely rare. Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae) is one of the most emblematic climate relicts in Europe with few isolated populations in the Alpine arc. The extent of introgression with related lowland and generalist species Nuphar lutea has never been studied using molecular methods. All biogeographical regions where N. pumila naturally occurs in the neighbourhood of the Alpine arc were sampled and studied using...

Data from: Group-size diversity in public goods games

Jorge Peña
Public goods games are models of social dilemmas where cooperators pay a cost for the production of a public good while defectors free ride on the contributions of cooperators. In the traditional framework of evolutionary game theory, the payoffs of cooperators and defectors result from interactions in groups formed by binomial sampling from an infinite population. Despite empirical evidence showing that group-size distributions in nature are highly heterogeneous, most models of social evolution assume that...

Data from: Profound genetic divergence and asymmetric parental genome contributions as hallmarks of hybrid speciation in polyploid toads

Caroline Betto-Colliard, Sylvia Hofmann, Roberto Sermier, Nicolas Perrin & Matthias Stöck
The evolutionary causes and consequences of allopolyploidization, an exceptional pathway to instant hybrid speciation, are poorly investigated in animals. In particular, when and why hybrid polyploids versus diploids are produced, and constraints on sources of paternal and maternal ancestors, remain underexplored. Using the Palearctic green toad radiation (including bisexually reproducing species of three ploidy levels) as model, we generate a range-wide multi-locus phylogeny of 15 taxa and present four new insights: (i) At least five...

Data from: A melanin-based trait is more strongly related to body size in the tropics than in temperate regions in the globally distributed barn owl family

Alexandre Roulin, Vera Uva & Andrea Romano
Life history traits differ between organisms living in the tropics, northern and southern hemispheres, and sexual selection is thought to be stronger close to the equator than in temperate regions. Although birds are often supposed to be more brightly coloured in the tropics, the current evidence of geographic variation in the intensity of sexual selection and sex-specific natural selection is equivocal. Whether sex-specific traits signal aspects of individual quality better in the tropics than in...

Data from: Selection for associative learning of color stimuli reveals correlated evolution of this learning ability across multiple stimuli and rewards.

Maartje Liefting, Katja M. Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M. Smid & Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with...

Data from: Broad-scale genetic diversity of Cannabis for forensic applications

Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet & Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative...

Data from: Natural selection in a post-glacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl

Sylvain Antoniazza, Ricardo Kanitz, Samuel Neuenschwander, Reto Burri, Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin & Jérôme Goudet
Gradients of variation – or clines – have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation-by-distance or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait....

Data from: Sex-specific estimates of dispersal show female philopatry and male dispersal in a promiscuous amphibian, the alpine salamander (Salamandra atra)

Véronique Helfer, Thomas Broquet & Luca Fumagalli
Amphibians display wide variations in life-history traits and life cycles that should prove useful to explore the evolution of sex-biased dispersal, but quantitative data on sex-specific dispersal patterns are scarce. Here we focused on Salamandra atra, an endemic alpine species showing peculiar life-history traits. Strictly terrestrial and viviparous, the species has a promiscuous mating system and females reproduce only every three to four years. In the present study, we provide quantitative estimates of asymmetries in...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of interlinked public goods traits: an experimental study of siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Adin Ross-Gillespie, Zoé Dumas & Rolf Kümmerli
Public goods cooperation is common in microbes, and there is much interest in understanding how such traits evolve. Research in recent years has identified several important factors that shape the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, yet few studies have investigated scenarios involving interactions between multiple public goods. Here we offer general predictions about the evolutionary trajectories of two public goods traits having positive, negative or neutral regulatory influence on one another's expression, and we report...

Data from: Comparison of self-perceived cardiovascular disease risk among smokers with Framingham and PROCAM scores: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial

Benoit Desgraz, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nicolas Rodondi, Jacques Cornuz & Carole Clair
Objectives: Previous studies suggest that smokers have a misperception of their 10-year cardiovascular risk. We aimed to compare 10-year cardiovascular risk self-perception and calculated risk among smokers willing to quit and assess the determinants of a possible misperception. Design: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation. Participants: 514 participants, mean age 51.1 years, 46% women, 98% Caucasian. Eligible participants were regular smokers, aged between 40 and 70 years,...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic population divergence on a microgeographic scale in brown trout

Rike B. Stelkens, Geoffrey Jaffuel, Matthias Escher & Claus Wedekind
Salmonid populations of many rivers are rapidly declining. One possible explanation is that habitat fragmentation increases genetic drift and reduces the populations’ potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. We measured the genetic and eco-morphological diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Swiss stream system, using multivariate statistics and Bayesian clustering. We found large genetic and phenotypic variation within only 40 km of stream length. Eighty-eight percent of all pairwise FST comparisons and 50%...

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