28 Works

Des testicules au cerveau. Convertir chirurgicalement un corps homosexuel (1916-1960)

Thierry Delessert
Chapitre 1 à : H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 17-34). Lausanne : Éditions HETSL

La fabrique chirurgicale du sexe. Une histoire de la sexuation des corps trans en Suisse romande (1940-1960)

Taline Garibian
Chapitre 2 à: In H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 35-49). Lausanne : Éditions HETSL

Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui

Hélène Martin & Marta Roca i Escoda
Avec les contributions de : Hélène Martin, Marta Roca i Escoda, Thierry Delessert, Taline Garibian, Rebecca Bendjama, Raphaëlle Bessette-Viens, Cynthia Kraus, Véronique Mottier, Vincent Barras, Marilène Vuille, Alexandra Afsary, Edmée Ballif, Anastasia Meidani et Arnaud Alessandrin. Par quelles technologies et en fonction de quelles idéologies la médecine participe-t-elle à façonner des corps "bien" sexués ? Comment les pratiques médicales contribuent-elles à l'établissement et au renouvellement des normes de sexe et de sexualité ? Les études...

Accepting and Modeling Uncertainty

Michael Piotrowski
Die Modellierung des Zweifels – Schlüsselideen und -konzepte zur graphbasierten Modellierung von Unsicherheiten. [Ausgewählte Beiträge der Tagung 19.-20.01.2018 an der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz] Hg. von Andreas Kuczera / Thorsten Wübbena / Thomas Kollatz. Wolfenbüttel 2019. (= Zeitschrift für digitale Geisteswissenschaften / Sonderbände, 4)

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Katja Hoedjes, Joost Van Den Heuvel, Martin Kapun, Laurent Keller, Thomas Flatt & Bas Zwaan
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, while studies of large-effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of...

Sexual selection reveals a cost of pathogen resistance undetected in life history assays

Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and parasites are thought to be costly and thus to lead to evolutionary trade-offs between resistance and life history traits expressed in the absence of the infective agents. On the other hand, sexually selected traits are often proposed to indicate "good genes" for resistance, which implies a positive genetic correlation between resistance and success in sexual selection. Here I show that experimental evolution of improved resistance to the intestinal pathogen...

Data from: Bacterial communities within Phengaris (Maculinea) alcon caterpillars are shifted following transition from solitary living to social parasitism of Myrmica ant colonies

Mark A. Szenteczki, Camille Pitteloud, Luca Pietro Casacci, Lucie Kešnerová, Melissa R. L. Whitaker, Philipp Engel, Roger Vila & Nadir Alvarez
Bacterial symbionts are known to facilitate a wide range of physiological processes and ecological interactions for their hosts. In spite of this, caterpillars with highly diverse life histories appear to lack resident microbiota. Gut physiology, endogenous digestive enzymes, and limited social interactions may contribute to this pattern, but the consequences of shifts in social activity and diet on caterpillar microbiota are largely unknown. Phengaris alcon caterpillars undergo particularly dramatic social and dietary shifts when they...

Data from: A clinal polymorphism in the insulin signaling transcription factor foxo contributes to life-history adaptation in Drosophila

Esra Durmaz, Subhash Rajpurohit, Nicolas Betancourt, Daniel K. Fabian, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
A fundamental aim of adaptation genomics is to identify polymorphisms that underpin variation in fitness traits. In D. melanogaster latitudinal life-history clines exist on multiple continents and make an excellent system for dissecting the genetics of adaptation. We have previously identified numerous clinal SNPs in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS), a pathway known from mutant studies to affect life history. However, the effects of natural variants in this pathway remain poorly understood. Here we investigate...


Hélène Martin & Marta Roca i Escoda
Conclusion à : H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 153-156). Lausanne : Éditions HETSL.

La sexologie américaine made in Switzerland : naissance d'une clinique des troubles sexuels (Lausanne, 1950-1980)

Cynthia Kraus, Véronique Mottier & Vincent Barras
Chapitre 4 de: H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 69-81), Lausanne : Éditions HETSL.

Pratiques sous surveillance : le vécu de la prescription de contraception féminine en Suisse romande

Alexandra Afsary
Chapitre 6 de: H. Martin & M. Roca i Escoda (dir.), Sexuer le corps. Huit études sur des pratiques médicales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui (pp. 101-118), Lausanne : Éditions HETSL.

Data from: Baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels are heritable and genetically correlated in a barn owl population

Paul Béziers, Luis M. San José Garcia, Bettina Almasi, Lukas Jenni & Alexandre Roulin
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is responsible for the regulation of corticosterone, a hormone that is essential in the mediation of energy allocation and physiological stress. As a continuous source of challenge and stress for organisms, the environment has promoted the evolution of physiological adaptations and led to a great variation in corticosterone profiles within or among individuals, populations and species. In order to evolve via natural selection, corticosterone levels do not only depend on the...

Data from: Haemosporidian parasites depress breeding success and plumage coloration in female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica)

Andrea Romano, Riccardo Nodari, Claudio Bandi, Manuela Caprioli, Alessandra Costanzo, Roberto Ambrosini, Diego Rubolini, Marco Parolini, Sara Epis & Nicola Saino
Parasites are major effectors of natural selection and also play a role in sexual selection processes. Haemosporidian blood parasites are common in vertebrates and have been shown to vary in their effects depending on both the parasite and host species, on the host trait investigated as well as on host condition and stage of infection. Here we investigated infection of adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) by Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus species during the chronic stage...

Data from: No additive genetic variance for tolerance to ethynylestradiol exposure in natural populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta)

Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Anshu Uppal, Emily Seddon, David Nusbaumer, Etienne L.M. Vermeirssen & Claus Wedekind
One of the most common and potent pollutants of freshwater habitats is 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic component of oral contraceptives that is not completely eliminated during sewage treatment and that threatens natural populations of fish. Previous studies found additive genetic variance for the tolerance against EE2 in different salmonid fishes and concluded that rapid evolution to this type of pollution seems possible. However, these previous studies were done with fishes that are lake-dwelling and hence...

Winter is coming: harsh environments limit independent reproduction of cooperative-breeding queens in a socially polymorphic ant

Ornela De Gasperin, Pierre Blacher, Guglielmo Grasso & Michel Chapuisat
Animals that live in cooperative breeding groups frequently inhabit harsh environments. It is widely accepted that harsh environments hinder independent reproduction, and this constraint favours individuals staying in family groups. Yet the assumption that harsh ecological conditions reduce the success of members of cooperative breeding groups when breeding independently has not been experimentally tested. We addressed this shortcoming using the socially polymorphic Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. This species has single-queen (independent breeders), and multiple-queen...

Data from: Impact of deleterious mutations, sexually antagonistic selection and mode of recombination suppression on transitions between male and female heterogamety.

Paul A. Saunders, Samuel Neuenschwander & Nicolas Perrin
Deleterious mutations accumulating on non-recombining Y chromosomes can drive XY to XY turnovers, as they allow to replace the old mutation-loaded Y by a new mutation-free one. The same process is thought to prevent XY to ZW turnovers, because the latter requires fixation of the ancestral Y, assuming dominance of the emergent feminizing mutation. Using individual-based simulations, we explored whether and how an epistatically dominant W allele can spread in a young XY system that...

Data from: No mate preference associated with the supergene controlling social organization in Alpine silver ants

Amaury Avril, Sacha Zahnd, Jelisaveta Djordjevic & Michel Chapuisat
Disassortative mating is a powerful mechanism stabilizing polymorphisms at sex chromosomes and other supergenes. The Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi, has two forms of social organization – single‐queen and multiple‐queen colonies – determined by alternate haplotypes at a large supergene. Here, we explore whether mate preference contributes to the maintenance of the genetic polymorphism at the social supergene. With mate choice experiments, we found that females and males mated randomly with respect to social form....

Data from: Feeding increases the number of offspring but decreases parental investment of Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata

Jessica Bellworthy, Jorge Spangenberg & Maoz Fine
1. Successful reproductive output and recruitment is crucial to coral persistence and recovery following anthropogenic stress. Feeding is known to alter coral physiology and increase resilience to bleaching. 2. The goal of the study was to address the knowledge gap of the influence of feeding on reproductive output and offspring phenotype. 3. Colonies of Stylophora pistillata from the Northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) were fed an Artemia diet or unfed for five months during...

Spatial structure affects phage efficacy in infecting dual-strain biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Samuele Testa, Sarah Berger, Philippe Piccardi, Frank Oechslin, Grégory Resch & Sara Mitri
Bacterial viruses, or phage, are key members of natural microbial communities. Yet much research on bacterial-phage interactions has been conducted in liquid cultures involving single bacterial strains. Here we explored how bacterial diversity affects the success of lytic phage in structured communities. We infected a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 with a lytic phage Pseudomonas 352 in the presence versus absence of an insensitive P. aeruginosa strain PA14, in liquid culture versus colonies on agar....

Embryo survival in the oviduct not significantly influenced by major histocompatibility complex social signaling in the horse

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Claus Wedekind, Dominik Burger & Carolina Herrera
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences sexual selection in various vertebrates. Recently, MHC-linked social signaling was also shown to influence female fertility in horses (Equus caballus) diagnosed 17 days after fertilization. However, it remained unclear at which stage the pregnancy was terminated. Here we test if MHC-linked cryptic female choice in horses happens during the first days of pregnancy, i.e., until shortly after embryonic entrance into the uterus and before fixation in the endometrium. We...

Data from: No signal of deleterious mutation accumulation in conserved gene sequences of extant asexual hexapods

Alexander Brandt, Jens Bast, Stefan Scheu, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Kai Schütte, Ryuichiro Machida & Ken Kraaijeveld
Loss of sex and recombination is generally assumed to impede the effectiveness of purifying selection and to result in the accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations. Empirical evidence for this has come from several studies investigating mutational load in a small number of individual genes. However, recent whole transcriptome based studies have yielded inconsistent results, hence questioning the validity of the assumption of mutational meltdown in asexual populations. Here, we study the effectiveness of purifying selection...

Characterization and mutagenesis of Chinese hamster ovary cells endogenous retroviruses to inactivate viral particle release

Pierre-Olivier Duroy, Sandra Bosshard, Emanuel Schmid‐Siegert, Samuel Neuenschwander, Ghislaine Arib, Philippe Lemercier, Jacqueline Masternak, Lucien Roesch, Flavien Buron, Pierre‐Alain Girod, Ioannis Xenarios & Nicolas Mermod
The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells used to produce biopharmaceutical proteins are known to contain type‐C endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences in their genome and to release retroviral‐like particles. Although evidence for their infectivity is missing, this has raised safety concerns. As the genomic origin of these particles remained unclear, we characterized type‐C ERV elements at the genome, transcriptome, and viral particle RNA levels. We identified 173 type‐C ERV sequences clustering into three functionally conserved groups....

Lack of statistical power as a major limitation in understanding MHC-mediated immunocompetence in wild vertebrate populations

Arnaud Gaigher, Reto Burri, Luis M. San-Jose, Alexandre Roulin & Luca Fumagalli
Disentangling the sources of variation in developing an effective immune response against pathogens is of major interest to immunoecology and evolutionary biology. To date, the link between immunocompetence and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received little attention in wild animals, despite the key role of MHC genes in activating the adaptive immune system. Although several studies point to a link between MHC and immunocompetence, negative findings have also been reported. Such...

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

Data from: Genetic diversity in frogs linked to past and future climate change on the roof of the world

Junhua Hu, Yan Huang, Jianping Jiang & Antoine Guisan
Mountains, representing storehouses of biodiversity, endemism, and threatened species, are biodiversity hotspots of great conservation importance. However, increasing evidence indicates that mountain species throughout the world are responding to climate change, past or contemporary, by shifting their geographic distributions and patterns of genetic diversity, potentially affecting their adaptive capacity and increasing risk of extinction. Using the iconic high‐elevation frog Nanorana parkeri as indicator, we showed how spatial analyses of climatic stability combined with genetic data...

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  • 2019

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  • University of Lausanne
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Hamburg
  • University of Milan
  • Polish Academy of Sciences
  • University of Göttingen
  • University of Fribourg