38 Works

A Contractual Justification for Strong Measures against COVID-19

Laetitia Ramelet
Many countries have taken extensive measures to slow COVID-19’s progress and attempt to avert a sanitary collapse. Although the necessity of saving lives seems evident to many of us, these measures will nevertheless have dire economic effects and impose major costs on much of the population. A solid public justification is essential, for which a social contract perspective is useful. I argue that it helps us understand why such measures not only do justice to...

On the effect of asymmetrical trait inheritance on models of trait evolution

Pablo Duchen, Michael Alfaro, Jonathan Rolland, Nicolas Salamin & Daniele Silvestro
Current phylogenetic comparative methods modelling quantitative trait evolution generally assume that, during speciation, phenotypes are inherited identically between the two daughter species. This, however, neglects the fact that species consist of a set of individuals, each bearing its own trait value. Indeed, because descendent populations after speciation are samples of a parent population, we can expect their mean phenotypes to randomly differ from one another potentially generating a ``jump'' of mean phenotypes due to asymmetrical...

Taxinomie des constructions en si dans un corpus de français oral L'exemple d'OFROM

Gilles Corminboeuf & Timon Jahn

Erbschaften in der Schweiz: Entwicklung seit 1911 und Bedeutung für die Steuern

Marius Bruelhart

Multiple cleaner species provide simultaneous services to coral reef fish clients

Dan Exton & Benjamin Titus
Cleaning symbioses on tropical coral reefs are typically documented between two species: a single client fish and one or more conspecific cleaners. However, multiple Caribbean cleaner species often live sympatrically and have been anecdotally reported to simultaneously clean the same client. The patterns and processes driving these interactions are poorly understood and cleaning interactions involving multiple cleaner species may be subject to different driving forces than those involving a single cleaner species. Here we used...

Au fil du temps et des rencontres : une cartographie des réseaux personnels en Suisse

Gaëlle Aeby, Jacques-Antoine Gauthier & Eric D. Widmer

Scale-dependence of ecological assembly rules: insights from empirical datasets and joint species distribution modelling

Heidi Mod, Mathieu Chevalier, Miska Luoto & Antoine Guisan
1. A comprehensive understanding of the scale-dependency of environmental filtering and biotic interactions influencing the local assembly of species is paramount to derive realistic forecasts of the future of biodiversity and efficiently manage ecological communities. A classical assumption is that environmental filters are more prevalent at larger scales with diminishing effects towards the finest scales where biotic interactions become more decisive. Recently, a refinement was proposed stipulating that the scale-dependency of biotic interactions should relate...

Rapid climate change results in long-lasting spatial homogenization of phylogenetic diversity

Bianca Saladin, Loïc Pellissier, Catherine H. Graham, Michael P. Nobis, Nicolas Salamin & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Scientific understanding of biodiversity dynamics, resulting from past climate oscillations and projections of future changes in biodiversity, has advanced over the past decade. Little is known about how these responses, past or future, are spatially connected. Analyzing the spatial variability in biodiversity provides insight into how climate change affects the accumulation of diversity across space. Here, we evaluate the spatial variation of phylogenetic diversity of European seed plants among neighboring sites and assess the effects...

Plasticity in leakiness

John Pannell
In dioecious plants, males and females frequently show ‘leaky’ sex expression, with individuals occasionally producing flowers of the opposite sex. This leaky sex expression may have enabled the colonization of oceanic islands by dioecious plant species, and it is likely to represent the sort of variation upon which selection acts to bring about evolutionary transitions from dioecy to hermaphroditism. Although leakiness is commonly reported for dioecious species, it is not known whether it has plastic...

Data from: Four myriapod relatives – but who are sisters? No end to debates on relationships among the four major myriapod subgroups

Nikolaus U. Szucsich, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Alexander Böhm, Alexander Donath, Makiko Fukui, Simon Grove, Shanlin Liu, Oliver Macek, Ryuichiro Machida, Bernhard Misof, Yasutaka Nakagaki, Lars Podsiadlowski, Kaoru Sekiya, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Björn M. Von Reumont, Robert M. Waterhouse, Manfred Walzl, Guanliang Meng, Xin Zhou, Günther Pass & Karen Meusemann
Background: Phylogenetic relationships among the myriapod subgroups Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla and Pauropoda are still not robustly resolved. The first phylogenomic study covering all subgroups resolved phylogenetic relationships congruently to morphological evidence but is in conflict with most previously published phylogenetic trees based on diverse molecular data. Outgroup choice and long-branch attraction effects were stated as possible explanations for these incongruencies. In this study, we addressed these issues by extending the myriapod and outgroup taxon sampling...

Constraint summation in phonological theory

Benjamin Storme & Giorgio Magri

Deer density drives habitat use of establishing wolves in the Western European Alps

Stefanie Roder, François Biollaz, Stéphane Mettaz, Fridolin Zimmermann, Ralph Manz, Marc Kery, Sergio Vignali, Luca Fumagalli, Raphaël Arlettaz & Veronika Braunisch
1. The return of top carnivores to their historical range triggers conflicts with the interests of different stakeholder groups. Anticipating such conflicts is key to appropriate conservation management, which calls for reliable spatial predictions of future carnivore occurrence. Previous models have assessed general habitat suitability for wolves, but the factors driving the settlement of dispersing individuals remain ill-understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the role of prey availability in the recolonization process....

SNP datasets obtained with ddRADseq from four contact zones between Podarcis carbonelli and four other Podarcis species

Guilherme Caeiro-Dias, Alan Brelsford, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, Mariana Meneses-Ribeiro, Pierre-André Chrochet & Catarina Pinho
We used double digestion restriction site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to discover SNPs in samples from four contact zones between Podarcis carbonelli and four other Podarcis species. We obtained a panel of SNPs for each for each contact zone and reference populations and a dataset of diagnostic SNPs between reference populations for each contact zone but excluding private alleles from references, i.e. excluding alleles that are not present in the populations of contact. The final...

Élections fédérales 2019. Participation et choix électoral

Anke Tresch, Lukas Lauener, Laurent Bernhard, Georg Lutz & Laura Scaperrotta

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Elder barn owl nestlings flexibly redistribute parental food according to siblings’ need or in return for allopreening

Pauline Ducouret, Andrea Romano, Amélie N. Dreiss, Patrick Marmaroli, Xavier Falourd, Manon Bincteux & Alexandre Roulin
Kin selection and reciprocation of biological services are distinct theories invoked to explain the origin and evolutionary maintenance of altruistic and cooperative behaviours. Although these behaviours are considered as non-mutually exclusive, the cost-to-benefit balance to behave altruistically or to reciprocally cooperate, and the conditions promoting a switch between such different strategies have rarely been tested. Here we examined the association between allofeeding, allopreening and vocal solicitations in wild barn owl (Tyto alba) broods under different...

Data from: Impact of field-realistic doses of glyphosate and nutritional stress on mosquito life history-traits and susceptibility to malaria parasite infection

Romain Pigeault, Danaé Bataillard & Philippe Christe
Glyphosate is the world’s most widely used herbicide. The commercial success of this molecule is due to its non-selectivity and its action, which would supposedly target specific biosynthetic pathways found mainly in plants. Multiple studies have however provided evidence for high sensitivity of many non-target species to glyphosate and/or to formulations (glyphosate mixed with surfactants). This herbicide, found at significant levels in aquatic systems through surface runoffs, impacts life history traits and immune parameters of...

Data from: Molecular evolution of the proopiomelanocortin system in Barn owl species

Karin Löw, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Luis San-Jose, Céline Simon, Vera Uva, Nabil Seidah, Antonella Pasquato, Stefan Kunz & Alexandre Roulin
Examination of genetic polymorphisms in outbred wild-living species provides insights into the evolution of complex systems. In higher vertebrates, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor gives rise to α-, β-, and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH), which are involved in numerous physiological aspects. Genetic defects in POMC are linked to metabolic disorders in humans and animals. In the present study, we undertook an evolutionary genetics approach complemented with biochemistry to investigate the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the...

Beziehungen im Lauf der Zeit: Kartografie der persönlichen Netzwerke in der Schweiz

Gaëlle Aeby, Jacques-Antoine Gauthier & Eric D. Widmer

Supplementary Information for: A cautionary note on the use of genotype callers in phylogenomics

Pablo Duchen & Nicolas Salamin
Next-generation-sequencing genotype callers are commonly used in studies to call variants from newly-sequenced species. However, due to the current availability of genomic resources, it is still common practice to use only one reference genome for a given genus, or even one reference for an entire clade of a higher taxon. The problem with traditional genotype callers, such as the one from GATK, is that they are optimized for variant calling at the population level. However,...

Last-come, best served? Mosquito biting order and Plasmodium transmission

Romain Pigeault, Julie Isaïa, Ana Rivero, Olivier Glaizot & Philippe Christe
A pervasive characteristic of parasite infections is their tendency to be overdispersed. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this overdispersed distribution is of key importance as it may impact the transmission dynamics of the pathogen. Although multiple factors ranging from environmental stochasticity to inter-individual heterogeneity may explain parasite overdispersion, parasite infection is also observed to be overdispersed in inbred host population maintained under laboratory conditions, suggesting that other mechanisms at play. Here, we show that the aggregated...

A putative origin of the insect chemosensory receptor superfamily in the last common eukaryotic ancestor

Richard Benton, Christophe Dessimoz & David Moi
The insect chemosensory repertoires of Odorant Receptors (ORs) and Gustatory Receptors (GRs) together represent one of the largest families of ligand-gated ion channels. Previous analyses have identified homologous 'Gustatory Receptor-Like (GRL)' proteins across Animalia, but the evolutionary origin of this novel class of ion channels is unknown. We describe a survey of unicellular eukaryotic genomes for GRLs, identifying several candidates in fungi, protists and algae that contain many structural features characteristic of animal GRLs. The...

Data from: Extremely widespread parthenogenesis and a trade-off between alternative forms of reproduction in mayflies (Ephemeroptera)

Maud Liegeois, Michel Sartori & Tanja Schwander
Studying alternative forms of reproduction in natural populations is of fundamental importance for understanding the costs and benefits of sex. Mayflies are one of the few animal groups where sexual reproduction co-occurs with different types of parthenogenesis, providing ideal conditions for identifying benefits of sex in natural populations. Here, we establish a catalogue of all known mayfly species capable of reproducing by parthenogenesis, as well as species unable to do so. Overall, 1.8% of the...

Data for the paper \"Experimental evolution of post-ingestive nutritional compensation in response to a nutrient-poor diet\"

Tadeusz J. Kawecki, Fanny Cavigliasso, Cindy Dupuis & Jorge Spangenberg
The geometric framework of nutrition predicts that populations restricted to a single imbalanced diet should evolve post-ingestive nutritional compensation mechanisms bringing the blend of assimilated nutrients closer to physiological optimum. The evolution of such nutritional compensation is thought to be mainly driven by the ratios of major nutrients rather than overall nutritional content of the diet. We report experimental evolution of divergence in post-ingestive nutritional compensation in populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to diets that...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • University of Lausanne
    38
  • Swiss Centre of Expertise in the Social Sciences
    3
  • University of Geneva
    2
  • University of Fribourg
    2
  • Grenoble Alpes University
    2
  • University of Paris-Saclay
    2
  • University of Helsinki
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs : Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle
    1
  • University of Liège
    1