38 Works

Les héritages en Suisse : évolution depuis 1911 et importance pour les impôts

Marius Bruelhart

Eidgenössische Wahlen 2019. Wahlteilnahme und Wahlentscheid

Anke Tresch, Lukas Lauener, Laurent Bernhard, Georg Lutz & Laura Scaperrotta

Post-embryonic development of Fritzolenellus suggests the ancestral morphology of the early developmental stages in Trilobita

Lukáš Laibl, Jörg Maletz & Pascal Olschewski
Trilobite development has been intensively explored during past decades, but information about ancestral character combinations in the early developmental stages of trilobites remains virtually unknown. Trilobites of the superfamily Olenelloidea are one of the earliest diverging groups. Study of their development coupled with the development of other early diverging trilobite groups can provide crucial information about the ancestral morphology of trilobite early stages. Herein we describe numerous well-preserved specimens of the olenelloid trilobite Fritzolenellus lapworthi....

Testing for population differences in evolutionary responses to pesticide pollution in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

David Nusbaumer, Lucas Marques Da Cunha & Claus Wedekind
Pesticides are often toxic to non-target organisms, especially to those living in rivers that drain agricultural land. The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a keystone species in many such rivers, and natural populations have hence been chronically exposed to pesticides over multiple generations. The introduction of pesticides decades ago could have induced evolutionary responses within these populations. Such a response would be predicted to reduce the toxicity over time but also deplete any additive genetic...

Data: Generalized evidence for Bergmann’s rule body size variation in a cosmopolitan owl genus

Andrea Romano, Robin Séchaud & Alexandre Roulin
Aim: The eco-geographic Bergmann’s rule predicts that animals have smaller body size in warmer regions than in cold environments because of thermoregulatory reasons. Although this rule has been widely investigated, intraspecific analyses on cosmopolitan taxa are rare. We examined whether geographic variation in wing length, a proxy of body size, shows a Bergmannian pattern and can be explained by three mechanisms known to affect animal body size (heat conservation, resource availability and starvation resistance) in...

Data from: Pushing Raman spectroscopy over the edge: purported signatures of organic molecules in fossil animals are instrumental artefacts

Julien Alleon, Gilles Montagnac, Bruno Reynard, Thibault Brulé, Mathieu Thoury & Pierre Gueriau
Widespread preservation of fossilized biomolecules in many fossil animals has recently been reported in six studies, based on Raman microspectroscopy. Here, we show that the putative Raman signatures of organic compounds in these fossils are actually instrumental artefacts resulting from intense background luminescence. Raman spectroscopy is based on the detection of photons scattered inelastically by matter upon its interaction with a laser beam. For many natural materials, this interaction also generates a luminescence signal that...

Data from: Different distribution of malaria parasite in left and right extremities of vertebrate hosts translates into differences in parasite transmission

Romain Pigeault, Julie Isaïa, Rakiswendé S. Yerbanga, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Anna Cohuet, Thierry Lefèvre & Philippe Christe
Malaria, a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp., remains a major global cause of mortality. Optimization of disease control strategies requires a thorough understanding of the processes underlying parasite transmission. While the number of transmissible stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium in blood is frequently used as an indicator of host-to-mosquito transmission potential, this relationship is not always clear. Significant effort has been made in developing molecular tools that improve gametocyte density estimation and therefore prediction of...

Elezioni federali 2019. Partecipazione e decisione di voto

Anke Tresch, Lukas Lauener, Laurent Bernhard, Georg Lutz & Laura Scaperrotta

What are the most crucial soil variables for predicting the distribution of mountain plant species? a comprehensive study in the Swiss Alps

Aline Buri, Stéphanie Grand, Erika Yashiro, Thierry Adatte, Jorge E. Spangenberg, Eric Pinto-Figueroa, Eric Verrecchia & Antoine Guisan
Aim: To investigate the potential of a large range of soil variables to improve topo-climatic models of plant species distributions in a temperate mountain region encompassing complex relief. Location: The western Swiss Alps. Methods: Fitting topo-climatic models for >60 plant species across >250 sites with and without added soil predictor variables (>30). Testing included: (i) which soil variables improve plant species distribution models; (ii) whether an optimal subset of soil variables can improve models for...

Data from: Visualizing mineralization processes and fossil anatomy using synchronous synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction mapping

Pierre Gueriau, Solenn Réguer, Nicolas Leclercq, Camila Cupello, Paulo M. Brito, Clément Jauvion, Séverin Morel, Sylvain Charbonnier, Dominique Thiaudière & Cristian Mocuta
Fossils, including those that occasionally preserve decay-prone soft-tissues, are mostly made of minerals. Accessing their chemical composition provides unique insight into their past biology and/or the mechanisms by which they preserve, leading to a series of developments in chemical and elemental imaging. However, the mineral composition of fossils, particularly where soft-tissues are preserved, is often only inferred indirectly from elemental data, while X-ray diffraction that specifically provides phase identification received little attention. Here, we show...

Data from: A new Devonian euthycarcinoid evidences the use of different respiratory strategies during the marine-to-terrestrial transition in the myriapod lineage

Pierre Gueriau, James C. Lamsdell, Roy A. Wogelius, Phillip L. Manning, Victoria M. Egerton, Uwe Bergmann, Loïc Bertrand & Julien Denayer
Myriapods were, together with arachnids, the earliest animals to occupy terrestrial ecosystems, by at least the Silurian. The origin of myriapods and their land colonization have long remained puzzling until euthycarcinoids, an extinct group of aquatic arthropods considered amphibious, were shown to be stem group myriapods, extending the lineage to the Cambrian and evidencing a marine-to-terrestrial transition. Although possible respiratory structures comparable to the air-breathing tracheal system of myriapods are visible in several euthycarcinoids, little...

Scripts and files for \"Small-scale population divergence is driven by local larval environment in a temperate amphibian\"

Patrik Rödin Mörch, Hugo Palejowski, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Simon Kärvemo, Alex Richter-Boix, Jacob Höglund & Anssi Laurila
Genomic variation within and among populations is shaped by the interplay between natural selection and the effects of genetic drift and gene flow. Adaptive divergence can be found in small scale natural systems even when population sizes are small and the potential for gene flow is high, suggesting that local environments exert selection pressures strong enough to counteract the opposing effects of drift and gene flow. Here, we investigated genomic differentiation in nine moor frog...

An ancient and eroded social supergene is widespread across Formica ants

Alan Brelsford, Jessica Purcell, Amaury Avril, Patrick Tran Van, Junxia Zhang, Timothée Brütsch, Liselotte Sundström, Heikki Helanterä & Michel Chapuisat
Supergenes, clusters of tightly linked genes, play a key role in the evolution of complex adaptive variation. While supergenes have been identified in many species, we lack an understanding of their origin, evolution and persistence. Here, we uncover 20-40 MY of evolutionary history of a supergene associated with polymorphic social organization in Formica ants. We show that five Formica species exhibit homologous divergent haplotypes spanning 11 Mbp on chromosome 3. Despite the size of the...

A Contractual Justification for Strong Measures against COVID-19

Laetitia Ramelet
Many countries have taken extensive measures to slow COVID-19’s progress and attempt to avert a sanitary collapse. Although the necessity of saving lives seems evident to many of us, these measures will nevertheless have dire economic effects and impose major costs on much of the population. A solid public justification is essential, for which a social contract perspective is useful. I argue that it helps us understand why such measures not only do justice to...

Taxinomie des constructions en si dans un corpus de français oral L'exemple d'OFROM

Gilles Corminboeuf & Timon Jahn

Erbschaften in der Schweiz: Entwicklung seit 1911 und Bedeutung für die Steuern

Marius Bruelhart

Multiple cleaner species provide simultaneous services to coral reef fish clients

Dan Exton & Benjamin Titus
Cleaning symbioses on tropical coral reefs are typically documented between two species: a single client fish and one or more conspecific cleaners. However, multiple Caribbean cleaner species often live sympatrically and have been anecdotally reported to simultaneously clean the same client. The patterns and processes driving these interactions are poorly understood and cleaning interactions involving multiple cleaner species may be subject to different driving forces than those involving a single cleaner species. Here we used...

On the effect of asymmetrical trait inheritance on models of trait evolution

Pablo Duchen, Michael Alfaro, Jonathan Rolland, Nicolas Salamin & Daniele Silvestro
Current phylogenetic comparative methods modelling quantitative trait evolution generally assume that, during speciation, phenotypes are inherited identically between the two daughter species. This, however, neglects the fact that species consist of a set of individuals, each bearing its own trait value. Indeed, because descendent populations after speciation are samples of a parent population, we can expect their mean phenotypes to randomly differ from one another potentially generating a ``jump'' of mean phenotypes due to asymmetrical...

Beziehungen im Lauf der Zeit: Kartografie der persönlichen Netzwerke in der Schweiz

Gaëlle Aeby, Jacques-Antoine Gauthier & Eric D. Widmer

Data from: Molecular evolution of the proopiomelanocortin system in Barn owl species

Karin Löw, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Luis San-Jose, Céline Simon, Vera Uva, Nabil Seidah, Antonella Pasquato, Stefan Kunz & Alexandre Roulin
Examination of genetic polymorphisms in outbred wild-living species provides insights into the evolution of complex systems. In higher vertebrates, the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor gives rise to α-, β-, and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH), which are involved in numerous physiological aspects. Genetic defects in POMC are linked to metabolic disorders in humans and animals. In the present study, we undertook an evolutionary genetics approach complemented with biochemistry to investigate the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Elder barn owl nestlings flexibly redistribute parental food according to siblings’ need or in return for allopreening

Pauline Ducouret, Andrea Romano, Amélie N. Dreiss, Patrick Marmaroli, Xavier Falourd, Manon Bincteux & Alexandre Roulin
Kin selection and reciprocation of biological services are distinct theories invoked to explain the origin and evolutionary maintenance of altruistic and cooperative behaviours. Although these behaviours are considered as non-mutually exclusive, the cost-to-benefit balance to behave altruistically or to reciprocally cooperate, and the conditions promoting a switch between such different strategies have rarely been tested. Here we examined the association between allofeeding, allopreening and vocal solicitations in wild barn owl (Tyto alba) broods under different...

Supplementary Information for: A cautionary note on the use of genotype callers in phylogenomics

Pablo Duchen & Nicolas Salamin
Next-generation-sequencing genotype callers are commonly used in studies to call variants from newly-sequenced species. However, due to the current availability of genomic resources, it is still common practice to use only one reference genome for a given genus, or even one reference for an entire clade of a higher taxon. The problem with traditional genotype callers, such as the one from GATK, is that they are optimized for variant calling at the population level. However,...

Data for the paper \"Experimental evolution of post-ingestive nutritional compensation in response to a nutrient-poor diet\"

Tadeusz J. Kawecki, Fanny Cavigliasso, Cindy Dupuis & Jorge Spangenberg
The geometric framework of nutrition predicts that populations restricted to a single imbalanced diet should evolve post-ingestive nutritional compensation mechanisms bringing the blend of assimilated nutrients closer to physiological optimum. The evolution of such nutritional compensation is thought to be mainly driven by the ratios of major nutrients rather than overall nutritional content of the diet. We report experimental evolution of divergence in post-ingestive nutritional compensation in populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to diets that...

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  • 2020

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  • University of Lausanne
  • Swiss Centre of Expertise in the Social Sciences
  • University of Geneva
  • University of Fribourg
  • Grenoble Alpes University
  • University of Paris-Saclay
  • University of Helsinki
  • Uppsala University
  • Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs : Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle
  • University of Liège