34 Works

UBIPose

Skanda Muralidhar, Laurent Son Nguyen, Denise Frauendorfer, Jean-Marc Odobez, Marianne Schmid Mast, Daniel Gatica-Perez, Yu Yu & Kenneth Alberto Funes Mora
The UBIPose dataset is intended for the evaluation of head pose estimation algorithms in natural and challenging cenarios. This dataset provides the annotation of the positions of 6 facial landmarks (two corners of two eyes, nasal root and nose tip) in 14.4 K frames and 3D head poses (roll, pitch, yaw) in 10.4 K frames.

A linear time solution to the Labeled Robinson-Foulds Distance problem

Samuel Briand, Christophe Dessimoz, Nadia El Mabrouk & Yannis Nevers
Motivation: Comparing trees is a basic task for many purposes, and especially in phylogeny where different tree reconstruction tools may lead to different trees, likely representing contradictory evolutionary information. While a large variety of pairwise measures of similarity or dissimilarity have been developed for comparing trees with no information on internal nodes, very few address the case of inner node-labeled trees. Yet such trees are common; for instance reconciled gene trees have inner nodes labeled...

Sexual maturity in Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Paul Béziers & Alexandre Roulin
The age at first reproduction can significantly impact fitness. We investigated the possible source of variation in the age at first reproduction (“sexual maturity”) and its consequences for lifetime reproductive success in a wild population of barn owls. This raptor is sexually dimorphic for two melanin-based plumage traits shown to covary with sex-specific behaviour and physiology. We observed that females were sexually mature earlier than males, an effect that depended on the colour of their...

Genomic data of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris)

Hugo Cayuela, Brenna Forester & Chris Funk
In this study, we examined the potential role of thermal adaptation in clinal shifts of life history traits (i.e., lifespan, senescence rate, and recruitment) in the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) along a broad temperature gradient in the western USA. We took advantage of extensive capture-recapture datasets of 20,033 marked individuals from eight populations surveyed annually for 14 – 18 years to examine how mean annual temperature and precipitation influenced demographic parameters (i.e., adult survival,...

High rates of evolution preceded shifts to sex-biased gene expression in Leucadendron, the most sexually dimorphic angiosperms

Mathias Scharmann, Anthony Rebelo & John Pannell
Differences between males and females are usually more subtle in dioecious plants than animals, but strong sexual dimorphism has evolved convergently in the South African Cape plant genus Leucadendron. Such sexual dimorphism in leaf size is expected largely to be due to differential gene expression between the sexes. We compared patterns of gene expression in leaves among ten Leucadendron species across the genus. Surprisingly, we found no positive association between sexual dimorphism in morphology and...

Les attitudes envers l’égalité des genres en Suisse, 2000-2017

Christina Bornatici, Jacques-Antoine Gauthier & Jean-Marie Le Goff

Disentangling the mechanisms linking dispersal and sociality in supergene-mediated ant social forms

Amaranta Fontcuberta, Ornela De Gasperin, Amaury Avril, Sagane Dind & Michel Chapuisat
The coevolution between dispersal and sociality can lead to linked polymorphisms in both traits, which may favour the emergence of supergenes. Supergenes have recently been found to control social organization in several ant lineages. Whether and how these “social supergenes” also control traits related to dispersal is yet unknown. Our goal here was to get a comprehensive view of the dispersal mechanisms associated to supergene-controlled alternative social forms in the ant Formica selysi. We measured...

Geographic variation in body size and plumage colour according to diet composition in a nocturnal raptor

Andrea Romano, Robin Séchaud & Alexandre Roulin
Predator–prey interactions are amongst the strongest selective forces that promote the evolution of local phenotypes in both predators and prey. However, intraspecific spatial covariation in phenotypic traits between predators and prey has been rarely investigated, especially at a large geographic scale. Here, we studied the covariation between prey composition and some phenotypic traits, such as wing length, bill length and plumage colour, of a widely-distributed nocturnal predator, the western barn owl Tyto alba. By using...

Quantitative trait locus analysis of parasitoid counteradaptation to symbiont-conferred resistance

Gabriel F. Ulrich, Niklaus Zemp, Christoph Vorburger & Hélène Boulain
Insect hosts and parasitoids are engaged in an intense struggle of antagonistic coevolution. Infection with heritable bacterial endosymbionts can substantially increase the resistance of aphids to parasitoid wasps, which exerts selection on parasitoids to overcome this symbiont-conferred protection (counteradaptation). Experimental evolution in the laboratory has produced counteradapted populations of the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum. These populations can parasitize black bean aphids (Aphis fabae) protected by the bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, which confers high resistance against...

Fine-scale habitat heterogeneity favours the coexistence of supergene-controlled social forms in Formica selysi

Sacha Zahnd, Amaranta Fontcuberta, Mesut Koken, Aline Cardinaux & Michel Chapuisat
Background: Social insects vary widely in social organization, yet the genetical and ecological factors influencing this variation remain poorly known. In particular, whether spatially varying selection influences the maintenance of social polymorphisms in ants has been rarely investigated. To fill this gap, we examined whether fine-scale habitat heterogeneity contributes to the co-existence of alternative forms of social organization within populations. Single-queen colonies (monogyne social form) are generally associated with better colonization abilities, whereas multiple-queen colonies...

Sperm competition experiment with lake char (Lake Geneva 2017/18)

David Nusbaumer, Laurie Ançay, Laura Garaud, Christian De Guttry & Claus Wedekind
Male and female wild lake char (Salvelinus umbla) were sampled from Lake Geneva in December 2017 and December 2018. Male size and colouration (all samples, N = 34) were compared to milt characteristics. For the 2017 samples, milt characteristics were also determined after sperm activation in diluted ovarian fluid or water only, and the gametes were used in sperm competition trials: Equal numbers of sperm competed for fertilization in the presence or absence of ovarian...

Time-Consistent Control in Non-Linear Models

Steve Ambler & Florian Pelgrin
We show how to use optimal control theory to derive optimal time-consistent Markov-perfect government policies in nonlinear dynamic general equilibrium models, extending the result of Cohen and Michel (1988) for models with quadratic objective functions and linear dynamics. We replace private agents' costates by flexible functions of current states in the government's maximization problem. The functions are verified in equilibrium to an arbitrarily close degree of approximation. They can be found numerically by perturbation or...

Italy

Claudia Padovani, Giuliano Bobba, Alice Baroni, Marinella Belluati, Cecilia Biancalana, Mauro Bomba, Alice Fubini, Francesco Marrazzo, Rossella Rega, Christian Ruggiero, Simone Sallusti, Sergio Splendore & Michele  Valente

Groping in the fog: Soaring migrants exhibit wider scatter in flight directions and respond differently to wind under low visibility conditions

Paolo Becciu, Michele Panuccio, Giacomo Dell'Omo & Nir Sapir
Atmospheric conditions are known to affect flight propensity, behaviour during flight, and migration route in birds. Yet, the effects of fog have only rarely been studied although they could disrupt orientation and hamper flight. Fog could limit the visibility of migrating birds such that they might not be able to detect landmarks that guide them during their journey. Soaring migrants modulate their flight speed and direction in relation to the wind vector to optimise the...

Data from: National assessments of species vulnerability to climate change strongly depend on selected data sources

Daniel Scherrer, Manuel Esperon-Rodriguez, Linda J. Beaumont, Victor L. Barradas & Antoine Guisan
Aim: Correlative species distribution models (SDMs) are among the most frequently used tools for conservation planning under climate and land-use changes. Conservation-focused climate change studies are often conducted on a national or local level and can use different sources of occurrence records (e.g., local databases, national biodiversity monitoring) collated at different geographic extents. However, little is known about how these restrictions in geographic space (i.e., Wallacean shortfall) can lead to restrictions in environmental space (i.e....

Photosynthesis from stolen chloroplasts can support sea slug reproductive fitness

Paulo Cartaxana, Felisa Rey, Charlotte LeKieffre, Diana Lopes, Cedric Hubas, Jorge E. Spangenberg, Stéphane Escrig, Bruno Jesus, Gonçalo Calado, Rosário Domingues, Michael Kühl, Ricardo Calado, Anders Meibom & Sónia Cruz
Some sea slugs are able to steal functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their algal food sources, but the role and relevance of photosynthesis to the animal host remain controversial. While some researchers claim that kleptoplasts are slowly digestible ‘snacks’, others advocate that they enhance the overall fitness of sea slugs much more profoundly. Our analysis show light-dependent incorporation of 13C and 15N in the albumen gland and gonadal follicles of the sea slug Elysia timida, representing...

The tempo of greening in the European Alps: Spatial variations on a common theme

Philippe Choler, Arthur Bayle, Bradley Z. Carlson, Christophe Randin, Gianlucca Filippa & Edoardo Cremonese
The long-term increase of satellite-based proxies of vegetation cover is a well-documented response of seasonally snow-covered ecosystems to climate warming. However, observed greening trends are far from being uniform and substantial uncertainty remains concerning the underlying causes of this spatial variability. Here, we processed surface reflectance of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) to investigate trends and drivers of changes in the annual peak values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our study focuses...

Fossil-informed models reveal a Boreotropical origin and divergent evolutionary trajectories in the walnut family (Juglandaceae)

Qiuyue Zhang, Richard Ree, Nicolas Salamin, Yaowu Xing & Daniele Silvestro
Temperate woody plants in the Northern Hemisphere have long been known to exhibit high species richness in East Asia and North America and significantly lower diversity in Europe, but the causes of this pattern remain debated. Here, we quantify the roles of dispersal, niche evolution, and extinction in shaping the geographic diversity of the temperate woody plant family Juglandaceae (walnuts and their relatives). Integrating evidence from molecular, morphological, fossil, and (paleo)environmental data, we find strong...

Species ecology explains the various spatial components of genetic diversity in tropical reef fishes

Giulia Francesca Azzurra Donati, Niklaus Zemp, Stéphanie Manel, Maude Poirier, Thomas Claverie, Franck Ferraton, Théo Gaboriau, Rodney Govinden, Oskar Hagen, Shameel Ibrahim, David Mouillot, Julien Leblond, Pagu Julius, Laure Velez, Irthisham Zareer, Adam Ziyad, Fabien Leprieur, Camille Albouy & Loïc Pellissier
Generating genomic data for 19 tropical reef fish species of the Western Indian Ocean, we investigate how species ecology influences genetic diver- sity patterns from local to regional scales. We distinguish between the α, β and γ components of genetic diversity, which we subsequently link to six ecological traits. We find that the α and γ components of genetic diversity are strongly correlated so that species with a high total regional genetic diversity display systematically...

Ant behavioral maturation is mediated by a stochastic transition between two fundamental states

Thomas Richardson, Tomas Kay, Raphael Braunschweig, Opaline A. Journeau, Matthias Ruegg, Sean McGregor, Paolo De Los Rios & Laurent Keller
The remarkable ecological success of social insects is often attributed to their advanced division of labour, which is closely associated with temporal polyethism in which workers transition between different tasks as they age. Young nurses are typically found deep within the nest where they tend to the queen and the brood, whereas older foragers are found near the entrance and outside the nest. However, the individual-level maturation dynamics remain poorly understood because following individuals over...

Replication material for: Marquis, Lionel. 2021. Using Response Times to Enhance the Reliability of Political Knowledge Items: An Application to the 2015 Swiss Post-Election Survey. Survey Research Methods Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 79-100.

Lionel Marquis

Importance of melanin-based colouration and environment in shaping intracellular glutathione levels in nestling and adult tawny owls (Strix aluco)

Guillaume Emaresi, Pierre Bize & Alexandre Roulin
Resources allocated in reproduction are traded off against those invested in self-maintenance such as antioxidant response. Glutathione (GSH) is an intracellular antioxidant defence that scavenges reactive oxygen species, the deleterious byproducts of oxygen consumption. Given the role of intracellular GSH in pheomelanogenesis, a trade-off in GSH allocation between resistance to oxidative stress and melanin production may take place. To investigate how intracellular GSH is regulated in differently coloured individuals at the time of reproduction (in...

Data and files for: Decoupling cooperation and punishment in humans shows that punishment is not an altruistic trait

Maxwell Burton-Chellew & Claire Guerin
Economic experiments have suggested that cooperative humans will altruistically match local levels of cooperation (‘conditional cooperation’) and pay to punish non-cooperators (‘altruistic punishment’). Evolutionary models have suggested that if altruists punish non-altruists this could favour the evolution of costly helping behaviours (cooperation) among strangers. An often-key requirement is that helping behaviours and punishing behaviours form one single, conjoined trait (‘strong reciprocity’). Previous economics experiments have provided support for the hypothesis that punishment and cooperation form...

Social insect colonies are more likely to accept unrelated queens when they come with workers

Ornela De Gasperin, Pierre Blacher & Michel Chapuisat
Relatedness underlies the evolution of reproductive altruism, yet eusocial insect colonies occasionally accept unrelated reproductive queens. Why would workers living in colonies with related queens accept unrelated ones, when they do not gain indirect fitness through their reproduction? To understand this seemingly paradox, we investigated whether acceptance of unrelated queens by workers is an incidental phenomenon resulting from failure to recognize non-nestmate queens, or whether it is adaptively favored in contexts where cooperation is preferable...

Invasive ant and trade flows from continents to countries worldwide

Cleo Bertelsmeier & Sébastien Ollier
A major goal of invasion biology is to understand global species flows between donor and recipient regions. Our current view of such flows assumes that species are moved directly from their native to their introduced range. However, if introduced populations serve as bridgehead population that generate additional introductions, tracing intercontinental flows between donor and recipient regions misrepresents the introduction history. Our aim was to assess to what extent bridgehead effects distort our view of global...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    34

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    30
  • Text
    3
  • Book Chapter
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Lausanne
    34
  • Grenoble Alpes University
    3
  • Swiss Centre of Expertise in the Social Sciences
    2
  • University of Milan
    2
  • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
    2
  • University of Copenhagen
    2
  • French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    2
  • University of Padua
    1
  • South African National Biodiversity Institute
    1