340 Works

Data from: Divergence of thermal physiological traits in terrestrial breeding frogs along a tropical elevational gradient

Rudolf Von May, Alessandro Catenazzi, Ammon Corl, Roy Santa-Cruz, Ana Carolina Carnaval & Craig Moritz
Critical thermal limits are thought to be correlated with the elevational distribution of species living in tropical montane regions, but with upper limits being relatively invariant compared to lower limits. To test this hypothesis, we examined the variation of thermal physiological traits in a group of terrestrial breeding frogs (Craugastoridae) distributed along a tropical elevational gradient. We measured the critical thermal maximum (CTmax; n = 22 species) and critical thermal minimum (CTmin; n = 14...

Data from: Bayesian estimation of the global biogeographical history of the Solanaceae

Julia Dupin, Nicholas J. Matzke, Tiina Särkinen, Sandra Knapp, Richard G. Olmstead, Lynn Bohs & Stacey D. Smith
Aim: The tomato family Solanaceae is distributed on all major continents except Antarctica and has its centre of diversity in South America. Its worldwide distribution suggests multiple long-distance dispersals within and between the New and Old Worlds. Here, we apply maximum likelihood (ML) methods and newly developed biogeographical stochastic mapping (BSM) to infer the ancestral range of the family and to estimate the frequency of dispersal and vicariance events resulting in its present-day distribution. Location:...

Data from: Nuclear DNA based species delineations of Coccus scale insects in symbiosis with plants and ants, and the role of plant epicuticular wax in structuring associations

Swee-Peck Quek, Shouhei Ueda, Penny J. Gullan, Takumasa Kondo, Mitsuru Hattori, Takao Itioka, Kaori Murase & Takao Itino
We undertook phylogenetic analysis of nuclear DNA to elucidate species boundaries in the symbiotic Coccus scale insects associated with mutualistic Crematogaster ants and Macaranga plants occurring in the ever-wet forests of Southeast Asia. The coccid specimens clustered into ten lineages, each corresponding to a morphospecies assignment. The lineage identified as C. secretus was separated from the Main Clade by an outgroup. We also examined all pairwise associations among the three symbiont guilds to understand how...

Data from: Predicting range-shift success potential for tropical marine fishes using external morphology

Shannen M. Smith, Rebecca J. Fox, Jennifer M. Donelson, Megan L. Head & David J. Booth
With global change accelerating the rate of species' range shifts, predicting which are most likely to establish viable populations in their new habitats is key to understanding how biological systems will respond. Annually, in Australia, tropical fish larvae from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are transported south via the East Australian Current (EAC), settling into temperate coastal habitats for the summer period, before experiencing near-100% mortality in winter. However, within 10 years, predicted winter ocean...

Data from: Phylogenomic reconstruction of sportive lemurs (genus Lepilemur) recovered from mitogenomes with inferences for Madagascar biogeography

Runhua Lei, Cynthia L. Frasier, Melissa T.R. Hawkins, Shannon E. Engberg, Carolyn A. Bailey, Steig E. Johnson, Adam T. McLain, Colin P. Groves, George H. Perry, Stephen D. Nash, Russell A. Mittermeier &
The family Lepilemuridae includes 26 species of sportive lemurs, most of which were recently described. The cryptic morphological differences confounded taxonomy until recent molecular studies; however, some species’ boundaries remain uncertain. To better understand the genus Lepilemur, we analyzed 35 complete mitochondrial genomes representing all recognized 26 sportive lemur taxa and estimated divergence dates. With our dataset we recovered 25 reciprocally monophyletic lineages, as well as an admixed clade containing Lepilemur mittermeieri and Lepilemur dorsalis....

Data from: Egg size investment in superb fairy-wrens: helper effects are modulated by climate

Naomi E. Langmore, Liam D. Bailey, Robert G. Heinsohn, Andrew F. Russell, Rebecca M. Kilner, L. D. Bailey, N. E. Langmore, R. M. Kilner & A. F. Russell
Natural populations might exhibit resilience to changing climatic conditions if they already show adaptive flexibility in their reproductive strategies. In cooperative breeders, theory predicts that mothers with helpers should provide less care when environmental conditions are favourable, but maintain high investment when conditions are challenging. Here, we test for evidence of climate-mediated flexibility in maternal investment in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. We focus on egg size because in this species egg size...

Data from: Sexual selection on male body size, genital length and heterozygosity: consistency across habitats and social settings

Megan L. Head, Andrew T. Kahn, Jonathan M. Henshaw, J. Scott Keogh & Michael D. Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also...

Data from: Species co-occurrence networks show reptile community reorganization under agricultural transformation

Geoffrey M. Kay, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip S. Barton, Saul A. Cunningham, Don A. Driscoll & David B. Lindenmayer
Agricultural transformation represents one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, causing degradation and loss of habitat, leading to changes in the richness and composition of communities. These changes in richness and composition may, in turn, lead to altered species co-occurrence, but our knowledge of this remains limited. We used a novel co-occurrence network approach to examine the impact of agricultural transformation on reptile community structure within two large (> 172 000 km2; 224 sites) agricultural...

Data from: Tropical specialist versus climate generalist: diversification and demographic history of sister species of Carlia skinks from northwestern Australia

Ana Catarina Afonso Silva, Jason G. Bragg, Sally Potter, Carlos Fernandes, Maria M. Coelho, Craig Moritz, Ana C. Afonso Silva & Maria Manuela Coelho
Species endemic to the tropical regions are expected to be vulnerable to future climate change due in part to their relatively narrow climatic niches. In addition, these species are more likely to have responded strongly to past climatic change, and this can be explored through phylogeographic analyses. To test the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to climate change than climate generalists, we generated and analyze sequence data from mtDNA and ~2500 exons to...

Data from: Artificial selection on male genitalia length alters female brain size

Severine D. Buechel, Isobel Booksmythe, Alexander Kotrschal, Michael D. Jennions, Kolm Niclas & Niclas Kolm
Male harassment is a classic example of how sexual conflict over mating leads to sex-specific behavioural adaptations. Females often suffer significant costs from males attempting forced copulations, and the sexes can be in an arms race over male coercion. Yet, despite recent recognition that divergent sex-specific interests in reproduction can affect brain evolution, sexual conflict has not been addressed in this context. Here, we investigate whether artificial selection on a correlate of male success at...

Data from: How disturbance and dispersal influence intraspecific structure

Ceridwen I Fraser, Ian Davies, David Bryant, Jonathan M Waters, Ceridwen I. Fraser, Ian D. Davies & Jonathan M. Waters
1. Recent studies have suggested that spatial patterns of intraspecific diversity can be influenced by density-dependent processes, which can inhibit effective migration of new lineages to established populations. How mechanisms such as dispersal and disturbance influence these processes is, however, still poorly understood. 2. We hypothesised that i) species with leptokurtic dispersal (frequent on small scales but rare on larger scales) would show no spatial structure on small scales and strong structure on large scales,...

Data from: Host specialisation and disparate evolution of Pyrenophora teres f. teres on barley and barley grass

Celeste C. Linde & Leon M. Smith
Background Pathogens evolve in an arms race, frequently evolving virulence that defeats resistance genes in their hosts. Infection of multiple hosts may accelerate this virulence evolution. Theory predicts that host diversity affects pathogen diversity, with more diverse hosts expected to harbour more diverse pathogens that reproduce sexually. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the microsatellite (SSR) genetic diversity of the barley leaf pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) from barley (monoculture) and barley grass (outbreeding)....

Data from: A Decision Support System for assessing management interventions in a Mental Health ecosystem: the case of Bizkaia (Basque Country, Spain)

Carlos R. García-Alonso, Nerea Almeda, José A. Salinas-Pérez, Mencía R. Gutiérrez-Colosía, José J. Uriarte-Uriarte & Luis Salvador-Carulla
Evidence-informed strategic planning is a top priority in Mental Health (MH) due to the burden associated with this group of disorders and its societal costs. However, MH systems are highly complex, and decision support tools should follow a systems thinking approach that incorporates expert knowledge. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new Decision Support System (DSS) to improve knowledge on the health ecosystem, resource allocation and management in regional MH planning. The...

Data from: Disentangling the costs of male harassment and the benefits of polyandry for females

Rebecca J. Fox, Megan L. Head & Michael D. Jennions
Many studies quantify how polyandry affects female fitness by allowing females to mate with one or several males. But even if the number of matings is standardised, such studies conflate any costs of interacting with males with potential benefits of receiving sperm from multiple mates, obscuring the benefits of polyandry. We conducted a 2x2 factorial experiment on the mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki to quantify the independent effects of male harassment and polyandry. We artificially inseminated virgin...

Data from: A superb solo, or a deviant duet? Overlapping songs in superb fairy-wrens

Claire J. Taylor, Michelle L. Hall, Kristal E. Cain & Naomi E. Langmore
Avian duets are formed when two birds coordinate their songs. Most research on the evolution and function of duetting has focused on species with highly coordinated duets, and less is known about the context and function of overlapping songs that are more loosely coordinated, in part due to the challenge of determining whether such vocalisations coincide by chance or through coordination between the partners. Here, we use field recordings and playback experiments to test whether...

Data from: Why does noise reduce response to alarm calls? Experimental assessment of masking, distraction and greater vigilance in wild birds

You Zhou, Andrew N. Radford & Robert D. Magrath
1. Environmental noise from anthropogenic and other sources affects many aspects of animal ecology and behaviour, including acoustic communication. Acoustic masking is often assumed in field studies to be the cause of compromised communication in noise, but other mechanisms could have similar effects. 2. We tested experimentally how background noise disrupted the response to conspecific alarm calls in wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, assessing the effects of acoustic masking, distraction and changes in vigilance. We...

Data from: The extent and consequences of p-hacking in science

Megan L. Head, Luke Holman, Rob Lanfear, Andrew T. Kahn & Michael D. Jennions
A focus on novel, confirmatory, and statistically significant results leads to substantial bias in the scientific literature. One type of bias, known as “p-hacking,” occurs when researchers collect or select data or statistical analyses until nonsignificant results become significant. Here, we use text-mining to demonstrate that p-hacking is widespread throughout science. We then illustrate how one can test for p-hacking when performing a meta-analysis and show that, while p-hacking is probably common, its effect seems...

Data from: Phylogenomics of a rapid radiation: the Australian rainbow skinks

Jason G. Bragg, Sally Potter, Ana C. Afonso Silva, Conrad J. Hoskin, Benjamin Y.H. Bai & Craig Moritz
Background: The application of target capture with next-generation sequencing now enables phylogenomic analyses of rapidly radiating clades of species. But such analyses are complicated by extensive incomplete lineage sorting, demanding the use of methods that consider this process explicitly, such as the multi-species coalescent (MSC) model. However, the MSC makes strong assumptions about divergence history and population structure, and when using the full Bayesian implementation, current computational limits mean that relatively few loci and samples...

Data from: Dating the species network: allopolyploidy and repetitive DNA evolution in American daisies (Melampodium sect. Melampodium, Asteraceae)

Jamie McCann, Tae-Soo Jang, Jiri Macas, Gerald M. Schneeweiss, Nicholas J. Matzke, Petr Novak, Tod F. Stuessy, Jose L. Villaseñor & Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Allopolyploidy has played an important role in the evolution of the flowering plants. Genome mergers are often accompanied by significant and rapid alterations of genome size and structure via chromosomal rearrangements and altered dynamics of tandem and dispersed repetitive DNA families. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and bioinformatic methods allow for a comprehensive investigation of the repetitive component of plant genomes. Interpretation of evolutionary dynamics following allopolyploidization requires both the knowledge of parentage and the...

Data from: High intra-specific variation in avian body condition responses to climate limits generalisation across species

Nina McLean, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd & Martijn Van De Pol
It is generally assumed that populations of a species will have similar responses to climate change, and thereby that a single value of sensitivity will reflect species-specific responses. However, this assumption is rarely systematically tested. High intraspecific variation will have consequences for identifying species- or population-level traits that can predict differences in sensitivity, which in turn can affect the reliability of projections of future climate change impacts. We investigate avian body condition responses to changes...

Data from: Insular biogeographic origins and high phylogenetic distinctiveness for a recently depleted lizard fauna from Christmas Island, Australia

Paul M. Oliver, Mozes P.K. Blom, Harold G. Cogger, Robert N. Fisher, Jonathan Q. Richmond, John C.Z. Woinarski & John C. Z. Woinarski
Striking faunal turnover across Asia and Australasia, most famously along the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf or ‘Wallace’s Line’, has been a focus of biogeographic research for over 150 years. Here we investigate the origins of a highly threatened endemic lizard fauna (4 species) on Christmas Island. Despite occurring less 350 km south of the Sunda Shelf, this fauna mostly comprises species from clades centred on the more distant regions of Wallacea, the Pacific...

Data from: True recognition of nestlings by hosts selects for mimetic cuckoo chicks

Hee-Jin Noh, Ros Gloag & Naomi E. Langmore
Cuckoos lay their eggs in other birds’ nests, whereafter the young cuckoo hatches, ejects its nestmates, and monopolizes the care of the host parents. Theory predicts that hosts should not evolve to recognize and reject cuckoo chicks because of the risk of mistakenly imprinting on a cuckoo chick in their first brood and thereafter always rejecting their own chicks. However, recent studies have revealed some hosts do reject cuckoo chicks from the nest, indicating that...

Data from: Plant community composition and species richness in the High Arctic tundra: from the present to the future

Jacob Nabe-Nielsen, Signe Normand, Francis K. C. Hui, Lærke Stewart, Christian Bay, Louise I. Nabe-Nielsen, Niels Martin Schmidt & Laerke Stewart
Arctic plant communities are altered by climate changes. The magnitude of these alterations depends on whether species distributions are determined by macroclimatic conditions, by factors related to local topography, or by biotic interactions. Our current understanding of the relative importance of these conditions is limited due to the scarcity of studies, especially in the High Arctic. We investigated variations in vascular plant community composition and species richness based on 288 plots distributed on three sites...

Data from: Decision making for mitigating wildlife diseases: from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians

Stefano Canessa, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Sam S. Cruickshank, Matthew C. Fisher, Jacob C. Koella, Stefan Lötters, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Benjamin C. Scheele, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, Benedikt R. Schmidt & Ben C. Scheele
1.Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 2.Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines...

Data from: What controls variation in carbon use efficiency among Amazonian tropical forests?

Christopher E. Doughty, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Nicolas Raab, Cecile A. J. Girardin, Filio Farfan-Amezquita, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Wanderley Rocha, David Galbraith, Patrick Meir, Dan B. Metcalfe, Yadvinder Malhi & Walter Huaraca-Huasco
Why do some forests produce biomass more efficiently than others? Variations in Carbon Use Efficiency (CUE: total Net Primary Production (NPP)/ Gross Primary Production (GPP)) may be due to changes in wood residence time (Biomass/NPPwood), temperature, or soil nutrient status. We tested these hypotheses in 14, one ha plots across Amazonian and Andean forests where we measured most key components of net primary production (NPP: wood, fine roots, and leaves) and autotrophic respiration (Ra; wood,...

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