494 Works

Safe, Risk-Free, Standardised Food for All, Is That What We Will Eat Tomorrow?

Penny Wilson

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Metasomatism in the upper-most subcontinental mantle in the presence of Ti-rich hydrous carbonated silicate melt

Naina Goswami

Developments in the Indian Ocean strategic environment: planning for a multipolar region

David Brewster
After several decades of US predominance, the Indian Ocean is now becoming a much more complex, congested and contested strategic space. Key drivers of this change include a relative decline in US military dominance, the emergence of India as a major region power and China’s growing economic and military presence. This paper discusses some key features of the changing regional environment in the Indian Ocean, including its implications for the future roles of major and...

Data from: Fluctuating selection and its (elusive) evolutionary consequences in a wild rodent population

Timothée Bonnet & Erik Postma
Temporal fluctuations in the strength and direction of selection are often proposed as a mechanism that slows down evolution, both over geological and contemporary time-scales. Both the prevalence of fluctuating selection and its relevance for evolutionary dynamics remain poorly understood however, especially on contemporary time scales: Unbiased empirical estimates of variation in selection are scarce, and the question of how much of the variation in selection translates into variation in genetic change has largely been...

Data from: Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution

Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B. Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomas Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J. Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen … & Xin Zhou
Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight...

Data from: Neurocranial anatomy of an enigmatic Early Devonian fish sheds light on early osteichthyan evolution

Alice M. Clement, Benedict King, Sam Giles, Brian Choo, Per Ahlberg, Gavin C. Young, John A. Long & Per E Ahlberg
The skull of ‘Ligulalepis’ from the Early Devonian of Australia (AM-F101607) has significantly expanded our knowledge of early osteichthyan anatomy, but its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain. We herein describe a second skull of ‘Ligulalepis’ and present micro-CT data on both specimens to reveal novel anatomical features, including cranial endocasts. Several features previously considered to link ‘Ligulalepis’ with actinopterygians are now considered generalized osteichthyan characters or of uncertain polarity. The presence of a lateral cranial...

Data from: Population genomic variation reveals roles of history, adaptation, and ploidy in switchgrass

Paul P. Grabowski, Geoffrey P. Morris, Michael D. Casler & Justin O. Borevitz
Geographic patterns of genetic variation are shaped by multiple evolutionary processes, including genetic drift, migration, and natural selection. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has strong genetic and adaptive differentiation despite life history characteristics that promote high levels of gene flow and can homogenize intraspecific differences, such as wind-pollination and self-incompatibility. To better understand how historical and contemporary factors shape variation in switchgrass, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize switchgrass from across its range at 98,042 SNPs. Population...

Data from: Environmental niche conservatism explains the accumulation of species richness in Mediterranean-hotspot plant genera

Alex Skeels, Marcel Cardillo & Alexander Skeels
The causes of exceptionally high plant diversity in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots are not fully understood. We asked whether a mechanism similar to the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis could explain the diversity of four large genera (Protea, Moraea, Banksia, and Hakea) with distributions within and adjacent to the Greater Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) or the Southwest Floristic Region (Australia). Using phylogenetic and spatial data we estimated the environmental niche of each species, and reconstructed the...

Data from: Topology, divergence dates, and macroevolutionary inferences vary between different tip-dating approaches applied to fossil theropods (Dinosauria)

David W. Bapst, April M. Wright, Nick J. Matzke & Graeme T. Lloyd
Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian ‘tip-dating’ methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare...

Data from: Morphological, ecological and genetic aspects associated with endemism in the Fly Orchid group

Yann Triponez, Nils Arrigo, Loïc Pellissier, Bertrand Schatz & Nadir Alvarez
The European genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae) is famous for its insect-like floral morphology, an adaptation for a pseudocopulatory pollination strategy involving Hymenoptera males. A large number of endemic Ophrys species have recently been described, especially within the Mediterranean Basin, which is one of the major species diversity hotspots. Subtle morphological variation and specific pollinator dependence are the two main perceptible criteria for describing numerous endemic taxa. However, the degree to which endemics differ genetically remains a...

Data from: Do migratory and resident birds differ in their responses to interacting effects of climate, weather and vegetation?

David B. Lindenmayer, Peter Lane, Claire N. Foster, Martin J. Westgate, Chloe Sato, Karen Ikin, Mason Crane, Damian Michael, Dan Florance, Ben C. Scheele & Daniel Florance
Aim: Knowledge of the individual and collective effects of habitat, weather variability, and climate on bird populations is limited, with the result that species vulnerability to the collective impacts of global change is poorly understood. We quantified the effects of interactions between these potential drivers on the occurrence of resident, migratory, and nomadic birds in Australian temperate woodlands. Location: A 1.8 million hectare temperate woodland belt in south-eastern Australia. Time period: 2002-2015. Major taxa studied:...

Data from: Effectiveness of camera traps for quantifying daytime and nighttime visitation by vertebrate pollinators

Siegfried L. Krauss, David G. Roberts, Ryan D. Phillips & Caroline Edwards
1. Identification of pollen vectors is a fundamental objective of pollination biology. The foraging and social behavior of these pollinators has profound effects on plant mating, making quantification of their behaviour critical for understanding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of different pollinators for the plants they visit. However, accurate quantification of visitation may be problematic, especially for shy animals and/or when the temporal and spatial scale of observation desired is large. Sophisticated heat- and movement-triggered...

Data from: Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

Renato Crouzeilles, Mariana S. Ferreira, Robin L. Chazdon, David B. Lindenmayer, Jerônimo B. B. Sansevero, Lara Monteiro, Alvaro Iribarrem, Agnieszka E. Latawiec & Bernardo B. N. Strassburg
Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation...

Data from: Adaptive plasticity and epigenetic variation in response to warming in an Alpine plant

Adrienne B. Nicotra, Deborah L. Segal, Gemma L. Hoyle, Aaron W. Schrey, Koen J. F. Verhoeven & Christina L. Richards
Environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity may be a critical component of response to changing environments. We examined local differentiation and adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to elevated temperature in half-sib lines collected across an elevation gradient for the alpine herb, Wahlenbergia ceracea. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), we found low but significant genetic differentiation between low- and high-elevation seedlings, and seedlings originating from low elevations grew faster and showed stronger temperature responses (more plasticity) than...

Data from: Evidence for inbreeding depression in a species with limited opportunity for maternal effects

Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L. Head & Michael D. Jennions
It is often assumed that mating with close relatives reduces offspring fitness. In such cases, reduced offspring fitness may arise from inbreeding depression (i.e., genetic effects of elevated homozygosity) or from post-mating maternal investment. This can be due to a reduction in female investment after mating with genetically incompatible males (“differential allocation”) or compensation for incompatibility (“reproductive compensation”). Here, we looked at the effects of mating with relatives on offspring fitness in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki....

Data from: Female song is widespread and ancestral in songbirds

Karan J. Odom, Michelle L. Hall, Katharina Riebel, Kevin E. Omland & Naomi E. Langmore
Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin’s theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female...

Data from: Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites

Iliana Medina & Naomi E. Langmore
Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counter-adaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show...

Data from: Effects of extreme weather on two sympatric Australian passerine bird species

Janet L. Gardner, Eleanor Rowley, Perry De Rebeira, Alma De Rebeira & Lyanne Brouwer
Despite abundant evidence that natural populations are responding to climate change, there are few demonstrations of how extreme climatic events (ECEs) affect fitness. Climate warming increases adverse effects of exposure to high temperatures, but also reduces exposure to cold ECEs. Here, we investigate variation in survival associated with severity of summer and winter conditions, and whether survival is better predicted by ECEs than mean temperatures using data from two coexisting bird species monitored over 37...

Data from: Adult frogs and tadpoles have different macroevolutionary patterns across the Australian continent

Emma Sherratt, Marta Vidal-Garcia, Marion Anstis & J. Scott Keogh
Developmental changes through an animal’s life are generally understood to contribute to the resulting adult morphology. A possible exception are species with complex life cycles, where individuals pass through distinct ecological and morphological life stages during their ontogeny, ending with metamorphosis to the adult form. Antagonistic selection is expected to drive low genetic correlations between life stages, theoretically permitting stages to evolve independently. Using the Australian frog radiation, we examine the evolutionary consequences on morphological...

Data from: Maternal-by-environment but not genotype-by-environment interactions in a fish without parental care

Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L. Head, Michael D. Jennions & Loeske E.B. Kruuk
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the...

Macquarie Ridge

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This network is comprised of 15 off-shore broadband ocean bottom seismometers (IGGCAS and AGOS) spanning October 2020 to November 2021 as well as 5 on-shore broadband stations (2020-2022) targeting Macquarie Island and its immediate surroundings.

Limited mass-independent individual variation in resting metabolic rate in a wild population of snow voles (Chionomys nivalis)

Andres Hagmayer, Glauco Camenisch, Cindy Canale, Erik Postma & Timothée Bonnet
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potentially important axis of physiological adaptation to the thermal environment. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of individual variation in RMR in the wild is hampered by a lack of data, as well as analytical challenges. RMR measurements in the wild are generally characterized by large measurement errors and a strong dependency on mass. The latter is problematic when assessing the ability of RMR to evolve independently...

SNP analyses reveal a diverse pool of potential colonists to earthquake‐uplifted coastlines

Johnette Peters, Jonathan Waters, Ludovic Dutoit & Ceridwen Fraser
In species that form dense populations, major disturbance events are expected to increase the chance of establishment for immigrant lineages. Real-time tests of the impact of disturbance on patterns of genetic structure are, however, scarce. Central to testing these concepts is determining the pool of potential immigrants dispersing into a disturbed area. In 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred on the South Island of New Zealand. Affecting approximately 100 km of coastline, this quake caused...

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