31 Works

Data from: The role of phylogeny and ecology in shaping morphology in 21 genera and 127 species of Australo-Papuan myobatrachid frogs

M. Vidal-García, P. G. Byrne, J. D. Roberts & J. S. Keogh
Body shape is predicted to differ among species for functional reasons and in relation to environmental niche and phylogenetic history. We quantified morphological differences in shape and size among 98.5% of the 129 species and all 21 genera of the Australo-Papuan endemic myobatrachid frogs to test the hypothesis that habitat type predicts body shape in this radiation. We tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic context at two taxonomic levels: across the entire radiation and within...

Data from: Delimiting species in the genus Otospermophilus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) using genetics, ecology, and morphology

Mark A. Phuong, Marisa C. W. Lim, Daniel R. Wait, Kevin C. Rowe & Craig Moritz
We apply an integrative taxonomy approach to delimit species of ground squirrels in the genus Otospermophilus because the diverse evolutionary histories of organisms shape the existence of taxonomic characters. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA from this group recovered three divergent lineages within Otospermophilus beecheyi separated into northern, central, and southern geographical populations, with Otospermophilus atricapillus nested within the southern lineage of O. beecheyi. To further evaluate species boundaries within this complex, we collected additional genetic...

Data from: Do evolutionary constraints on thermal performance manifest at different organizational scales?

Ben L. Phillips, John Llewelyn, Amberlee Hatcher, Stewart Macdonald & Craig Moritz
The two foremost hypotheses on the evolutionary constraints on an organism's thermal sensitivity – the hotter-is-better expectation, and the specialist–generalist trade-off – have received mixed support from empirical studies testing for their existence. Could these conflicting results reflect confusion regarding the organizational level (i.e. species > population > individual) at which these constraints should manifest? We propose that these evolutionary constraints should manifest at different organizational levels because of differences in their underlying causes and...

Data from: Epiphytes improve host plant water use by microenvironment modification

Daniel E. Stanton, Jackelyn Huallpa Chávez, Luis Villegas, Francisco Villasante, Juan Armesto, Lars O. Hedin & Henry Horn
1. Epiphytes have the potential to modify the canopy environments in which they grow. Accurately evaluating the impact of epiphytes can be challenging, since plants without epiphytes may also otherwise differ from host plants, and experimental removal is impractical and difficult to replicate in many forests. 2. We studied the impacts of epiphytes (primarily fruticose lichens and Tillandsia spp.) on host plants (Eulychnia saint-pieana and Caesalpinia spinosa) in two fog ecosystems in Chile (Pan de...

Data from: Pollinator specificity drives strong prepollination reproductive isolation in sympatric sexually deceptive orchids

Michael Whitehead, Rod Peakall & Michael R. Whitehead
Few studies have quantified the full range of pre– and postzygotic barriers that limit introgression between closely related plant species. Here we assess the strength of four isolating mechanisms operating between two morphologically similar and very closely related sympatric orchid taxa, Chiloglottis valida and C. aff. jeanesii. Each taxon sexually attracts its specific wasp pollinator via distinct floral volatile chemistry. Behavioral experiments with flowers and synthetic versions of their floral volatiles confirmed that very strong...

Data from: Clock model makes a large difference to age estimates of long-stemmed clades with no internal calibration: a test using Australian grasstrees

Michael D. Crisp, Nate B. Hardy & Lyn G. Cook
Background: Estimating divergence times in phylogenies using a molecular clock depends on accurate modeling of nucleotide substitution rates in DNA sequences. Rate heterogeneity among lineages is likely to affect estimates, especially in lineages with long stems and short crowns (“broom” clades) and no internal calibration. We evaluate the performance of the random local clocks model (RLC) and the more routinely employed uncorrelated lognormal relaxed clock model (UCLN) in situations in which a significant rate shift...

Data from: Coevolutionary dynamics of polyandry and sex-linked meiotic drive

Luke Holman, Thomas A. R. Price, Nina Wedell & Hanna Kokko
Segregation distorters located on sex chromosomes are predicted to sweep to fixation and cause extinction via a shortage of one sex, but in nature they are often found at low, stable frequencies. One potential resolution to this long-standing puzzle involves female multiple mating (polyandry). Because many meiotic drivers severely reduce the sperm competitive ability of their male carriers, females are predicted to evolve more frequent polyandry and thereby promote sperm competition when a meiotic driver...

Data from: Population-level consequences of risky dispersal

Allison K. Shaw, Matti Jalasvuori & Hanna Kokko
Achieving sufficient connectivity between populations is essential for persistence, but costs of dispersal may select against individual traits or behaviours that, if present, would improve connectivity. Existing dispersal models tend to ignore the multitude of risks to individuals: while many assess the effect of mortality costs, there is also a risk of failing to find new habitat, especially when the entire inhabitable area remains both small and fragmented. There are few known rules governing whether...

Data from: Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.

Ana Carolina Carnaval, Eric Waltari, Miguel T. Rodrigues, Dan Rosauer, Jeremy VanDerWal, Roberta Damasceno, Ivan Prates, Maria Strangas, Zoe Spanos, Danielle Rivera, Marcio R. Pie, Carina R. Firkowski, Marcos R. Bornschein, Luiz F. Ribeiro & Craig Moritz
Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current...

Data from: Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor

Ivar Herfindal, Martijn Van De Pol, Jan T. Nielsen, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Anders P. Møller & Bernt-Erik Saether
1. Environmental variation can induce life-history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the consequences of environmental fluctuations requires that individual information at multiple life stages is available, which is particularly challenging in long-lived species. 2. Here, we analyse how variation in climatic conditions occurring in...

Data from: Female song is widespread and ancestral in songbirds

Karan J. Odom, Michelle L. Hall, Katharina Riebel, Kevin E. Omland & Naomi E. Langmore
Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin’s theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female...

Data from: Adaptive plasticity and epigenetic variation in response to warming in an Alpine plant

Adrienne B. Nicotra, Deborah L. Segal, Gemma L. Hoyle, Aaron W. Schrey, Koen J. F. Verhoeven & Christina L. Richards
Environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity may be a critical component of response to changing environments. We examined local differentiation and adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to elevated temperature in half-sib lines collected across an elevation gradient for the alpine herb, Wahlenbergia ceracea. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), we found low but significant genetic differentiation between low- and high-elevation seedlings, and seedlings originating from low elevations grew faster and showed stronger temperature responses (more plasticity) than...

Data from: Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution

Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B. Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomas Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J. Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen … & Xin Zhou
Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight...

Data from: Population genomic variation reveals roles of history, adaptation, and ploidy in switchgrass

Paul P. Grabowski, Geoffrey P. Morris, Michael D. Casler & Justin O. Borevitz
Geographic patterns of genetic variation are shaped by multiple evolutionary processes, including genetic drift, migration, and natural selection. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has strong genetic and adaptive differentiation despite life history characteristics that promote high levels of gene flow and can homogenize intraspecific differences, such as wind-pollination and self-incompatibility. To better understand how historical and contemporary factors shape variation in switchgrass, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize switchgrass from across its range at 98,042 SNPs. Population...

Data from: Gene flow between nascent species: geographic, genotypic and phenotypic differentiation within and between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens.

Christos Noutsos, Justin O. Borevitz & Scott A. Hodges
Speciation can be described as a reduction, and the eventual cessation, in the ability to interbreed. Thus, determining how gene flow differs within and between nascent species can illuminate the relative stage the taxa have attained in the speciation process. Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens are fully intercompatible yet occur in different habitats and have flowers specialized for pollination by hummingbirds and hawkmoths respectively. Using 79 SNP loci we genotyped nearly 1,000 individuals from populations...

Data from: Virus epidemics can lead to a population-wide spread of intragenomic parasites in a previously parasite-free asexual population

Matti Jalasvuori & Jussi Lehtonen
In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology the role of intragenomic parasites in maintaining sexual reproduction was both experimentally evaluated by Kraaijeveld et al. and discussed by Crespi and Schwander. The prevalence of sex is difficult to explain, due to its costs when compared with asexual reproduction. Yet, as reviewed by Crespi and Schwander, sex can be favorable in the presence of proliferating transposons. Transposons are similar to mutations, in that their integration to non-neutral...

Data from: Complete species phylogeny of the marine midge Pontomyia (Diptera: Chironomidae) reveals a cosmopolitan species and a new synonym

Danwei Huang, Peter S. Cranston & Lanna Cheng
Pontomyia (Diptera: Chironomidae) is an exclusively marine and flightless insect genus with four described species from the Indo-Pacific and one undescribed taxon known only by its larvae, pupal skins and females from the western Atlantic. A previous study of relationships among three of the Indo-Pacific species reported each of them to be monophyletic, with high genetic diversity within P. natans Edwards, the type species, and P. pacifica Tokunaga. The evolutionary affinities of the Australian endemic...

Data from: Male body size and condition affects sperm number and production rates in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki

Rose E. O'Dea, Michael D. Jennions & Megan L. Head
Sperm number is an important predictor of paternity when there is sperm competition. Sperm number is often measured as maximum sperm reserves, but in species where mating is frequent, males will often be replenishing their reserves. Thus, variation in how quickly males can produce sperm is likely to be important in determining male success in sperm competition. Despite this, little is known about how male size, body condition or diet affects sperm production rates. We...

Data from: The effects of familiarity and mating experience on mate choice in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki

Regina Vega-Trejo, Rose E. O'Dea, Micjael D. Jennions & Megan L. Head
A preference to mate with novel partners has been shown for both males and females in a range of taxa. Preferences for novel mates may result from direct recognition of previous sexual partners, or from other cues that predict this, such as familiarity. Costs and benefits of mating with multiple mates differ for males and females. Despite this, few studies have tested whether the sexes differ in their preferences for novel mates. Here, we investigated...

Data from: Mate finding, Allee effects, and selection for sex-biased dispersal

Allison K. Shaw & Hanna Kokko
Although dispersal requires context-dependent decision-making in three distinct stages (emigration, transit, immigration), these decisions are commonly ignored in simple models of dispersal. For sexually reproducing organisms, mate availability is an important factor in dispersal decisions. Difficulty finding mates can lead to an Allee effect where population growth decreases at low densities. Surprisingly, theoretical studies on mate finding and on sex-biased dispersal produce opposing predictions: in the former one sex is predicted to move less if...

Data from: Variation in early life testosterone in a wild population of red deer

Alyson T. Pavitt, Craig A. Walling, Alan S. McNeilly, Josephine M. Pemberton & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
1. Individual differences in circulating hormone concentrations can affect life history traits throughout an animal’s life. Despite this, relatively little is known about the potential drivers or consequences of individual variation in hormone levels, particularly in early life. In animals showing maternal care, early development is often dependent on maternal characteristics and condition. It is therefore possible that individual hormone profiles early in life are dependent on condition-linked characteristics of the mother. 2. Using data...

Data from: “Direct PCR” optimization yields a rapid, cost-effective, non-destructive, and efficient method for obtaining DNA barcodes without DNA extraction

Wing Hing Wong, Ywee Chieh Tay, Jayanthi Puniamoorthy, Michael Balke, Peter S. Cranston & Rudolf Meier
Macroinvertebrates that are collected in large numbers pose major problems in basic and applied biodiversity research: identification to species via morphology is often difficult, slow, and/or expensive. DNA barcodes are an attractive alternative or complementary source of information. Unfortunately obtaining DNA barcodes from specimens requires many steps and thus time and money. Here, we promote a short-cut to DNA barcoding; i.e., a non-destructive PCR method that skips DNA extraction (“direct PCR”) and that can be...

Data from: Do aggressive signals evolve toward higher reliability or lower costs of assessment?

Paweł Ręk
It has been suggested that the evolution of signals must be a wasteful process for the signaller, aimed at the maximization of signal honesty. However, the reliability of communication depends not only on the costs paid by signallers but also on the costs paid by receivers during assessment, and less attention has been given to the interaction between these two types of costs during the evolution of signalling systems. A signaller and receiver may accept...

Data from: Polyandrous females found fitter populations

Daniel J. Power & Luke Holman
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) requires an evolutionary explanation, because it carries fitness costs in many species. When mated females disperse alone to a new habitat, their offspring may have no option but to mate with their siblings and incur inbreeding depression. However, some of the offspring of polyandrous females may only be half siblings, reducing inbreeding depression when isolated groups of siblings only have each other as mates. We investigated this putative benefit of...

Data from: The hawk-dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colorful polymorphism of an endangered bird

Hanna Kokko, Simon C. Griffith & Sarah R. Pryke
The hawk–dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive ‘hawks’ and peaceful ‘doves’, with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) provides a real-life...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Australian National University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of California System
  • University of Melbourne
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
  • Macquarie University
  • University of Chicago
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
  • University of Exeter