53 Works

Under the karst: detecting hidden subterranean assemblages using eDNA metabarcoding in the caves of Christmas Island, Australia

Katrina West, Zoe Richards, Euan Harvey, Robert Susac, Alicia Grealy & Michael Bunce
Subterranean ecosystems are understudied and challenging to conventionally survey given the inaccessibility of underground voids and networks. In this study, we conducted a eukaryotic environmental (eDNA) metabarcoding survey across the karst landscape of Christmas Island, (Indian Ocean, Australia) to evaluate the utility of this non-invasive technique to detect subterranean aquatic ‘stygofauna’ assemblages. Three metabarcoding assays targeting the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S genes were applied to 159 water and sediment samples collected from 23...

Assessing confidence in root placement on phylogenies: an empirical study using non-reversible models for Mammals

Suha Naser-Khdour, Bui Quang Minh & Robert Lanfear
Using time-reversible Markov models is a very common practice in phylogenetic analysis, because although we expect many of their assumptions to be violated by empirical data, they provide high computational efficiency. However, these models lack the ability to infer the root placement of the estimated phylogeny. In order to compensate for the inability of these models to root the tree, many researchers use external information such as using outgroup taxa or additional assumptions such as...

Safe, Risk-Free, Standardised Food for All, Is That What We Will Eat Tomorrow?

Penny Wilson

Limited mass-independent individual variation in resting metabolic rate in a wild population of snow voles (Chionomys nivalis)

Andres Hagmayer, Glauco Camenisch, Cindy Canale, Erik Postma & Timothée Bonnet
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potentially important axis of physiological adaptation to the thermal environment. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of individual variation in RMR in the wild is hampered by a lack of data, as well as analytical challenges. RMR measurements in the wild are generally characterized by large measurement errors and a strong dependency on mass. The latter is problematic when assessing the ability of RMR to evolve independently...

Modifying plant photosynthesis and growth via simultaneous chloroplast transformation of Rubisco large and small subunits

Elena Martin-Avila, Yi-Leen Lim, Rosemary Birch, Lynnette Dirk, Sally Buck, Timothy Rhodes, Robert Sharwood, Maxim Kapralov & Spencer Whitney
Engineering improved Rubisco poses a crucial strategy for enhancing photosynthesis but is challenged by the alternate locations of the plastome rbcL gene and nuclear RbcS genes. Here we develop a RNAi-RbcS Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) master-line, tobRrΔS, amenable to rbcL-rbcS co-engineering by chloroplast transformation. Four tobacco genotypes coding alternative rbcS genes and adjoining 5ˈ-intergenic sequences revealed Rubisco production was highest in the lines incorporating a rbcS gene whose codon use and 5ˈUTR matched rbcL. These lines...

An experimental test to separate the effects of male age and mating history on female mate choice

Upama Aich, Timothee Bonnet, Rebecca Bathgate & Michael Jennions
Should females prefer older males as mates? Male survival to old age might indicate the presence of fitness-enhancing genes that increase offspring fitness. However, many correlational studies show that mating with older males can lower female fecundity, and even reduce offspring fitness due to epigenetic or germline mutation effects. One problem in quantifying female choice based on male age is that age is usually confounded with mating history. This begs a question: Do females choose...

Complex effects of helper relatedness on female extra-pair reproduction in a cooperative breeder

Gabriela Karolina Hajduk, Andrew Cockburn, Helen Osmond & Loeske Kruuk
In cooperatively-breeding species, the presence of male helpers in a group often reduces the breeding female’s fidelity to her social partner, possibly because there is more than one potential sire in the group. Using a long-term study of cooperatively-breeding superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) and records of paternity in 1936 broods, we show that the effect of helpers on rates of extra-pair paternity varied according to the helpers’ relatedness to the breeding female. The presence of...

Metasomatism in the upper-most subcontinental mantle in the presence of Ti-rich hydrous carbonated silicate melt

Naina Goswami

Overlap in the wing shape of migratory, nomadic and sedentary grass parrots

Dejan Stojanovic, Teresa Neeman & Robert Heinsohn
Bird wing shape is highly correlated with mobility, and vagile species have more pointed wing tips than sedentary ones. Most studies of bird wing shape are biased to the northern hemisphere, and consider only two migratory syndromes (north-south migrants or sedentary species). There are major gaps in knowledge about the wing shapes of different taxa with other movement strategies (e.g. nomads) in the southern hemisphere. Parrots are a prominent southern hemisphere bird order with complex...

Data from: No link between nymph and adult colouration in shield bugs: weak selection by predators

Iliana Medina, Regina Vega-Trejo, Thomas Wallenius, Damien Esquerre, Constanza Leon, Daniela Perez & Megan Head
Many organisms use different anti-predator strategies throughout their life, but little is known about the reasons or implications of such changes. For years it has been suggested that selection by predators should favour uniformity in local warning signals. If this is the case, we would expect high resemblance in colour across life stages in aposematic animals where young and adults share similar morphology and habitat. In this study we used shield bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) to...

Linking behavioural thermoregulation, boldness and individual state in male Carpetan rock lizards

Gergely Horváth, Octavio Jiménez-Robles, José Martín, Pilar López, Ignacio De La Riva & Gábor Herczeg
Mechanisms affecting consistent inter-individual behavioural variation (i.e. animal personality) are of wide scientific interest. In poikilotherms, ambient temperature is one of the most important environmental factors with a direct link to a variety of fitness-related traits. Recent empirical evidence suggests that individual differences in boldness are linked to behavioural thermoregulation strategy in heliothermic species, as individuals are regularly exposed to predators during basking. Here, we tested for links between behavioural thermoregulation strategy, boldness and individual...

Data for Analysis of Keystone Predation - trait based or driven by extrinsic processes?

Bruce Menge, Melissa Foley, Matthew Robart, Erin Richmond, Mae Noble & Francis Chan
Keystone predation can be a determinant of community structure, including species diversity, but factors underlying “keystoneness” have been minimally explored. Using the system in which the original keystone, the sea star Pisaster ochraceus, was discovered, we focused on two potential (but overlapping) determinants of keystoneness: intrinsic traits or state variables of the species (e.g., size, density), and extrinsic environmental parameters (e.g., prey productivity) that may provide conditions favorable for keystone predator evolution. Using a comparative-experimental...

Data from: Congruence and conflict in the higher-level phylogenetics of squamate reptiles: an expanded phylogenomic perspective

Sonal Singhal, Timothy Colston, Maggie Grundler, Stephen Smith, Gabriel Costa, Guarino Colli, Craig Moritz, Alexander Pyron & Daniel Rabosky
Genome-scale data have the potential to clarify phylogenetic relationships across the tree of life, but have also revealed extensive gene tree conflict. This seeming paradox, whereby larger datasets both increase statistical confidence and uncover significant discordance, suggests that understanding sources of conflict is important for accurate reconstruction of evolutionary history. We explore this paradox in squamate reptiles, the vertebrate clade comprising lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians. We collected an average of 5103 loci for 91 species...

Phylogenomics, biogeography and taxonomic revision of New Guinean pythons (Pythonidae, Leiopython) harvested for international trade

Damien Esquerre, Daniel J. D. Natusch, Jessica A. Lyons, Amir Hamidy, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon, Awal Riyanto, J. Scott Keogh & Stephen Donnellan
The large and enigmatic New Guinean pythons in the genus Leiopython are harvested from the wild to supply the international trade in pets. Six species are currently recognized (albertisii, biakensis, fredparkeri, huonensis, meridionalis, montanus) but the taxonomy of this group has been controversial. We combined analysis of 421 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes with morphological data to construct a detailed phylogeny of this group, understand their biogeographic patterns and establish the systematic diversity of...

Does breeding season variation affect evolution of a sexual signaling trait in a tropical lizard clade?

Levi Gray, Anthony Barley, David Hillis, Carlos Pavón-Vázquez, Steven Poe & Brittney White
Sexually selected traits can be expected to increase in importance when the period of sexual behavior is constrained, such as in seasonally restricted breeders. Anolis lizard male dewlaps are classic examples of multifaceted signaling traits, with demonstrated intraspecific reproductive function reflected in courtship behavior. Fitch and Hillis found a correlation between dewlap size and seasonality in mainland Anolis using traditional statistical methods. Here, we present two tests of the Fitch-Hillis Hypothesis using new phylogenetic and...

Evolutionary history of Neotropical savannas geographically concentrates species, phylogenetic and functional diversity of lizards

Jessica Fenker, Fabricius M. C. B. Domingos, Leonardo G. Tedeschi, Dan F. Rosauer, Fernanda P. Werneck, Guarino R. Colli, Roger M. D. Ledo, Emanuel M. Fonseca, Adrian A. Garda, Derek Tucker, , Maria F. Breitman, Flavia Soares, Lilian G. Giugliano & Craig Moritz
Supporting information (scripts) to compute diversity and endemism indices copied and available by Dan Rosauer (https ://github.com/DanRosauer/phylospatial). Aim: Understanding where and why species diversity is geographically concentrated remains a challenge in biogeography and macroevolution. This is true for the Cerrado, the most biodiverse tropical savanna in the world, which has experienced profound biodiversity loss. Previous studies have focused on a single metric (species composition), neglecting the fact that ‘species’ within the biome are often composed...

Supplementary data for: Primate phylogenomics uncovers multiple rapid radiations and ancient interspecific introgression

Dan Vanderpool, Bin Quang Minh, Robert Lanfear, Daniel Hughes, Shwetha Murali, R. Alan Harris, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Donna M. Muzny, Richard A. Gibbs, Kim C. Worley, Jeffrey Rogers, Matthew W. Hahn, Mark S. Hibbins & Robert J. Williamson
Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time....

Lateglacial and Holocene pollen and charcoal records for truwana/Cape Barren Island, Bass Strait, southeast Australia.

Matthew Adeleye, Simon Haberle, Stephen Harris & Felicitas Hopf
We reconstruct long-term vegetation development in a temperate Australian oceanic setting using wetland sediments, pollen and charcoal records from truwana/Cape Barren Island in Bass Strait to reconstruct vegetation and fire history. Magnetic susceptibility and organic content were also derived for two of the four sites considered as proxies for local sedimentary changes. Result shows that the lateglacial landscape (14,000–13000 cal yr BP) was characterized by open grassy Eucalyptus woodland in Bass Strait, and Eucalyptus woodland...

The ‘algebra of evolution’: the Robertson-Price identity and viability selection for body mass in a wild bird population

Gabrielle Hajduk, Craig Walling, Andrew Cockburn & Loeske Kruuk
By the Robertson-Price Identity, the change in a quantitative trait due to selection is equal to the trait’s covariance with relative fitness. We used a long-term study of superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus to consider phenotypic and genetic change within a generation due to juvenile viability selection. Mortality in the four-week period between fledging and independence was 40%, and heavier nestlings were more likely to survive, but why? There was additive genetic variance for both nestling...

Data from: Shifts in reproductive investment in response to competitors lowers male reproductive success

Foteini Spagopoulou, Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L. Head & Michael D. Jennions
In many species, males exhibit phenotypic plasticity in sexually selected traits when exposed to social cues about the intensity of sexual competition. To date, however, few studies have tested how this plasticity affects male reproductive success. We initially tested whether male mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Poeciliidae), change their investment in traits under pre- and post- copulatory sexual selection depending on the social environment. Focal males were exposed, for a full spermatogenesis cycle, to visual and chemical...

Data from: Oxidative stress delays development and alters gene expression in the agricultural pest moth, Helicoverpa armigera

, Bill James, Karl Gordon, Tom Walsh & Angela McGaughran
Stress is a widespread phenomenon that all organisms must endure. Common in nature is oxidative stress, which can interrupt cell homeostasis to cause cell damage and may be derived from respiration or from environmental exposure through diet. As a result of the routine exposure from respiration, many organisms can mitigate the effects of oxidative stress, but less is known about responses to oxidative stress from other sources. Helicoverpa armigera is a major agricultural pest moth...

Data from: Breaking Barriers? Ethnicity and socioeconomic background impact on early career progression in the fields of ecology and evolution

Klara M. Wanelik, Joanne S. Griffin, Megan L. Head, Fiona C. Ingleby & Zenobia Lewis
The academic disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) have long suffered from a lack of diversity. While in recent years there has been some progress in addressing the underrepresentation of women in STEM subjects, other characteristics that have the potential to impact on equality of opportunity have received less attention. In this study, we surveyed 188 early career scientists (ECRs), defined as within ten years of completing their PhD, in the fields of...

Effects of plant functional group removal on CO2 fluxes and belowground C stocks across contrasting ecosystems

Roger Grau-Andrés, David Wardle, Michael Gundale, Claire Foster & Paul Kardol
Changes in plant communities can have large effects on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and long-term C stocks. However, how these effects are mediated by environmental context or vary among ecosystems is not well understood. To study this, we used a long-term plant removal experiment set up across 30 forested lake islands in northern Sweden which collectively represent a strong gradient of soil fertility and ecosystem productivity. We measured forest floor CO2 exchange and aboveground and...

Data from: The effects of competition on fitness depend on the sex of both competitors

Megan Head, Samuel Brookes, Maider Iglesias Carrasco & Loeske Kruuk
In intraspecific competition, the sex of competing individuals is likely to be important in determining the consequences of competition, both for the immediate outcome of competitive interactions, and for long-term effects of competition during development on adult fitness traits. Previous studies have explored differences between males and females in their response to intraspecific competition. However, few have tested how the sex of the competitors, or any interactions between focal and competitor sex, influence the nature...

South West Australia Network

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The new deployment of ~25 broadband seismometers will provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the rendering of 3-D seismic structure in the crust and mantle lithosphere. The objective of this work is to provide a compilation of 3-D models, which will be an effective characterisation of the structure of the craton and its margins. These data and models will provide improved information for enhanced assessment of seismic ground shaking from regional earthquakes and facilitate an...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    53

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    50
  • Text
    2
  • Other
    1

Affiliations

  • Australian National University
    51
  • University of Exeter
    4
  • Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi
    3
  • University of Sao Paulo
    3
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    3
  • University of Adelaide
    2
  • Australian National University (ANU, Australia)
    2
  • University of Edinburgh
    2
  • Macquarie University
    2
  • University of Kentucky
    2