52 Works

Data from: DNA barcoding reveals the coral “laboratory-rat”, Stylophora pistillata encompasses multiple identities

Shashank Keshavmurthy, Sung-Yin Yang, Ada Alamaru, Yao-Yang Chuang, Michel Pichon, David Obura, Silvia Fontana, Stephane De Palmas, Fabrizio Stefani, Francesca Benzoni, Angus MacDonald, Annika M. E. Noreen, Chienshun Chen, Carden C. Wallace, Ruby M. Pillay, Vianney Denis, Affendi Yang Amri, James D. Reimer, Takuma Mezaki, Charles Sheppard, Yossi Loya, Avidor Abelson, Mohammed S. Mohammed, Andrew C. Baker, Pargol G. Mostafavi … & Chaolun A. Chen
Stylophora pistillata is a widely used coral “lab-rat” species with highly variable morphology and a broad biogeographic range (Red Sea to western central Pacific). Here we show, by analysing Cytochorme Oxidase I sequences, from 241 samples across this range, that this taxon in fact comprises four deeply divergent clades corresponding to the Pacific-Western Australia, Chagos-Madagascar-South Africa, Gulf of Aden-Zanzibar- Madagascar, and Red Sea-Persian/Arabian Gulf-Kenya. On the basis of the fossil record of Stylophora, these four...

Data from: Functional morphology and efficiency of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants

Alexander Hackmann, Henry Delacave, Adam Robinson, David Labonte & Walter Federle
Contamination of body surfaces can negatively affect many physiological functions. Insects have evolved different adaptations for removing contamination, including surfaces that allow passive self-cleaning and structures for active cleaning. Here, we study the function of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants, a clamp-like structure consisting of a notch on the basitarsus facing a spur on the tibia, both bearing cuticular ‘combs’ and ‘brushes’. The ants clamp one antenna tightly between notch and spur, pull...

Data from: Resilience or robustness: identifying topological vulnerabilities in rail networks

Alessio Pagani, Guillem Mosquera, Aseel Alturki, Samuel Johnson, Stephen Jarvis, Alan Wilson, Weisi Guo & Liz Varga
Many critical infrastructure systems have network structure and are under stress. Despite their national importance, the complexity of large-scale transport networks means we do not fully understand their vulnerabilities to cascade failures. The research in this paper examines the interdependent rail networks in Greater London and surrounding commuter area. We focus on the morning commuter hours, where the system is under the most demand stress. There is increasing evidence that the topological shape of the...

Data from: Long-term and trans-generational effects of neonatal experience on sheep behaviour

Michael Mendl, Corinna Clark, Joanna Murrell, Mia Fernyhough & Treasa O'Rourke
Early life experiences can have profound long-term, and sometimes trans-generational, effects on individual phenotypes. However, there is a relative paucity of knowledge about effects on pain sensitivity, even though these may impact on an individual's health and welfare, particularly in farm animals exposed to painful husbandry procedures. Here, we tested in sheep whether neonatal painful and non-painful challenges can alter pain sensitivity in adult life, and also in the next generation. Ewes exposed to tail-docking...

Data from: Spatially coordinated dynamic gene transcription in living pituitary tissue

Karen Featherstone, Kirsty Hey, Hiroshi Momiji, Anne V. McNamara, Amanda L. Patist, Joanna Woodburn, David G. Spiller, Helen C. Christian, Alan S. McNeilly, John J. Mullins, Barbel F. Finkenstadt, David A. Rand, Michael R. H. White & Julian R. E. Davis
Transcription at individual genes in single cells is often pulsatile and stochastic. A key question emerges regarding how this behaviour contributes to tissue phenotype, but it has been a challenge to quantitatively analyse this in living cells over time, as opposed to studying snap-shots of gene expression state. We have used imaging of reporter gene expression to track transcription in living pituitary tissue. We integrated live-cell imaging data with statistical modelling for quantitative real-time estimation...

Data from: Fractal measures of spatial pattern as a heuristic for return rate in vegetative systems

Michael A. Irvine, Emma L. Jackson, Emma J. Kenyon, Kevan J. Cook, Matthew J. Keeling & James C. Bull
Measurement of population persistence is a long-standing problem in ecology; in particular, whether it is possible to gain insights into persistence without long time-series. Fractal measurements of spatial patterns, such as the Korcak exponent or boundary dimension, have been proposed as indicators of the persistence of underlying dynamics. Here we explore under what conditions a predictive relationship between fractal measures and persistence exists. We combine theoretical arguments with an aerial snapshot and time series from...

Data from: Comparative and population mitogenomic analyses of Madagascar’s extinct, giant ‘subfossil’ lemurs

Logan Kistler, Aakrosh Ratan, Laurie R. Godfrey, Brooke E. Crowley, Cris E. Hughes, Runhua Lei, Yinqui Cui, Mindy L. Wood, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Haingoson Andriamialison, John J. McGraw, Lynn P. Tomsho, Stephan C. Schuster, Webb Miller, Edward E. Louis, Anne D. Yoder, Ripan S. Malhi, George H. Perry & Yinqiu Cui
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct ‘subfossil’ lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11–160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study...

Review of Energy Policy 2020

Robert Gross, Keith Bell, Mike Bradshaw, Christian Brand, Jason Chilvers, Paul Dodds, Antony Froggatt, Richard Hanna, Tom Hargreaves, Phil Heptonstall, Caroline Kuzemko, Richard Lowes, Faye Wade & Jan Webb

Data from: Multi-proxy evidence highlights a complex evolutionary legacy of maize in South America

Logan Kistler, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio De Souza, Natalia A. S. Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R. Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P. Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Fabio De Oliveira Freitas & Robin G. Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9,000 BP, traversed Central America by ~7,500 BP, and spread into South America by ~6,500 BP. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then...

Data from: The experimental evolution of herbicide-resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii results in a positive correlation between fitness in the presence and absence of herbicides

Tom Vogwill, Nick Colegrave, Paul Neve & Mato Lagator
Pleiotropic fitness trade-offs will be key determinants of the evolutionary dynamics of selection for pesticide resistance. However, for herbicide resistance, empirical support for a fitness cost of resistance is mixed, and it is therefore also questionable what further ecological trade-offs can be assumed to apply to herbicide resistance. Here, we test the existence of trade-offs by experimentally evolving herbicide resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Although fitness costs are detected for all herbicides, we find that, counterintuitively,...

Data from: Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity.

Susanna Atwell, Jason Corwin, Nicole Soltis, Anushryia Subedy, Katherine Denby, Daniel J. Kliebenstein, Jason A. Corwin, Nicole E. Soltis & Katherine J. Denby
How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a...

Data from: Role of sex and migration in adaptation to sink environments

Mato Lagator, Andrew Morgan, Paul Neve & Nick Colegrave
Understanding the effects of sex and migration on adaptation to novel environments remains a key problem in evolutionary biology. Using a single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we investigated how sex and migration affected rates of evolutionary rescue in a sink environment, and subsequent changes in fitness following evolutionary rescue. We show that sex and migration affect both the rate of evolutionary rescue and subsequent adaptation. However, their combined effects change as the populations adapt to a...

Data from: Internal acoustic structuring in pied babbler recruitment cries specifies the form of recruitment

Sabrina Engesser, Amanda R Ridley, Marta B Manser, Andri Manser & Simon W Townsend
Language is inherently combinatorial, and parallels of this combinatorial capacity are found in nonhuman systems, with animals combining sounds and calls into larger meaningful structures. However, further analogue examples are central in unveiling the diversity, distribution, and evolutionary drivers of combinatoriality. Here, we provide evidence for internal “meaning-refining” acoustic variation within a larger stereotyped signal in pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor). Using acoustic analyses, we demonstrate that males produce 2 long, raucous, “cry-like” structures, both starting...

Data from: Global network centrality of university rankings

Weisi Guo, Marco Del Vecchio & Ganna Pogrebna
Universities and higher education institutions form an integral part of the national infrastructure and prestige. As academic research benefits increasingly from international exchange and cooperation, many universities have increased investment in improving and enabling their global connectivity. Yet, the relationship of university performance and its global physical connectedness has not been explored in detail. We conduct the first large-scale data-driven analysis into whether there is a correlation between university relative ranking performance and its global...

Blood pressure and dementia

Ruth Peters, Jane Warwick, Kaarin J. Anstey & Craig S. Anderson
High blood pressure (BP) has been associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, stroke, and Alzheimer disease pathology. Epidemiologic studies are consistent in showing that high BP, particularly in midlife, is a risk factor for the development of dementia in late life. However, supporting randomized evidence of the inference that BP-lowering therapy can prevent dementia has been slow in coming over the last 30 years. The most recent randomized trial, the Systolic Blood Pressure...

Data for: Feedback between coevolution and epidemiology can help or hinder the maintenance of genetic variation in host-parasite models

Ailene MacPherson, Matthew Keeling & Sarah Otto
Antagonistic coevolution has long been suggested to help maintain host genetic variation. While, ecological and epidemiological feedbacks are known to have important consequences on coevolutionary allele frequency dynamics, their effects on the maintenance of genetic variation remains poorly understood.Here, we extend our previous work on the maintenance of genetic variation in a classic matching-alleles coevolutionary model by exploring the effects of ecological and epidemiological feedbacks, where both allele frequencies and population sizes are allowed to...

Biodiversity responses to vegetation height and diversity in perennial meadow plantings in two urban areas in the UK

B.A. Norton, G.D. Bending, R. Clark, R. Corstanje, N. Dunnett, K.L. Evans, D.R. Grafius, E. Gravestock, S.M. Grice, J.A. Harris, S. Hilton, H. Hoyle, E. Lim, T.G. Mercer, M. Pawlett, O.L. Pescott, J.P. Richards, G.E. Southon & P.H. Warren
The data describe the ecological responses (invertebrate diversity and biomass, plant diversity, soil characteristics and microbial diversity) to experimental manipulation of floristic diversity and vegetation height in planted urban meadows. The experiment consisted of a replicated set of nine different perennial meadow treatments, sown in six public urban greenspaces in the towns of Bedford and Luton, in the UK.

Per un’epistemologia critica. Il contributo del metodo foucaultiano

Raffaele Grandoni
In this paper I will focus on a specific aspect of Foucault’s oeuvre: the epistemological one. My aim is to show that Foucault’s heritage must not be reduced to his contributions to political and ethical theory, but that it must include an epistemological method for a critical inquiry on the nature of science, too. In the first part, I will shed a light on Foucault’s relationship with the French epistemological tradition, especially with Bachelard’s and...

Reshaping Food Practices and Identities: Anglo-Sino Encounters in Canton

Leiyun Ni

A major combustion aerosol event had a negligible impact on the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle population

Michael Adams, Mark Tarn, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Grace Porter, Daniel O'Sullivan, Alexander Harrison, Zhiqiang Cui, Jesús Vergara Temprado, Federico Carotenuto, Mark Holden, Martin Daily, Thomas Whale, Sebastien Sikora, Ian Burke, Jung-uk Shim, Jim McQuaid & Benjamin Murray
Clouds containing supercooled water are important for both climate and weather, but our knowledge of which aerosol particle types nucleate ice in these clouds is far from complete. Combustion aerosols have strong anthropogenic sources and if these aerosol types were to nucleate ice in clouds they might exert a climate forcing. Here, we quantified the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations during the UK’s annual Bonfire Night celebrations, which are characterised by strong anthropogenic emissions of...

Data from: Elevated substitution rates estimated from ancient DNA sequences

Simon Y. W. Ho, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Robin G. Allaby & Simon Y.W Ho
Ancient DNA sequences are able to offer valuable insights into molecular evolutionary processes, which are not directly accessible via modern DNA. They are particularly suitable for the estimation of substitution rates because their ages provide calibrating information in phylogenetic analyses, circumventing the difficult task of choosing independent calibration points. The substitution rates obtained from such datasets have typically been high, falling between the rates estimated from pedigrees and species phylogenies. Many of these estimates have...

Data from: Real-time decision-making during emergency disease outbreaks

William J. M. Probert, Chris P. Jewell, Marleen Werkman, Christopher J. Fonnesbeck, Yoshitaka Goto, Michael C. Runge, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Katriona Shea, Matt J. Keeling, Matthew J. Ferrari & Michael J. Tildesley
In the event of a new infectious disease outbreak, mathematical and simulation models are commonly used to inform policy by evaluating which control strategies will minimize the impact of the epidemic. In the early stages of such outbreaks, substantial parameter uncertainty may limit the ability of models to provide accurate predictions, and policymakers do not have the luxury of waiting for data to alleviate this state of uncertainty. For policymakers, however, it is the selection...

Data from: Archaeological Central American maize genomes suggest ancient gene flow from South America

Logan Kistler, Heather B. Thakar, Amber M. VanDerwarker, Alejandra Domic, Anders Bergström, Richard J. George, Thomas K. Harper, Robin G. Allaby, Kenneth Hirth & Douglas J. Kennett
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) domestication began in southwestern Mexico ~9,000 calendar years before present (cal. BP) and humans dispersed this important grain to South America by at least 7000 cal. BP as a partial domesticate. South America served as a secondary improvement center where the domestication syndrome became fixed and new lineages emerged in parallel with similar processes in Mesoamerica. Later, Indigenous cultivators carried a second major wave of maize southward from Mesoamerica, but...

Data from: The advantage of short paper titles

Adrian Letchford, Helen Susannah Moat & Tobias Preis
Vast numbers of scientific articles are published each year, some of which attract considerable attention, and some of which go almost unnoticed. Here, we investigate whether any of this variance can be explained by a simple metric of one aspect of the paper's presentation: the length of its title. Our analysis provides evidence that journals which publish papers with shorter titles receive more citations per paper. These results are consistent with the intriguing hypothesis that...

Data from: Trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

George Foot, Steven P. Rice & Jonathan Millett
The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the...

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