35 Works

Ruminal pH

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, Michael Dineen & Mathieu Silberberg
There has been an increasing trend in herd size in a number of countries which is associated with an increase in the number of cows per stock person. More specifically in the dairy cattle sector in Europe, since milk quota removal by EU in April 2015, many countries have implemented expansion programs mainly in the form of increasing cow milk yield and/or cow number. This expansion could result in less time and attention dedicated to...

Dynamic magma mixing during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland

Olgeir Sigmarsson

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

In situ resistance, not immigration, supports invertebrate community resilience to drought intensification in a Neotropical ecosystem

Camille Bonhomme, Régis Céréghino, Jean-François Carrias, Arthur Compin, Bruno Corbara, Vincent E.J. Jassey, Joséphine Leflaive, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Thibaut Rota, Diane S. Srivastava & Céline Leroy
While future climate scenarios predict declines in precipitations in many regions of the world, little is known of the mechanisms underlying community resilience to prolonged dry seasons, especially in “naïve” Neotropical rainforests. Predictions of community resilience to intensifying drought are complicated by the fact that the underlying mechanisms are mediated by species’ tolerance and resistance traits, as well as rescue through dispersal from source patches. We examined the contribution of in situ tolerance-resistance and immigration...

Data from: The relative importance of green infrastructure as refuge habitat for pollinators increases with local land-use intensity

Pengyao Li, David Kleijn, Isabelle Badenhausser, Carlos Zaragoza-Trello, Nicolas Gross, Ivo Raemakers & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural expansion and intensification have resulted in strong declines in farmland biodiversity across Europe. In many intensively farmed landscapes, linear landscape elements such as field boundaries, road verges and ditch banks are the main remaining green infrastructures providing refuge for biodiversity, and as such play a pivotal role in agri-environmental policies aiming at mitigating biodiversity loss. Yet, while we have a fairly good understanding of how agricultural intensification influences biodiversity on farmland, little is...

La régulation sociale de la pauvreté féminine à Mayotte

Nicolas Roinsard
Près de dix ans après son accession au statut de département français d’Outre-mer, Mayotte offre un tableau des plus contrastés avec, d’un côté, l’avènement d’une classe moyenne salariée et, de l’autre, le maintien d’une masse importante de la population en marge des opportunités offertes par la départementalisation. Les femmes, dont une bonne part ont été faiblement scolarisées, sont particulièrement concernées par l’inactivité, le chômage et la pauvreté qui en résulte. Ainsi, la mise en œuvre...

Milk intake, body anatomy and composition in calves

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Dominique Pomies, Volker Röttgen, Björn Kuhla, Stefan Nüske, Alex Bach & Armin M. Scholz
Calves are an important investment on a cattle farm as their loss can cause substantial financial damage. Young calves are susceptible to a range of different diseases caused by pathogens, which can lead to morbidity and mortality. Additionally, calf management, including cow-calf separation, colostrum feeding, housing, dehorning and vaccination, can directly impact the health of calves. This chapter is therefore dedicated to different methods for assessing specific traits in calves. The current focus in calf...

Greenfeed systems

Cécile Martin, Yvanne Rochette, David Humphries & Gilles Renand
The GreenFeed (GF) system spot samples the breath of individual animals for short periods (3–7 min), at various times of the day, over several days, weeks, or months to measure methane production. To obtain a diurnal CH4 emission pattern from the GF system, the animal visits need to be appropriately distributed over a 24 h feeding cycle. This can be difficult to achieve as the number of visits is greater during certain hours of the...

Lameness detection and scoring

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Juan Haladjian, Stefan Nüske, Dorothée Ledoux, Dave Humphries, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Enting concluded lameness, from an economic perspective, as the third most costly health disease, following mastitis and reproductive failure issues, in cattle units. Archer estimated the incidence rate of lameness in the United Kingdom cattle herds roughly 50 cases/100 cows in a year; nevertheless, due to poor correlation between incidence rates and records of treatments in farms, the actual number seems to be higher. Surprisingly, the significance of lameness associated with cattle welfare, health and...

Entre Lacs et Tourbières : approche pluridisciplinaire de l’évolution des paysages et des zones humides de la Pénide à Espalem (Haute-Loire)

André-Marie Dendievel, Fabien Delrieu & Anne Duny
Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche pluridisciplinaire, nos travaux visent à reconstituer l’évolution des paysages dans le massif du Cézallier durant la Protohistoire. Cet article présente les premiers résultats obtenus sur le plateau de la Pénide (Espalem, Haute-Loire) qui a la particularité d’accueillir d’anciens lacs, un site fortifié et une nécropole protohistorique. A partir de carottages dans la tourbière du « Lac Long » et de sondages archéologiques, nous avons mis en évidence les...

Data from: Persistence at the final stage of volcanic island ontogeny: abiotic predictors explain native plant species richness on 111 remote Pacific atolls

Sebastien Larrue, Jean-François Butaud, Curtis C. Daehler, Stéphane Ballet, Julien Chadeyron & Roger Oyono
Aim: The final island ontogeny of the General Dynamic Model (GDM) (i.e. before island submergence) in tropical oceans corresponds to the coral atoll stage. Here, we examined whether the species richness of native vascular plants (indigenous and endemic species) on atolls is controlled by spatial and/or physical processes. We also predicted that atolls strongly affected by anthropogenic disturbance would have lower native species richness than predicted by spatial and physical processes. Location: Marshall Islands, Kiribati...

Supplementary Data - The Paris Biota decapod (Arthropoda) fauna and the diversity of Triassic decapods

Christopher Smith, Charbonnier Sylvain, James Jenks, Kevin Bylund, Gilles Escarguel, Nicolas Olivier, Emmanuel Fara & Arnaud Brayard
We describe here the early Spathian (Early Triassic) Paris Biota decapod fauna from the western USA basin. This fauna contains two taxa of Aegeridae (Dendobranchiata), namely Anisaeger longirostrus n. sp. and Aeger sp. that are the oldest known representatives of their family, thus extending its temporal range by 5 Myr back into the Early Triassic. This fauna also includes two representatives of Glypheida (Pleocyemata) with Litogaster turnbullensis Schram, 1971 and Pemphix krumenackeri n. sp., comforting...

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique

Yvanne Rochette, Arjan Jonker, Peter Moate, Amélie Vanlierde & Cécile Martin
A further method for measuring methane production is the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique, which requires inserting a known quantity of the inert tracer into the rumen. The use of the SF₆ tracer technique to quantify enteric CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants was pioneered by Zimmerman and Johnson. The SF₆ tracer technique is an indirect method to quantify CH4 emissions from ruminants because only a representative quantity of gas produced by the animal is collected;...

In Vivo Imaging Auvergne (IVIA)

La plateforme IVIA réalise des prestations d'imagerie pour différentes équipes au niveau régional et national. Mots clés : In vivo, Imaging, nuclear imaging, optical imaging, MRI.

Data from: Insular woody daisies (Argyranthemum , Asteraceae) are more resistant to drought-induced hydraulic failure than their herbaceous relatives

Larissa C. Doria, Diego S. Podadera, Marcelino Del Arco, Thibaud Chauvin, Erik Smets, Sylvain Delzon & Frederic Lens
1. Insular woodiness refers to the evolutionary transition from herbaceousness towards derived woodiness on (sub)tropical islands, and leads to island floras that have a higher proportion of woody species compared to floras of nearby continents. 2. Several hypotheses have tried to explain insular woodiness since Darwin’s original observations, but experimental evidence why plants became woody on islands is scarce at best. 3. Here, we combine experimental measurements of hydraulic failure in stems (as a proxy...

Effects of high and low-efficacy therapy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

Izanne Roos, Emmanuelle Leray, Romain Casey, Dana Horakova, Eva Havrdova, Guillermo Izquierdo, Sara Eichau, Francesco Patti, Gilles Edan, Marc Debouverie, Jean Pelletier, Serkan Ozakbas, Maria Pia Amato, Pierre Clavelou, Pierre Grammond, Cavit Boz, Katherine Buzzard, Olga Skibina, Jonathan Ciron, Oliver Gerlach, Francois Grand'Maison, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Charles Malpas, Helmut Butzkueven, Sandra Vukusic … & Tomas Kalincik
Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of high- and low-efficacy treatments in patients with recently active and inactive secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) after accounting for therapeutic lag. Methods: Patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferon β, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) therapies after SPMS onset were selected from MSBase and OFSEP, two large observational cohorts. Therapeutic lag was estimated for each patient based on their demographic and clinical characteristics....

Data from: Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil

Darlan S. Candido, Ingra M. Claro, Jaqueline G. De Jesus, William M. Souza, Filipe R. R. Moreira, Simon Dellicour, Thomas A. Mellan, Louis Du Plessis, Rafael H. M. Pereira, Flavia C. S. Sales, Erika R. Manuli, Julien Thézé, Luiz Almeida, Mariane T. Menezes, Carolina M. Voloch, Marcilio J. Fumagalli, Thaís M. Coletti, Camila A. M. Da Silva, Mariana S. Ramundo, Mariene R. Amorim, Henrique H. Hoeltgebaum, Swapnil Mishra, Mandev S. Gill, Luiz M. Carvalho, Lewis F. Buss … & Nuno R. Faria
Brazil currently has one of the fastest growing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in the world. Owing to limited available data, assessments of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1–1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil....

La vulnérabilité physique au changement climatique comparée des petites îles du Sud-Ouest de l’océan Indien

Goujon Michaël, Jean-François Hoarau & Olivier Santoni
The objective of this paper is to synthetically assess the vulnerability of small island economies (SIEs) to the consequences of climate change. We use a composite indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change (PVCCI), developed at Ferdi, which we apply to a large sample of 250 economies, including 100 sovereign or affiliated SIEs. Our results show that SEIs are structurally exposed to the consequences of climate change but in a heterogeneous way. An illustration of...

BIOM - Revue scientifique pour la biodiversité du Massif central - Vol. 1, N°1

Une association bryophytique nouvelle, endémique du puy de Dôme (Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) : le Gymnomitrio corallioidis-Barbilophozietum sudeticae

Vincent Hugonnot
Le Gymnomitrio corallioidis-Barbilophozietum sudeticae est une association nouvelle considérée comme micro-endémique du sommet du puy de Dôme dans l’état actuel des connaissances. Cette association forme des colonies crustacées sur les affleurements de domite pulvérulente des versants nord et nord-ouest du cumulodôme, parmi des landes cryophiles. Elle est caractérisée par Gymnomitrion corallioides, G. concinnatum, Marsupella badensis et Barbilophozia sudetica. Cette association pionnière présente un caractère permanent. Elle était autrefois probablement plus répandue dans la chaîne des...

Contribution à la connaissance de l'étage subalpin dans le massif du Mont Aigoual (Gard, Lozère) : synthèse bibliographique, délimitation, caractérisation floristique et comparaison à l’échelle du Massif central.

Mario Klesczewski, Léa Pouget, Mathis Lecoq, Maxime Oudot, Mathieu Bossaert & Gautier Kelian
Après une synthèse bibliographique globale sur l'étage subalpin, notre travail dresse un inventaire inédit de la flore et la végétation sommitale du massif du Mont Aigoual (Gard, Lozère) : au cours de plusieurs années de prospections, un nombre important d’observations floristiques récentes ont été renseignées au sein d’une base de données. Ces données concernent l’ensemble des espèces végétales considérées comme typiques des habitats d’altitude du Massif central, notamment les hêtraies et les mosaïques de pelouses...

Data from: Dental status of New Caledonian children: is there a need for a new oral health promotion programme?

Hélène Pichot, Martine Hennequin, Bernard Rouchon, Bruno Pereira & Stéphanie Tubert-Jeannin
Background: Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and...

Data from: The effects of food web structure on ecosystem function exceeds those of precipitation

M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Diane S. Srivastava, Bruno Corbara, Olivier Dézerald, Céline Leroy, Jean-François Carrias, Alain Dejean & Régis Céréghino
Ecosystems are being stressed by climate change, but few studies have tested food web responses to changes in precipitation patterns and the consequences to ecosystem function. Fewer still have considered whether results from one geographic region can be applied to other regions, given the degree of community change over large biogeographic gradients. We assembled, in one field site, three types of macroinvertebrate communities within water-filled bromeliads. Two represented food webs containing both a fast filter...

Simulation of sheared granular layers activated by fluid pressurization

Nho Gia Hien Nguyen, Luc Scholtès, Yves Guglielmi, Frédéric Victor Donzé, Zady Ouraga & Mountaka Souley
Fluid pressurization of critically stressed sheared zones can trigger slip mechanisms at play in many geological rupture processes, including earthquakes or landslides. The increasing fluid pressure reduces the effective stress, giving possibility to the shear zone to reactivate. Nonetheless, the mechanisms that dictate the mode of slip, from aseismic steady creep to seismic dynamic rupture, remain poorly understood. By using discrete element modeling, we simulate pore-pressure-step creep test experiments on a sheared granular layer under...

À l’assaut des lois du genre : lecture de Poesía para niñas bien (2011) de Txus García

Lucie Lavergne
Étudier l’écriture poétique de Txus García sous l’angle des notions de « femmes » et de « conflits » invite à s’intéresser non seulement aux conflits dans lesquels s’engage une femme poète, au XXIe siècle, en Espagne, mais aussi à interroger la dimension conflictuelle du terme « femme », pour celle qui se définit, surtout, comme « lesbienne », « queer », ou même comme « animale » ! Incontestablement, par cette autodéfinition, la locutrice...

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