A further method for measuring methane production is the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique, which requires inserting a known quantity of the inert tracer into the rumen. The use of the SF₆ tracer technique to quantify enteric CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants was pioneered by Zimmerman and Johnson. The SF₆ tracer technique is an indirect method to quantify CH4 emissions from ruminants because only a representative quantity of gas produced by the animal is collected;...
Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of high- and low-efficacy treatments in patients with recently active and inactive secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) after accounting for therapeutic lag. Methods: Patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferon β, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) therapies after SPMS onset were selected from MSBase and OFSEP, two large observational cohorts. Therapeutic lag was estimated for each patient based on their demographic and clinical characteristics....
Étudier l’écriture poétique de Txus García sous l’angle des notions de « femmes » et de « conflits » invite à s’intéresser non seulement aux conflits dans lesquels s’engage une femme poète, au XXIe siècle, en Espagne, mais aussi à interroger la dimension conflictuelle du terme « femme », pour celle qui se définit, surtout, comme « lesbienne », « queer », ou même comme « animale » ! Incontestablement, par cette autodéfinition, la locutrice...
Fluid pressurization of critically stressed sheared zones can trigger slip mechanisms at play in many geological rupture processes, including earthquakes or landslides. The increasing fluid pressure reduces the effective stress, giving possibility to the shear zone to reactivate. Nonetheless, the mechanisms that dictate the mode of slip, from aseismic steady creep to seismic dynamic rupture, remain poorly understood. By using discrete element modeling, we simulate pore-pressure-step creep test experiments on a sheared granular layer under...
The daily rumination pattern in cattle is influenced by different factors such as feeding frequency, physical and chemical characteristics of the diet, feeding time, fasting, photoperiod and grazing management. Studies have observed an apparent decrease in rumination activity in ruminal acidosis or mastitis challenging dairy cattle. Social and physical environment can also affect cattle’s rumination behaviour. Manual observation of eating and rumination in individual animal is time-consuming and labour intensive. Therefore, the need for developing...
There are ongoing philosophical, moral, and societal debates about experiments on live animals. Along with a consequentialist approach, it may be considered that an action – here an experiment on live animals – is morally acceptable if the knowledge it aims to produce can result in an overall benefit. In other words, it is acceptable if the constraints imposed on the animals involved are outweighed by the larger benefits expected for others (humans or animals)....
Standing and lying behaviours are well-defined. Lying is often described as when the flank or sternum of the animal is in contact with the ground, and end of lying when all four legs are perpendicular to the body. The transition from lying to standing and vice versa requires only a few seconds, and therefore differences in the description of lying do not greatly affect the calculation of time spent lying or standing. By contrast, if...
A process of validation assesses the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose within a specific context. Ideally, the validation of a tool should describe the range of purposes and contexts in which it is appropriate. This generally cannot be done completely. Therefore, when such a wide validation cannot be done, the validation process needs to refer clearly to the purpose of the use of the tool and to which animals it...
This dataset contains a single whole-genome optical map file (.CMAP) for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv Chinese Spring (CS). The methods for constructing this optical map and the properties of this map are described below. The definition of the CMAP format is documented in https://bionanogenomics.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/30039-CMAP-File-Format-Specification-Sheet.pdf. The extracted ultra-high-molecular weight DNA molecules of CS were labeled with the DLE-1 enzyme (Bionano Genomics, San Diego, CA, USA) and were then stained with the Bionano PrepTM DLS Kit...
University of Clermont Auvergne9
National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment5
Scotland's Rural College2
Agriculture Victoria Services (Australia)2
Dokuz Eylül University1
University of Newcastle Australia1
Hospices Civils de Lyon1
University of Rennes 11