77 Works

Scutellaria Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Brain-Metastatic Lung Cancer Cells via Regulation of Multiple Signaling Pathways

Robert E. Wright III, Lubana Shahin, Venumadhavi Gogineni, Zahin Hussain, Aroma Naeem, Sudha Sadasivan, Indrajit Sinha, Melody Neely, Sharon K. Michellhaugh, Sandeep Mittal, Nirmal Joshee & Prahlad Parajuli

Data from: The Physiological Basis for Estimating Photosynthesis from Chlorophyll a Fluorescence

Jimei Han, Lianhong Gu, Yongjiang Zhang & Ying Sun

Data from: Species richness change across spatial scales

Jonathan M. Chase, Brian J. McGill, Patrick L. Thompson, Laura H. Antão, Amanda E. Bates, Shane A. Blowes, Maria Dornelas, Andrew Gonzalez, Anne E. Magurran, Sarah R. Supp, Marten Winter, Anne D. Bjorkmann, Helge Bruelheide, Jarrett E.K. Byrnes, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Robin Ehali, Catalina Gomez, Hector M. Guzman, Forest Isbell, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Holly P. Jones, Jessica Hines, Mark Vellend, Conor Waldock & Mary O'Connor
Humans have elevated global extinction rates and thus lowered global-scale species richness. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that losses of global species richness should always, or even often, trickle down to losses of species richness at regional and local scales, even though this relationship is often assumed. Here, we show that scale can modulate our estimates of species richness change through time in the face of anthropogenic pressures, but not in...

Data from: Experimental evidence of long-term reproductive costs in a colonial nesting seabird

Aly McKnight, Erik J. Blomberg, Gregory H. Golet, David B. Irons, Cynthia S. Loftin & Shawn T. McKInney
Trade-offs between current and future reproduction are central to the evolution of life histories. Experiments that manipulate brood size provide an effective approach to investigating future costs of current reproduction. Most manipulative studies to date, however, have addressed only the short-term effects of brood size manipulation. Our goal was to determine whether survival or breeding costs of reproduction in a long-lived species manifest beyond the subsequent breeding season. To this end, we investigated long-term survival...

Cross-ecosystem bottlenecks alter reciprocal subsidies within meta-ecosystems

Amanda Klemmer, Mark Galatowitsch & Angus McIntosh
Reciprocal subsidies link ecosystems into meta-ecosystems, but energy transfer to organisms that do not cross boundaries may create sinks, reducing reciprocal subsidy transfer. We investigated how the type of subsidy and top predator presence influenced reciprocal flows of energy, by manipulating the addition of terrestrial leaf and terrestrial insect subsidies to experimental freshwater pond mesocosms with and without predatory fish. Over 18 months, fortnightly addition of subsidies (terrestrial beetle larvae) to top-predators was crossed with...

Disease or drought: Environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap

Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Martina Küsters, Zoe Barandongo, Claudine Cloete, Axel Hartmann, Pauline Kamath, Werner Kilian, John Mfune, Gabriel Shatumbu, Royi Zidon, Wayne Getz & Wendy Turner
When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatiotemporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra (Equus quagga) population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. A...

Individual-based eco-evolutionary models for understanding adaptation in changing seas

Amanda Xuereb, Quentin Rougemont, Peter Tiffin, Huijie Xue & Megan Phifer-Rixey
As climate change threatens species’ persistence, predicting the potential for species to adapt to rapidly changing environments is imperative for the development of effective conservation strategies. Eco-evolutionary individual-based models (IBMs) can be useful tools for achieving this objective. We performed a literature review to identify studies that apply these tools in marine systems. Our survey suggested that this is an emerging area of research fueled in part by developments in modeling frameworks that allow simulation...

Elevation alters outcome of competition between resident and range-shifting species

Isaac Shepard
Species’ geographic range shifts towards higher latitudes and elevations are among the most frequently reported consequences of climate change. However, the role of species interactions in setting range margins remains poorly understood. We used cage experiments in ponds to test competing hypotheses about the role of abiotic and biotic mechanisms for structuring range boundaries of an up-slope range-shifting caddisfly Limnephilus picturatus. We found that competition with a ubiquitous species Limnephilus externus significantly decreased L. picturatus...

Data from: Drivers and cascading ecological consequences of Gambusia affinis trait variation

Zachary Wood, Laura Lopez, Celia Symons, Rebecca Robinson, Eric Palkovacs & Michael Kinnison
Phenotypic trait differences among populations can shape ecological outcomes for communities and ecosystems. However, few studies have mechanistically linked heritable and plastic components of trait variation to generalizable processes of ecology, such as trophic cascades. Here we assess morphological and behavioral trait variation in nine populations of common-garden reared western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from three distinct ancestral predator environments (three populations per environment), each reared in the presence and absence of predator cues. We then...

Data from: Comparing the prediction of joint species distribution models with respect to characteristics of sampling data

Chongliang Zhang, Yong Chen, Binduo Xu, Ying Xue & Yiping Ren
Biotic interactions have been rarely included in traditional species distribution models, wherein Joint Species Distribution Models (JSDMs) emerge as a feasible approach to incorporate environmental factors and interspecific interactions simultaneously, making it a powerful tool for analyzing the structure and assembly processes of biotic communities. However, the predictability and statistical robustness of JSDMs are largely unknown because of the lack of research efforts for those newly developed models. This study systematically evaluated the performances of...

Data from: The influence of wind selectivity on migratory behavioral strategies

Jennifer D. McCabe, Brian J. Olsen, Bipush Osti & Peter O. Koons
Air and water currents affect the timing and energy expenditure of many migratory animals, and therefore selection of favorable currents is important for optimal migratory performance. However, waiting for favorable currents also incurs costs. Here we conduct an optimality analysis to determine how wind selectivity affects three migratory currencies: time, energy, and risk. To describe variation in these metrics under varying degrees of selectivity, we constructed an individual-based model to simulate fall migration of passerines...

Data from: Discovery and exploitation of a natural ecological trap for a mosquito disease vector

Allison M. Gardner, Ephantus J. Muturi & Brian F. Allan
Ecological traps occur due to a mismatch between a habitat’s attractiveness and quality, wherein organisms show preference for low-quality habitats over other available high-quality habitats. Our previous research identified leaf litter from common blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) as a natural ecological trap for an important vector for West Nile virus (Culex pipiens), attracting mosquitoes to oviposit in habitats deleterious to the survival of their larvae. Here we demonstrate that manipulation of leaf litter in stormwater catch...

Data from: Multi-scale temporal patterns in fish presence in a high-velocity tidal channel

Haley A. Viehman & Gayle Barbin Zydlewski
The natural variation of fish presence in high-velocity tidal channels is not well understood. A better understanding of fish use of these areas would aid in predicting fish interactions with marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, the effects of which are uncertain but of high concern. To characterize the patterns in fish presence at a tidal energy site in Cobscook Bay, Maine, we examined two years of hydroacoustic data continuously collected at the proposed depth of an...

Data from: Associations between testosterone and immune activity in alligators depend on bacteria species and temperature

Ashley A. LaVere, Heather J. Hamlin, Russell H. Lowers, Benjamin B. Parrott & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Males often use elaborate sexual traits to enhance reproduction, but can experience trade-offs between investment in these traits and other physiological needs. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) postulates that testosterone supports development of sexual traits while also suppressing immunity. While the ICHH implicates testosterone-mediated immunosuppression as a key mechanism of honest signaling in males, conflicting patterns across studies suggest that testosterone-immunity interactions are complex. In this study, we test the ICHH in free-ranging alligators and...

Phased, chromosome-scale genome assemblies of tetraploid potato reveals a complex genome, transcriptome, and predicted proteome landscape underpinning genetic diversity

Genevieve Hoopes, Xiaoxi Meng, John P. Hamilton, Sai Reddy Achakkagari, Fernanda De Alves Freitas Guesdes, Marie E. Bolger, Joseph J. Coombs, Danny Esselink, Natalie R. Kaiser, Linda Kodde, Maria Kyriakidou, Brian Lavrijssen, Natascha Van Lieshout, Rachel Shereda, Heather K. Tuttle, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua C. Wood, Jan M. De Boer, Nolan Bornowski, Peter Bourke, David Douches, Herman J. Van Eck, Dave Ellis, Max J. Feldman, Kyle M. Gardner … & Richard Finkers
Hoopes G., Meng X., Hamilton J.P., Achakkagari S.R., de Alves Freitas Guesdes F., Bolger M.E., Coombs J.J., Esselink D., Kaiser N.R., Kodde L., Kyriakidou M., Lavrijssen B., van Lieshout N., Shereda R., Tuttle H.K., Vaillancourt B., Wood J.C., de Boer J.M., Bornowski N., Bourke P., Douches D., van Eck H.J., Ellis D., Feldman M.J., Gardner K.M., Hopman J.C.P., Jiang J., De Jong W.S., Kuhl J.C., Novy R.G., Oome S., Sathuvalli V., Tan E.H., Ursum R.A.,...

Predators balance consequences of climate-change induced habitat shifts for range-shifting and resident species

Isaac Shepard, Scott Wissinger, Zachary Wood & Hamish Greig
While many species distributions are shifting poleward or up in elevation in response to a changing climate, others are shifting their habitats along localized gradients in environmental conditions as abiotic conditions become more stressful. Whether species are moving across regional or local environmental gradients in response to climate change, range-shifting species become embedded in established communities of competitors and predators. The consequences of these shifts for both resident and shifting species are often unknown, as...

Drought timing and species growth phenology determine intra-annual recovery of tree height and diameter growth

Jay Wason
These are the data reported in van Kampen et al. (2022) "Drought timing and species growth phenology determine intra-annual recovery of tree height and diameter growth" published in AoB Plants. They describe patterns of height and diameter growth for saplings of six tree species undergoing experimental drought conditions at different times of year.

Data from: New Guinea bone daggers were engineered to preserve social prestige

Nathaniel J. Dominy, Samuel T. Mills, Christopher M. Yakacki, Paul B. Roscoe & R. Dana Carpenter
Bone daggers were once widespread in New Guinea. Their purpose was both symbolic and utilitarian; they functioned as objects of artistic expression with the primary function of stabbing and killing people at close quarters. Most daggers were shaped from the tibiotarsus of cassowaries, but daggers shaped from the femora of respected men carried greater social prestige. The greater cross-sectional curvature of human bone daggers indicates superior strength, but the material properties of cassowary bone are...

Data from: Quantifying predator dependence in the functional response of generalist predators

Mark Novak, Christopher Wolf, Kyle E. Coblentz & Isaac D. Shepard
A long-standing debate concerns how functional responses are best described. Theory suggests that ratio dependence is consistent with many food web patterns left unexplained by the simplest prey-dependent models. However, for logistical reasons, ratio dependence and predator dependence more generally have seen infrequent empirical evaluation and then only so in specialist predators, which are rare in nature. Here we develop an approach to simultaneously estimate the prey-specific attack rates and predator-specific interference (facilitation) rates of...

Data from: Genomic signatures of population bottleneck and recovery in Northwest Atlantic pinnipeds

Kristina M. Cammen, Thomas F. Schultz, W. Don Bowen, Michael O. Hammill, Wendy B. Puryear, Jonathan Runstadler, Frederick W. Wenzel, Stephanie A. Wood & Michael Kinnison
Population increases over the past several decades provide natural settings in which to study the evolutionary processes that occur during bottleneck, growth, and spatial expansion. We used parallel natural experiments of historical decline and subsequent recovery in two sympatric pinniped species in the Northwest Atlantic, the gray seal (Halichoerus grypus atlantica) and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina), to study the impact of recent demographic change in genomic diversity. Using restriction site‐associated DNA sequencing, we assessed...

Data from: The shape of success in a turbulent world: wave exposure filtering of coral reef herbivory

Sonia Bejarano, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Iliana Chollett, Robert Allen, George Roff, Alyssa Marshell, Robert Steneck, Sebastian C. A. Ferse & Peter J. Mumby
While environmental filters are well-known factors influencing community assembly, the extent to which these modify species functions, and entire ecosystem processes, is poorly understood. Focusing on a high-diversity system, we ask whether environmental filtering has ecosystem-wide effects beyond community assembly. We characterise a coral reef herbivorous fish community for swimming performance based on ten functional traits derived from fish morphology. We then investigate whether wave exposure modifies the functional make-up of herbivory, and the absolute...

Data from: Seascapes as drivers of herbivore assemblages in coral reef ecosystems

George Roff, Sonia Bejarano, Mark Priest, Alyssa Marshell, Iliana Chollett, Robert S. Steneck, Christopher Doropoulos, Yimnang Golbuu & Peter J. Mumby
Herbivorous fish maintain a critical ecosystem function on coral reefs by grazing algae and maintaining highly productive algal turf assemblages. Current paradigms implicate habitat complexity, predation and primary productivity as major drivers of the distribution and abundance of herbivorous fish, yet little is known about the relative contribution of these factors. Here, we compare bottom-up and top-down drivers of notional herbivore assemblages across an environmental gradient of wave exposure in the Palau archipelago. We surveyed...

Data from: Globally invasive genotypes of the amphibian chytrid outcompete an enzootic lineage in coinfections

Thomas S. Jenkinson, David Rodriguez, Rebecca A. Clemons, Lucas A. Michelotti, Kelly R. Zamudio, Luís Felipe Toledo, Joyce E. Longcore & Timothy Y. James
Competition between genotypes is likely to be a key driver of pathogen evolution, particularly following a geographic invasion by distant strains. Theory predicts that competition between disease strains will result in the most virulent strain persisting. Despite its evolutionary implications, the role of strain competition in shaping populations remains untested for most pathogens. We experimentally investigated the in vivo competitive differences between two divergent lineages of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd). These Bd...

Data from: Differential introgression and the maintenance of species boundaries in an advanced generation avian hybrid zone

Jennifer Walsh, W. Gregory Shriver, Brian J. Olsen & Adrienne I. Kovach
Background: Evolutionary processes, including selection and differential fitness, shape the introgression of genetic material across a hybrid zone, resulting in the exchange of some genes but not others. Differential introgression of molecular or phenotypic markers can thus provide insight into factors contributing to reproductive isolation. We characterized patterns of genetic variation across a hybrid zone between two tidal marsh birds, Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson’s (A. nelsoni) sparrows (n = 286), and compared patterns of...

Data from: Phenotypic and community consequences of captive propagation in mosquitofish

Zachary T. Wood, David C. Fryxell, Rebecca R. Robinson, Eric P. Palkovacs & Michael T. Kinnison
1. Captive propagation can lead to phenotypic change in fish populations, but the broader community-level consequences of captive phenotypes remain largely unknown. 2. Here we investigate the degree to which captive propagation alters the phenotypes and ecological roles of fish stocked into wild communities. We focus on captive propagation of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) for biocontrol, which represents one of the largest-scale production efforts for any fish released into the wild. 3. Captive propagation in...

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