15 Works

Disease or drought: Environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap

Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Martina Küsters, Zoe Barandongo, Claudine Cloete, Axel Hartmann, Pauline Kamath, Werner Kilian, John Mfune, Gabriel Shatumbu, Royi Zidon, Wayne Getz & Wendy Turner
When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatiotemporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra (Equus quagga) population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. A...

Data from: Drivers and cascading ecological consequences of Gambusia affinis trait variation

Zachary Wood, Laura Lopez, Celia Symons, Rebecca Robinson, Eric Palkovacs & Michael Kinnison
Phenotypic trait differences among populations can shape ecological outcomes for communities and ecosystems. However, few studies have mechanistically linked heritable and plastic components of trait variation to generalizable processes of ecology, such as trophic cascades. Here we assess morphological and behavioral trait variation in nine populations of common-garden reared western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from three distinct ancestral predator environments (three populations per environment), each reared in the presence and absence of predator cues. We then...

Elevation alters outcome of competition between resident and range-shifting species

Isaac Shepard
Species’ geographic range shifts towards higher latitudes and elevations are among the most frequently reported consequences of climate change. However, the role of species interactions in setting range margins remains poorly understood. We used cage experiments in ponds to test competing hypotheses about the role of abiotic and biotic mechanisms for structuring range boundaries of an up-slope range-shifting caddisfly Limnephilus picturatus. We found that competition with a ubiquitous species Limnephilus externus significantly decreased L. picturatus...

Scutellaria Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Brain-Metastatic Lung Cancer Cells via Regulation of Multiple Signaling Pathways

Robert E. Wright III, Lubana Shahin, Venumadhavi Gogineni, Zahin Hussain, Aroma Naeem, Sudha Sadasivan, Indrajit Sinha, Melody Neely, Sharon K. Michellhaugh, Sandeep Mittal, Nirmal Joshee & Prahlad Parajuli

Predators balance consequences of climate-change induced habitat shifts for range-shifting and resident species

Isaac Shepard, Scott Wissinger, Zachary Wood & Hamish Greig
While many species distributions are shifting poleward or up in elevation in response to a changing climate, others are shifting their habitats along localized gradients in environmental conditions as abiotic conditions become more stressful. Whether species are moving across regional or local environmental gradients in response to climate change, range-shifting species become embedded in established communities of competitors and predators. The consequences of these shifts for both resident and shifting species are often unknown, as...

Genetic data disagree with described subspecies ranges for Seaside Sparrows on the Atlantic coast

Mackenzie Roeder, Christopher Hill, Chris Elphick, Meaghan Conway, Alison Kocek, Amy Tegeler & Stefan Woltmann
Seaside Sparrows (Ammospiza maritima) are tidal salt marsh endemic passerines found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. Currently there are 7 described subspecies and "MacGillivray's" Seaside Sparrow (A. m. macgillivraii) is the name given to the Atlantic coast subspecies breeding from North Carolina to northern Florida. In 2019 the US Fish and Wildlife Service received a petition to list this subspecies under the Endangered Species Act due to shrinking populations and loss...

Drivers of change and stability in the gut microbiota of an omnivorous avian migrant exposed to artificial food supplementation

Sasha Pekarsky, Ammon Corl, Sondra Turjeman, Pauline Kamath, Wayne Getz, Bowie Rauri, Yuri Markin & Ran Nathan
Human activities shape resources available to wild animals, impacting diet and likely altering their microbiota and overall health. We examined drivers shaping microbiota profiles of common cranes (Grus grus) in agricultural habitats by comparing gut microbiota and crane movement patterns (GPS-tracking) over three periods of their migratory cycle, and by analyzing the effect of artificially-supplemented food provided as part of a crane-agriculture management program. We sampled fecal droppings in Russia (non-supplemented, pre-migration) and in Israel...

Hydraulic prediction of drought-induced plant dieback and top-kill depends on leaf habit and growth form

Ya-Jun Chen, Brendan Choat, Frank Sterck, Phisamai Maenpuen, Masatoshi Katabuchi, Shu-Bin Zhang, Kyle Tomlinson, Rafael Oliveira, Yong-Jiang Zhang, Kun-Fang Cao & Steven Jansen
Hydraulic failure caused by severe drought contributes to aboveground dieback and whole-plant death. The extent to which dieback or whole-plant death can be predicted by plant hydraulic traits has rarely been tested among species with different leaf habits and/or growth forms. We investigated 19 hydraulic traits in 40 woody species in a tropical savanna and their potential correlations with drought response during an extreme drought event during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in 2015. Plant hydraulic...

Dehydrated males are less likely to dive into the mating pool

Christopher Friesen, Emily Uhrig & Robert Mason
The hydration state of animals vying for reproductive success may have implications for the tempo and mode of sexual selection, which may be salient in populations that experience increasing environmental fluctuations in water availability. Using red-sided garter snakes as a model system, we tested the effect of water supplementation on courtship, mating behavior, and copulatory plug (CP) production during a drought year. Over three days of mating trials, water-supplemented males (WET males, n = 45)...

Data from: The role of taxonomic expertise in interpretation of metabarcoding studies

Paula Pappalardo, Allen G. Collins, Katrina M. Pagenkopp Lohan, Kate M. Hanson, Sarit B. Truskey, William Jaeckle, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Jessica A. Goodheart, Stephanie L. Bush, Leann M. Biancani, Ellen E. Strong, Michael Vecchione, M. G. Harasewych, Karen Reed, Chan Lin, Elise Hartil, Jessica Whelpley, Jamie Blumberg, Kenan Matterson, Niamh E. Redmond, Allison Becker, Michael J. Boyle & Karen J. Osborn
The performance of DNA metabarcoding approaches for characterizing biodiversity can be influenced by multiple factors. Here we used morphological assessment of taxa in zooplankton samples to develop a large barcode database and to assess the congruence of taxonomic identification with metabarcoding under different conditions. We analyzed taxonomic assignment of metabarcoded samples using two genetic markers (COI, 18S V1-2), two types of clustering into molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs, ZOTUs), and three methods for taxonomic assignment...

Combined influence of intrinsic and environmental factors in shaping productivity in a small pelagic gull, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla

Aly McKnight, David Irons, Cynthia Loftin, Shawn McKinney & Brian Olsen
While we have a good understanding in many systems of the effects of single variable changes on organisms, we understand far less about how variables act in concert to affect living systems, where interactions among variables can lead to unanticipated results. We used mixed-effect models to evaluate the effects of multiple variables that we expected to play a role in the early reproductive stages of a North Pacific seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, during...

Forecasting NDVI in the Galapagos

Noah Charney, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Charles Yackulic, Stephen Blake & James Gibbs
Forecasting ecosystem response to climate change is critical for guiding policy-making but challenging due to: complicated relationships between microclimates and regional climates; species’ responses that are driven by extremes rather than averages; the multifaceted nature of species’ interactions; and the lack of historical analogs to future climates. Given these challenges, even model systems such as the Galapagos Islands, a world-famous biodiversity hotspot and World Heritage Site, lack clear forecasts for future environmental change. Here, we...

Data From: Prevalence and risk factors of Anaplasma infections in eastern moose (Alces alces americana) and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) in Maine, United States

James Elliott, Caroline Dickson, Kantar Lee, Matthew O'Neal, Anne Lichtenwalner, Ann Bryant, Walter Jakubas, Peter Pekins, Sandra De Urioste-Stone & Pauline Kamath
Eastern moose (Alces alces americana) are heavily parasitized by winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus), the dominant cause of increased calf mortality in the northeastern United States. Although much work has focused on the direct negative effects of winter tick on moose, it remains unknown whether diseases transmitted by ticks may also affect moose health, or pose a risk to other species. In this study, we explored the role that moose and winter ticks play in transmission...

Seed predation and dispersal by small mammals in a landscape of fear: effects of personality, predation risk, and land-use change

Alessio Mortelliti, Sara Boone & Allison Brehm
Scatter-hoarding small mammals act as both seed predators and seed dispersers in forest ecosystems. Their choices regarding consuming or caching seeds must balance the risk of predation with the energy rewards gained from immediate or delayed consumption of seeds. Several factors influence their interaction with seeds, including the individual’s personality. Little is known about how personality affects foraging decisions in response to predation risk. This missing information is critical because if foraging decisions differ among...

The Easter Egg Weevil (Pachyrhynchus) genome reveals syntenic patterns in Coleoptera across 200 million years of evolution

Matthew Van Dam, Analyn Anzano Cabras, James B. Henderson, Andrew J. Rominger, Cynthia Pérez Estrada, Arina D. Omer, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden & Athena W. Lam
Patterns of genomic architecture across insects remain largely undocumented or decoupled from a broader phylogenetic context. For instance, it is unknown whether translocation rates differ between insect orders. We address broad scale patterns of genome architecture across Insecta by examining synteny in a phylogenetic framework from open-source insect genomes. To accomplish this, we add a chromosome level genome to a crucial lineage, Coleoptera. Our assembly of the Pachyrhynchus sulphureomaculatus genome is the first chromosome scale...

Registration Year

  • 2021
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Affiliations

  • University of Maine
    15
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • State University of New York
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  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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  • Smithsonian Marine Station
    1
  • University of Wollongong
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  • University of Mindanao
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  • Duke University
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  • Oregon State University
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