44 Works

Capital Structure, Pay Structure and Job Termination

Jason Allen & James R. Thompson
We develop a model to analyze the link between financial leverage, worker pay structure and the risk of job termination. Contrary to the conventional view, we show that even in the absence of any agency problem among workers, variable pay can be optimal despite workers being risk averse and firms risk neutral. We find that firms employing workers with safer projects (and lower probability of job termination) use more variable compensation, and that leverage is...

Peatland vegetation: field and laboratory measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes and spectral reflectance

K.J. Lees, J.M. Clark, T. Quaife, R.R.E. Artz, M. Khomik & J. Ritson
This dataset includes laboratory and field measurements of carbon fluxes and spectral reflectance for peatland vegetation including Sphagnum species. It also includes satellite data relating to the development and use of a Temperature and Greenness (TG) model, and an annual Temperature, Greenness and Wetness (TGWa) model. The laboratory data includes Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration data from samples of Sphagnum capillifolium and Sphagnum papillosum which were collected from the Forsinard Flows RSPB reserve (Northern...

Data from: Mean and variance of phylogenetic trees

Daniel G. Brown & Megan Owen
We describe the use of the Fréchet mean and variance in the Billera-Holmes-Vogtmann (BHV) treespace to summarize and explore the diversity of a set of phylogenetic trees. We show that the Fréchet mean is comparable to other summary methods, and, despite its stickiness property, is more likely to be binary than the majority-rules consensus tree. We show that the Fréchet variance is faster and more precise than commonly used variance measures. The Fréchet mean and...

Data from: Multi-scale heterogeneity in vegetation and soil carbon in exurban residential land of southeastern Michigan, USA

William S. Currie, Sarah Kiger, Joan I. Nassauer, Meghan Hutchins, Lauren L. Marshall, Daniel G. Brown, Rick L. Riolo, Derek T. Robinson & Stephanie K. Hart
Exurban residential land (one housing unit per 0.2–16.2 ha) is growing in importance as a human-dominated land use. Carbon storage in the soils and vegetation of exurban land is poorly known, as are the effects on C storage of choices made by developers and residents. We studied C storage in exurban yards in southeastern Michigan, USA, across a range of parcel sizes and different types of neighborhoods. We divided each residential parcel into ecological zones...

Efficient learning of quantum noise

Robin Harper, Steven Flammia & Joel Wallman
Noise is the central obstacle to building large-scale quantum computers. Quantum systems with sufficiently uncorrelated and weak noise could be used to solve computational problems that are intractable with current digital computers. There has been substantial progress towards engineering such systems. However, continued progress depends on the ability to characterize quantum noise reliably and efficiently with high precision. Here we introduce a protocol that comprehensively and efficiently characterizes the error rates of quantum noise and...

Habitat area and environmental filters determine avian richness along an elevation gradient in mountain peatlands

Rebecca Rooney, Jordan Reynolds & Heidi Swanson
Globally, relationships between avian richness and elevation in mountain ecosystems typically reflect one of four well-documented patterns, but the mechanisms responsible for these patterns are poorly understood. We investigated which pattern best described bird species richness in peatlands of the Upper Bow Basin of the Canadian Rocky Mountains (1300 to 2000 m a.s.l.) and used a model competition framework to investigate possible mechanisms. Avian richness displayed a plateauing (cubic) relationship in response to increasing elevation...

Data from: Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

Jeffrey R. Row, Sara J. Oyler-McCance & Bradley C. Fedy
The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation...

Data from: Genus-wide microsatellite primers for the goldenrods (Solidago; Asteraceae)

James B. Beck, John C. Semple, Justin M. Brull, Stacey L. Lance, Mai M. Phillips, Sara B. Hoot & Gretchen A. Meyer
Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for studies of polyploid evolution, ecological genetics, conservation genetics, and species delimitation in the genus Solidago. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing of a shotgun library from S. gigantea identified ca. 1900 putative single-copy loci. Fourteen loci were subsequently shown to be amplifiable, single-copy, and variable in a broad range of Solidago species. Conclusions: The utility of these markers both across the genus and in herbarium specimens of...

Data from: Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Celia C. Symons, Kristal Jones, Heather Haig, Jeremy Pittman, Steven M. Alexander, Matthew J. Burke & Heather A. Haig
1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions during these events. Research that integrates and analyzes data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unraveling the complexity of these dynamics, and is a critical step towards development of evidence-based, whole systems management approaches. 2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected...

Data from: A controlled quasi-experimental study of an educational intervention to reduce the unnecessary use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria

Neal Irfan, Annie Brooks, Siraj Mithoowani, Steve J. Celetti, Cheryl Main & Dominik Mertz
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. Objective: To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Design: Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Setting: Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Participants: Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between...

Data from: Continental divide: predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest

Dennis L. Murray, Michael J.L. Peers, Yasmine N. Majchrzak, Morgan Wehtje, Catarina Ferreira, Rob S.A. Pickles, Jeffrey R. Row, Daniel H. Thornton, Michael J. L. Peers & Rob S. A. Pickles
Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species' environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are...

Supporting data to: Evolution of realized Eltonian niches across Rajidae species

Oliver Shipley, Joseph Kelly, Joseph Bizzarro, Jill Olin, Robert Cerrato, Michael Power & Michael Frisk
The notion that closely related species resemble each other in ecological niche space (i.e., phylogenetic dependence) has been a longstanding, contentious paradigm in evolutionary biology, the incidence of which is important for predicting the ecosystem-level effects of species loss. Despite being examined across a multitude of terrestrial taxa, many aspects of niche conservatism have yet to be explored in marine species, especially for characteristics related to resource use and trophic behavior (Eltonian niche characteristics, ENCs)....

Data from: Riverine transport and nutrient inputs affect phytoplankton communities in a coastal embayment

Josef D. Ackerman, Christopher R. Farrow, Ralph E. H. Smith & Dave Snider
1. Rivers often transport phytoplankton to coastal embayments and introduce nutrients that can enrich coastal plankton communities. We investigated the effects of the Nottawasaga River on the nearshore (i.e., within 500 m of shore) phytoplankton composition along a 10 km transect of Nottawasaga Bay, Lake Huron in 2015 and 2016. Imaging flow cytometry was used to identify and enumerate algal taxa, which were resolved at sizes larger than small nanoplankton (i.e., > 5 mm). Multivariate...

Data from: Diverse and complex muscle spindle afferent firing properties emerge from multiscale muscle mechanics

Kyle Blum, Brian Horslen, Kenneth Campbell, Brian Horslen, Paul Nardelli, Stephen Housley, Timothy Cope & Lena Ting
Despite decades of research, we lack a mechanistic framework capable of predicting how movement-related signals are transformed into the diversity of muscle spindle afferent firing patterns observed experimentally, particularly in naturalistic behaviors. Here, a biophysical model demonstrates that well-known firing characteristics of mammalian muscle spindle Ia afferents – including movement history dependence, and nonlinear scaling with muscle stretch velocity – emerge from first principles of muscle contractile mechanics. Further, mechanical interactions of the muscle spindle...

Lean mass dynamics in hibernating bats and implications for energy and water budgets

Liam McGuire, Nathan Fuller, Catherine Haase, Kirk Silas & Sarah Olson
Hibernation requires balancing energy and water demands over several months with no food intake for many species. Many studies have considered the importance of fat for hibernation energy budgets because it is energy dense and can be stored in large quantities. However, protein catabolism in hibernation has received less attention and whole animal changes in lean mass have not previously been considered. We used quantitative magnetic resonance body composition analysis to measure fat and lean...

Physical-mental multimorbidity in children and youth: a scoping review

Isabella Romano, M. Claire Buchan, Leonardo Baiocco-Romano & Mark A. Ferro
OBJECTIVE: Efforts to describe the current state of research are needed to advance the field of physical-mental multimorbidity (i.e., the co-occurrence of at least one physical illness and at least one mental disorder) among children and youth. Our objective was to systematically explore the breadth of physical-mental multimorbidity research in children and youth, and to provide an overview of existing literature topics. DESIGN: Scoping review METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of four key databases:...

Host life-history traits influence the distribution of prophages and the genes they carry

Tyler Pattenden, Christine Eagles & Lindi Wahl
Bacterial strains with a short minimal doubling time – “fast-growing” hosts – are more likely to contain prophages than their slow-growing counterparts. Pathogenic bacterial species are likewise more likely to carry prophages. We develop a bioinformatics pipeline to examine the distribution of prophages in fast- and slow-growing lysogens, and pathogenic and non-pathogenic lysogens, analysing both prophage length and gene content for each class. By fitting these results to a mathematical model of the evolutionary forces...

Data from: Next-generation sampling: pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae)

James B. Beck & John C. Semple
Premise of the study: The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Methods: Reduced representation libraries...

Data from: Do picture-based charts overestimate visual acuity? Comparison of Kay Pictures, Lea Symbols, HOTV and Keeler logMAR charts with Sloan Letters in adults and children

Nicola S. Anstice, Robert J. Jacobs, Samantha K. Simkin, Melissa Thomson, Benjamin Thompson & Andrew V. Collins
Purpose: Children may be tested with a variety of visual acuity (VA) charts during their ophthalmic care and differences between charts can complicate the interpretation of VA measurements. This study compared VA measurements across four pediatric charts with Sloan letters and identified chart design features that contributed to inter-chart differences in VA. Methods: VA was determined for right eyes of 25 adults and 17 children (4-9 years of age) using Crowded Kay Pictures, Crowded linear...

Data from: Hydropower impacts on reservoir fish populations are modified by environmental variation

Antti P. Eloranta, Anders G. Finstad, Ingeborg P. Helland, Ola Ugedal & Michael Power
Global transition towards renewable energy production has increased the demand for new and more flexible hydropower operations. Before management and stakeholders can make informed choices on potential mitigations, it is essential to understand how the hydropower reservoir ecosystems respond to water level regulation (WLR) impacts that are likely modified by the reservoirs' abiotic and biotic characteristics. Yet, most reservoir studies have been case-specific, which hampers large-scale planning, evaluation and mitigation actions across various reservoir ecosystems....

Data from: Signatures of human impact: size distributions and spatial organization of wetlands in the prairie pothole landscape

Nandita B. Basu & Kimberly J. Van Meter
More than 50% of global wetland area has been lost over the last 200 years, resulting in losses of habitat and species diversity as well as decreased hydrologic and biogeochemical functionality. Recognition of the magnitude of wetland loss as well as the wide variety of ecosystem services provided by wetlands has in recent decades led to an increased focus on wetland restoration. Restoration activities, however, often proceed in an ad-hoc manner, with a focus on...

Data from: Variation in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) transcription among and within eight population crosses from British Columbia, Canada

Shelby D. Toews, Kyle W. Wellband, Brian Dixon & Daniel D. Heath
Phenotypic differences among populations within a species have been reported for a variety of traits, ranging from life history to physiology to gene transcription. Population-level phenotypic variation has been attributed to genetic differences resulting from genetic drift and/or local adaptation as well as environmental differences resulting from plasticity. We studied population- and family-level variation in gene transcription for 22 fitness-related genes, comprising immune, growth, metabolic, and stress processes in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We created...

The Loss of Playfulness

Janet Jones
How does social distancing affect our sense of self? Our ability to create ourselves? In this article, I explore the value of interacting with strangers for our sense of self and the impact of COVID-19 safety measures on our relationships with others. Specifically, I suggest that strangers can offer us opportunities to try on new identities but that this opportunity is lost as the public realm erodes because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Risk, Entropy, and the Transformation of Distributions

R. Mark Reesor & Don L. McLeish
The exponential family, relative entropy, and distortion are methods of transforming probability distributions. We establish a link between those methods, focusing on the relation between relative entropy and distortion. Relative entropy is commonly used to price risky financial assets in incomplete markets, while distortion is widely used to price insurance risks and in risk management. The link between relative entropy and distortion provides some intuition behind distorted risk measures such as value-at-risk. Furthermore, distorted risk...

Data from: Questioning assumptions of trophic behavior in a broadly ranging marine predator guild

Oliver N. Shipley, Jill A. Olin, Mike Power, Robert M. Cerrato, Michael G. Frisk, Robert. M. Cerrato & Michael Power
We evaluated whether existing assumptions regarding the trophic ecology of a poorly-studied predator guild, northwest (NW) Atlantic skates (family: Rajidae), were supported across broad geographic scales. Four hypotheses were tested using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope values as metrics of foraging behavior: 1) species exhibit ontogenetic shifts in habitat and thus display a shift in 13C with differential use of the continental shelf; 2) species exhibit ontogenetic prey shifts (i.e., from smaller to...

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