370 Works

Lobbying in Scandinavia

Øyvind Ihlen, Anne Skorkjær Binderkrantz & PerOla Öberg

Bodyweight, body condition and anatomy

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Martin Weisbjerg, Alex Bach, Jennifer Salau, Jan Henning Haas, Wolfgang Junge, Georg Thaller & Björn Kuhla
Measuring bodyweight (BW) in cattle is essential for many research and management activities such as calculating dietary energy requirements for maintenance, calculating average daily gain and evaluating breeding values which include BW as a trait. Frequent monitoring of BW in dairy cows is necessary as changes in BW can help assess the energy balance of an animal. Precise understanding of BW gain of growing and fattening cattle or body mass changes during lactation is crucial...

The topography of the Eurekan Orogen of Ellesmere Island and the Canadian-Greenland polar continental margin

Randell Stephenson, Gordon Oakey & Søren Bom Nielsen

Flagermus er effektive dræbere, fordi de jager med tunnelsyn

Laura Stidsholt

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

Codelists for: \"Adverse outcomes after partner bereavement in people with reduced kidney function: parallel cohort studies in England and Denmark\"

Patrick Bidulka & Vestergaard Søren Viborg

Citizen science guider forskerne til vigtige marsvin-områder

Freja Jakobsen, Signe Sveegaard & Magnus Wahlberg

SKRIIIG! Sådan virker lyden i gyserfilm

Frederik Lundsgaard Jensen & Mathias Clasen

Derfor er rotten det perfekte skadedyr

Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup

Data from: Applying a biocomplexity approach to modelling farmer decision-making and land-use impacts on wildlife

Anna Malawska & Christopher John Topping
1. The biocomplexity approach refers to a fully integrated social-ecological systems (SES) simulation that represents bidirectional feedbacks between social and ecological components. This method is essential to accurately assess impacts of economy and policy on SES such as agroecosystems, where feedbacks between the drivers and impacts of cropping changes need to be simulated. Here we exemplify the biocomplexity approach using energy maize, which is becoming an important source of bioenergy in Europe, and thus, might...

Data from: Few genetic and environmental correlations between life history and stress resistance traits affect adaptation to fluctuating thermal regimes

Tommaso Manenti, Jesper G. Sørensen, Neda N. Moghadam & Volker Loeschcke
Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations...

Data from: Downscaling pollen-transport networks to the level of individuals

Cristina Tur, Anna Traveset, Kristian Trøjelsgaard & Jens M. Olesen
1. Most plant-pollinator network studies are conducted at species level whereas little is known about network patterns at the individual level. In fact, nodes in traditional species-based interaction networks are aggregates of individuals establishing the actual links observed in nature. Thus, emergent properties of interaction networks might be the result of mechanisms acting at the individual level. 2. Pollen loads carried by insect flower-visitors from two mountain communities were studied to construct pollen-transport networks. For...

Data from: A 2.6‐g sound and movement tag for studying the acoustic scene and kinematics of echolocating bats

Laura Stidsholt, Mark Johnson, Kristian Beedholm, Lasse Jakobsen, Kathrin Kugler, Signe Brinkløv, Angeles Salles, Cynthia F. Moss & Peter Teglberg Madsen
1. To study sensorimotor behaviour in wild animals, it is necessary to synchronously record the sensory inputs available to the animal, and its movements. To do this, we have developed a biologging device that can record the primary sensory information and the associated movements during foraging and navigating in echolocating bats. 2. This 2.6 -gram tag records the sonar calls and echoes from an ultrasonic microphone, while simultaneously sampling fine-scale movement in three dimensions from...

Data from: Human paths have positive impacts on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Meredith Root-Bernstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
We assess the impacts of human paths, trails and roads on plant species richness and Shannon diversity. Most reviews of this topic have not considered community-level measures, and have focused on excessive tourism impacts. We found significant positive effects of paths on plant richness and diversity. The effect size for richness was highest when studies included roads (paved) or trails (unpaved). The effect size found for diversity was highest when studies were in grasslands. We...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature

Jesper Givskov Sørensen, Mads Fristrup Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke
Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally...

Data from: The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts

Thomas Larsen, Marc Ventura, Kristine Maraldo, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Emilio O. Casamayor, Yiming V. Wang, Nils Andersen & Diane M. O'Brien
Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts has been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make...

Data from: Nested species interactions promote feasibility over stability during the assembly of a pollinator community

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jens M. Olesen & Jordi Bascompte
The foundational concepts behind the persistence of ecological communities have been based on two ecological properties: dynamical stability and feasibility. The former is typically regarded as the capacity of a community to return to an original equilibrium state after a perturbation in species abundances and is usually linked to the strength of interspecific interactions. The latter is the capacity to sustain positive abundances on all its constituent species and is linked to both interspecific interactions...

Data from: Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Siri Fjellheim, Simen R. Sandve, Arild Larsen, Heidi Rudi, Torben Asp, Matthew Peter Kent & Odd Arne Rognli
Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US]) from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control...

Data from: Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system

Reut Berger-Tal, Cristina Tuni, Yael Lubin, Debroah Smith, Trine Bilde & Deborah Smith
Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate...

Data from: Molecular adaptation in flowering and symbiotic recognition pathways: insights from patterns of polymorphism in the legume Medicago truncatula

Stephane De Mita, Nathalie Chantret, Karine Loridon, Joelle Ronfort & Thomas Bataillon
BACKGROUND: Flowering date in annual plants, and perception of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobium in legumes, are strongly selected traits. We asked if natural selection can be detected at key genes of the flowering and rhizobia recognition pathways in the model legume Medicago truncatula. RESULTS: We examined nucleotide variation among 57 accessions from natural populations in 53 gene fragments: 11 genes involved in flowering, 5 genes involved in nitrogen-fixing bacteria recognition, and 37 genes used as control...

Data from: Historical DNA documents long distance natal homing in marine fish

Sara Bonanomi, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Anja Retzel, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Martin Wæver Wæver Pedersen, Dorte Meldrup, Christophe Pampoulie, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær & Einar Nielsen
The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long distance natal homing (> 1000 km) over more than sixty years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation Single Nucleotide Polymorphism assay we demonstrate that the vast majority of...

Data from: All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea

Thomas D Als, Michael M Hansen, Gregory E Maes, Martin Castonguay, Lasse Riemann, Kim Aarestrup, Peter Munk, Henrik Sparholt, Reinhold Hanel & Louis Bernatchez
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5,000 kilometres back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between...

Data from: A widespread thermodynamic effect, but maintenance of biological rates through space across life’s major domains

Jesper G. Sørensen, Craig R. White, Grant A. Duffy & Steven L. Chown
For over a century, the hypothesis of temperature compensation, the maintenance of similar biological rates in species from different thermal environments, has remained controversial. An alternative idea, that fitness is greater at higher temperatures (the thermodynamic effect), has gained increasing traction. This alternative hypothesis is also being used to understand large-scale biodiversity responses to environmental change. Yet evidence in favour of each of these contrasting hypotheses continues to emerge. In consequence, the fundamental nature of...

Data from: Trait specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke
Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced ability of inbred individuals to respond plastically to environmental stress; however, this hypothesis has rarely been tested. In this study, we mimicked the genetic constitution of natural inbred populations by rearing...

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