329 Works

The long-range echo scene of the sperm whale biosonar

Pernille Tonnesen
Sperm whales use their gigantic nose to produce the most powerful sounds in the animal kingdom, presumably to echolocate deep-sea prey at long ranges and possibly to debilitate prey. To test these hypotheses, we deployed sound recording tags (DTAG-4) on the tip of the nose of three sperm whales. One of these recordings yielded over 6000 echo streams from organisms detected up to 144 m ahead of the whale, supporting a long-range prey detection function...

Data for: Environmental conditions alter behavioural organization and rhythmicity of a large Arctic ruminant across the annual cycle

Floris Van Beest, Laissa Beumer, Marianna Chimienti, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Nicholas Huffeldt, Stine Pedersen & Niels Schmidt
The existence and persistence of rhythmicity in animal activity during phases of environmental change is of interest in ecology and chronobiology. A wide diversity of biological rhythms in response to exogenous conditions and internal stimuli have been uncovered, especially for polar vertebrates. However, empirical data supporting circadian organization of large ruminating herbivores remains inconclusive. Using year-round tracking data of the largest Arctic ruminant, the muskox (Ovibos moschatus), we modelled rhythmicity as a function of behaviour...

Data from: Manipulating plant community composition to steer efficient N-cycling in intensively managed grasslands

Diego Abalos
1. Minimizing nitrogen (N) losses and increasing plant N uptake in agroecosystems is a major global challenge. Ecological concepts from (semi)natural grasslands suggest that manipulating plant community composition using plants species with different traits may represent a promising opportunity to face this challenge. Here we translate these trait-based concepts to agricultural systems in a field experiment, aiming to reveal the main determinants of how plant community composition regulates N-cycling in intensively managed grasslands. 2. We...

Scale-dependent drivers of the phylogenetic structure and similarity of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia

Sebastián González-Caro, Joost Duivenvoorden, Henrik Balslev, Jaime Cavelier, Carlos Grández, Manuel Macia, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Mauricio Sanchez, Renato Valencia & Alvaro Duque
1. The extent to which historical dispersal, environmental features and geographic barriers shape the phylogenetic structure and turnover of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia at multiple spatial scales remains poorly understood. 2. We used 85 floristically standardized 0.1-ha plots (DBH ³ 2.5 cm) distributed in three subregions of northwestern (NW) Amazonia across three main habitat types (floodplain, swamp, terra firme forests), to hypothesize that: i) historical dispersal overcome geographical barriers, which meant low local phylogenetic...

Data from: PalmTraits 1.0, a species-level functional trait database for palms worldwide

W. Daniel Kissling, Henrik Balslev, William J. Baker, John Dransfield, Bastian Göldel, Jun Ying Lim, Renske E. Onstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
Plant traits are critical to plant form and function —including growth, survival and reproduction— and therefore shape fundamental aspects of population and ecosystem dynamics as well as ecosystem services. Here, we present a global species-level compilation of key functional traits for palms (Arecaceae), a plant family with keystone importance in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. We derived measurements of essential functional traits for all (>2500) palm species from key sources such as monographs, books, other scientific...

Development and uncertainty assessment of pedotransfer functions for predicting water contents at specific pressure heads

Ali Mehmandoostkotlar, Quirijn De Jong Van Lier, Bo V Iversen, Alexandre Barros & Harry Vereecken
There has been much effort to improve the performance of pedotransfer functions (PTFs) using intelligent algorithms, but the issue of covariate shift, i.e. different probability distributions in training and testing datasets, and its impact on prediction uncertainty of PTFs has been rarely addressed. The common practice in PTF generation is to randomly separate the dataset in training and testing subsets, and outcomes of this random selection may be different if the process is subject to...

Data from: Differing climatic mechanisms control transient and accumulated vegetation novelty in Europe and eastern North America

Kevin Burke, John Williams, Simon Brewer, Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, David Lorenz & Alejandro Ordonez
Understanding the mechanisms that produce novel ecosystems is of joint interest to conservation biologists and paleoecologists. Here, we define and differentiate transient from accumulated novelty and evaluate four climatic mechanisms proposed to cause species to reshuffle into novel assemblages: high climatic novelty, high spatial rates of change (displacement), high variance among displacement rates for individual climate variables, and divergence among displacement vector bearings. We use climate simulations to quantify climate novelty, displacement, and divergence across...

Data from: Rapid induction of the heat hardening response in an Arctic insect

Mathias Sørensen, Torsten Kristensen, Jannik Lauritzen, Natasja Noer, Toke Høye & Simon Bahrndorff
The ability to cope with increasing and more variable temperatures, due to predicted climate changes, through plastic and/or evolutionary responses will be crucial for the persistence of Arctic species. Here, we investigate plasticity of heat tolerance of the Greenlandic seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which inhabits areas with widely fluctuating temperatures. We test the heat resistance and hardening capacity (plasticity) of N. groenlandicus using both static (heat knock down time, HKDT) and dynamic (critical thermal maximum,...

Data from: Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel

Jose Martin Pujolar, Magnus W. Jacobsen, Dorte Bekkevold, Javier Lobón-Cervia, Bjarni Jónsson, Louis Bernatchez & Michael M. Hansen
Background: Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages...

Data from: Frost sensitivity of leaves and flowers of subalpine plants is related to tissue type and phenology

Paul J. CaraDonna & Justin A. Bain
Harsh abiotic conditions–such as low temperatures that lead to spring and summer frost events in high-elevation and high-latitude ecosystems–can have strong negative consequences for plant growth, survival, and reproduction. Despite the predicted increase in episodic frost events under continued climate change in some ecosystems, our general understanding of the factors associated with frost sensitivity of reproductive and vegetative plant structures in natural plant communities is limited. The timing of growth and reproduction may be an...

Data from: Strong costs and benefits of winter acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster

Mads Fristrup Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Torsten Kristensen & Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in...

Data from: Reintroducing extirpated herbivores could partially reverse the late Quaternary decline of large and grazing species

Simon D. Schowanek, Matt Davis, Erick J. Lundgren, Owen Middleton, John Rowan, Rasmus Ø. Pedersen, Daniel Ramp, Christopher J. Sandom & Jens-Christian Svenning
Aim: Reinstating large, native herbivores is an essential component of ecological restoration efforts, as these taxa can be important drivers of ecological processes. However, many herbivore species have gone globally or regionally extinct during the last 50,000 years, leaving simplified herbivore assemblages and trophically downgraded ecosystems. Here, we discuss to what extent trophic rewilding can undo these changes by reinstating native herbivores. Location: Global Time Period: We report functional trait changes from the Late Pleistocene...

Respiratory chamber facility

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Karen Beauchemin, Cécile Martin, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Gemma Miller, David Humphries & Marcel Heetkamp
This guideline will highlight the key steps required when measuring gas exchange of cattle for the estimation of methane emission and heat production (by estimating the relation of emitted CO2 and CH4 to the consumed O2) via a respiration chamber (RC). The authors acknowledge the variation in RC design in different experimental units, and therefore, the mentioned steps within this guideline are common and essential for all. Note that a CO2 and/or CH4 recovery test...

Data from: The effect of demographic correlations on the stochastic population dynamics of perennial plants

Aldo Compagnoni, Andrew J. Bibian, Brad M. Ochocki, Haldre S. Rogers, Emily L. Schultz, Michelle E. Sneck, Bret D. Elderd, Amy M. Iler, David W. Inouye, Hans Jacquemyn, Tom E.X. Miller & Tom E. X. Miller
Understanding the influence of environmental variability on population dynamics is a fundamental goal of ecology. Theory suggests that, for populations in variable environments, temporal correlations between demographic vital rates (e.g., growth, survival, reproduction) can increase (if positive) or decrease (if negative) the variability of year-to-year population growth. Because this variability generally decreases long-term population viability, vital rate correlations may importantly affect population dynamics in stochastic environments. Despite long-standing theoretical interest, it is unclear whether vital...

Data from: Between-year changes in community composition shape species' roles in an Arctic plant-pollinator network

Alyssa R. Cirtwill, Tomas Roslin, Claus Rasmussen, Jens Mogens Olesen & Daniel B. Stouffer
Inter-annual turnover in community composition can affect the richness and functioning of ecological communities. If incoming and outgoing species do not interact with the same partners, ecological functions such as pollination may be disrupted. Here, we explore the extent to which turnover affects species' roles --as defined based on their participation in different motifs positions-- in a series of temporally replicated plant-pollinator networks from high-Arctic Zackenberg, Greenland. We observed substantial turnover in the plant and...

Data from: Determinants for adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea

Klavs Würgler Hansen, Freja Eriksen, Line Thorup, Mogens Erlandsen, Mette Bjerre Damgård, Anne Roed Jacobsen, Rasmus Würgler Hansen & Martin Glümer Kirkegaard
Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is an efficacious treatment for patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there are only few data on long-term adherence. The aim of this study is to quantify the extent of non-adherence and describe the clinical characteristics. Methods: A retrospective study including 695 patients with newly diagnosed OSA and prescribed CPAP therapy within an inclusion period of 14 months. All patients were offered free of charge individually...

Data from: Where do wintering cormorants come from? Long-term changes in the geographical origin of a migratory bird on a continental scale

Morten Frederiksen, Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt, Loïc Marion & Thomas Bregnballe
1. Populations of migratory birds often mix to a considerable extent in their wintering areas. Knowledge about the composition of wintering populations is highly relevant in relation to management, not least for species, such as the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, prone to conflicts with human interests. However, few studies have been able to estimate long-term changes in winter population composition. 2. We use 30 years of ringing and recovery data (1983-2013) from all major...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Genome- and transcriptome-assisted development of nuclear insertion/deletion markers for Calanus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) identification

Irina Smolina, Spyros Kollias, Marloes Poortvliet, Torkel Nielsen, Penelope Lindeque, Claudia Castellani, Eva Møller, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial & Galice Hoarau
Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers in order to efficiently identify parental species and hybrids. Using Next Generation Sequencing analysis of both the genome and transcriptome from two sibling species, C. finmarchichus and C. glacialis, we developed a panel of 12 nuclear...

Data from: Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

Wilm Daniel Kissling, Lars Dalby, Camilla Fløjgaard, Jonathan Lenoir, Brody Sandel, Christopher Sandom, Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Jens-Christian Svenning & Jens-Christian Svenning
Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species’ evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was...

Data from: Cooperative breeding favours maternal investment in size over number of eggs in spiders

Lena Grinsted, Casper Johannes Breuker & Trine Bilde
The transition to cooperative breeding may alter maternal investment strategies depending on density of breeders, extent of reproductive skew and allo-maternal care. Change in optimal investment from solitary to cooperative breeding can be investigated by comparing social species with non-social congeners. We tested two hypotheses in a mainly semelparous system: that social, cooperative breeders, compared to subsocial, solitarily breeding congeners, 1) lay fewer and larger eggs because larger offspring compete better for limited resources and...

Data from: Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade

Elisa Boscari, Anna Barmintseva, Jose Martin Pujolar, P. Doukakis, Nikolai Mugue & Leonardo Congiu
Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America....

Data from: Integrated population modelling reveals a perceived source to be a cryptic sink

Mitch D. Weegman, Stuart Bearhop, Anthony D. Fox, Geoff M. Hilton, Alyn J. Walsh, Jennifer L. McDonald & David J. Hodgson
Demographic links among fragmented populations are commonly studied as source-sink dynamics, whereby source populations exhibit net recruitment and net emigration, while sinks suffer net mortality but enjoy net immigration. It is commonly assumed that large, persistent aggregations of individuals must be sources, but this ignores the possibility that they are sinks instead, buoyed demographically by immigration. We tested this assumption using Bayesian integrated population modelling of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) at their largest...

Data from: Eggs brought in from afar: Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese can fly their eggs across the Barents Sea

Marcel Klaassen, Steffen Hahn, Harry Korthals & Jesper Madsen
Many Arctic-breeding waterbirds are thought to bring nutrients for egg production from southern latitudes to allow early breeding. It has proved problematic to quantify the extent of such capital breeding and identify whether nutrients for egg production are brought in from nearby or from afar. Before reaching their breeding grounds on Svalbard, pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus fly ∼ 1100 km across the Barents Sea from Norway. Using abdominal profile indexing (API) we scored body stores...

Data from: High suckling rates and acoustic crypsis of humpback whale neonates maximise potential for mother–calf energy transfer

Simone K. A. Videsen, Lars Bejder, Mark Johnson & Peter T. Madsen
1. The migration of humpback whales to and from their breeding grounds results in a short, critical time period during which neonatal calves must acquire sufficient energy via suckling from their fasting mothers to survive the long return journey. 2. Understanding neonate suckling behaviour is critical for understanding the energetics and evolution of humpback whale migratory behaviour and for informing conservation efforts, but despite its importance, very little is known about the details, rate and...

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