370 Works

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

Data from: The effects of Medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

Michael M. Hansen, Morten T. Limborg, Anne-Laure Ferchaud & Jose-Martin Pujolar
Background: Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis...

Data from: Rates of fitness decline and rebound suggest pervasive epistasis

L. Perfeito, A. Sousa, T. Bataillon & I. Gordo
Unraveling the factors that determine the rate of adaptation is a major question in evolutionary biology. One key parameter is the effect of a new mutation on fitness, which invariably depends on the environment and genetic background. The fate of a mutation also depends on population size, which determines the amount of drift it will experience. Here, we manipulate both population size and genotype composition and follow adaptation of 23 distinct Escherichia coli genotypes. These...

Data from: Task specialization in two social spiders, Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) and Anelosimus eximius (Theridiidae).

Virginia Settepani, Lena Grinsted, Jørgen Pedersen, Jens Jensen, Trine Bilde, J. Granfeldt & J. L. Jensen
Understanding the social organization of group living organisms is crucial for the comprehension of the underlying selective mechanisms involved in the evolution of cooperation. Division of labour and caste formation is restricted to eusocial organisms, but behavioural asymmetries and reproductive skew is common in other group living animals. Permanently social spiders form highly related groups with reproductive skew and communal brood care. We investigated task differentiation in non-reproductive tasks in two permanently and independently derived...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

Wilm Daniel Kissling, Lars Dalby, Camilla Fløjgaard, Jonathan Lenoir, Brody Sandel, Christopher Sandom, Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Jens-Christian Svenning & Jens-Christian Svenning
Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species’ evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was...

Data from: Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

Sajid Ali, Pierre Gladieux, Hidayatur Rahman, Muhammad Shahab Saqib, Muhammad Fiaz, Habib Ahmed, Marc Leconte, Angélique Gautier, Annemarie Fejer Justesen, Mogens Støvring Hovmøller, Jérôme Enjalbert & Claude De Vallavieille-Pope
Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally-spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration in the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used...

Data from: Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

Jennifer A. Dunne, Kevin D. Lafferty, Andrew P. Dobson, Ryan F. Hechinger, Armand M. Kuris, Neo D. Martinez, John P. McLaughlin, Kim N. Mouritsen, Robert Poulin, Karsten Reise, Daniel B. Stouffer, David W. Thieltges, Richard J. Williams & Claus Dieter Zander
Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite...

Data from: Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura

Heath A. MacMillan, Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Johannes Overgaard
There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance...

Data from: Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean

Shane Gero, Anne Bøttcher, Hal Whitehead & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Hsp70 protein levels and thermotolerance in Drosophila subobscura: a reassessment of the thermal co-adaptation hypothesis

Gemma Calabria, Olga Dolgova, Carla Rego, Luís E. Castañeda, Enrico L. Rezende, Joan Balanyà, Marta Pascual, Jesper G. Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke & Mauro Santos
Theory predicts that geographic variation in traits and genes associated with climatic adaptation may be initially driven by the correlated evolution of thermal preference and thermal sensitivity. This assumes that an organism’s preferred body temperature corresponds with the thermal optimum in which performance is maximized; hence, shifts in thermal preferences affect the subsequent evolution of thermal-related traits. Drosophila subobscura evolved world-wide latitudinal clines in several traits including chromosome inversion frequencies, with some polymorphic inversions being...

Data from: Integrated population modelling reveals a perceived source to be a cryptic sink

Mitch D. Weegman, Stuart Bearhop, Anthony D. Fox, Geoff M. Hilton, Alyn J. Walsh, Jennifer L. McDonald & David J. Hodgson
Demographic links among fragmented populations are commonly studied as source-sink dynamics, whereby source populations exhibit net recruitment and net emigration, while sinks suffer net mortality but enjoy net immigration. It is commonly assumed that large, persistent aggregations of individuals must be sources, but this ignores the possibility that they are sinks instead, buoyed demographically by immigration. We tested this assumption using Bayesian integrated population modelling of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) at their largest...

Data from: Geographical variation in mutualistic networks: similarity, turnover and partner fidelity

Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Pedro Jordano, Daniel W. Carstensen, Jens M. Olesen & K. Trojelsgaard
Although species and their interactions in unison represent biodiversity and all the ecological and evolutionary processes associated with life, biotic interactions have, contrary to species, rarely been integrated into the concepts of spatial β-diversity. Here, we examine β-diversity of ecological networks by using pollination networks sampled across the Canary Islands. We show that adjacent and distant communities are more and less similar, respectively, in their composition of plants, pollinators and interactions than expected from random...

Data from: Silk wrapping of nuptial gifts aids cheating behaviour in male spiders

Paolo Giovanni Ghislandi, Michelle Beyer, Patricia Velado & Cristina Tuni
Sexual traits, such as nuptial gifts, are costly and often condition-dependent. Males should be under selection to reduce these costs without impairing their reproductive success. Spider gifts consist of silk-wrapped food, but may also consist of worthless (non-nutritive) donations that successfully lead to mating, despite yielding shorter copulations. Worthless gifts may either represent a cheaper cheating strategy or the inability to produce genuine gifts due to resource limitations (i.e. poor body condition). Unless energetic constraints...

Data from: Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade

Elisa Boscari, Anna Barmintseva, Jose Martin Pujolar, P. Doukakis, Nikolai Mugue & Leonardo Congiu
Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America....

Data from: Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant faecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant-plants

Christian Pinkalski, Karl-Martin V. Jensen, Christian Damgaard & Joachim Offenberg
Nutrient supplies to plants from ants are well known from specialised myrmecophytic symbioses and from plants growing in soil close to ant nests. However, above-ground nutrient pathways may play a largely unrecognised role also in less specialised ant–plant interactions—the numerous facultative relationships, where ants forage on plants. In a laboratory experiment, weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) were confined to the canopies of coffee (Coffea arabica) seedlings, excluding any ant-to-plant transfer of nutrients via the soil strata....

Data from: Trait correlation network analysis identifies biomass allocation traits and stem specific length as hub traits in herbaceous perennial plants

Michael Kleyer, Juliane Trinogga, Miguel A. Cebrián-Piqueras, Anastasia Trenkamp, Camilla Fløjgaard, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Vanessa Minden, Martin Maier, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Dirk C. Albach, Bernd Blasius & Rasmus Ejrnaes
Correlations among plant traits often reflect important trade‐offs or allometric relationships in biological functions like carbon gain, support, water uptake, and reproduction that are associated with different plant organs. Whether trait correlations can be aggregated to “spectra” or “leading dimensions,” whether these dimensions are consistent across plant organs, spatial scale, and growth forms are still open questions. To illustrate the current state of knowledge, we constructed a network of published trait correlations associated with the...

Data from: Strong costs and benefits of winter acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster

Mads Fristrup Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Torsten Kristensen & Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in...

Data from: Demographic inference from whole-genome and RAD sequencing data suggests alternating human impacts on goose populations since the last ice age

Jose Martin Pujolar, Love Dalén, Michael M. Hansen & Jesper Madsen
We investigated how population changes and fluctuations in the pink-footed goose might have been affected by climatic and anthropogenic factors. First, genomic data confirmed the existence of two separate populations: western (Iceland) and eastern (Svalbard/Denmark). Second, emographic inference suggests that the species survived the last glacial period as a single ancestral population with a low population size (100-1,000 individuals) that split into the current populations at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum with Iceland...

Data from: Between-year changes in community composition shape species' roles in an Arctic plant-pollinator network

Alyssa R. Cirtwill, Tomas Roslin, Claus Rasmussen, Jens Mogens Olesen & Daniel B. Stouffer
Inter-annual turnover in community composition can affect the richness and functioning of ecological communities. If incoming and outgoing species do not interact with the same partners, ecological functions such as pollination may be disrupted. Here, we explore the extent to which turnover affects species' roles --as defined based on their participation in different motifs positions-- in a series of temporally replicated plant-pollinator networks from high-Arctic Zackenberg, Greenland. We observed substantial turnover in the plant and...

Data from: Frost sensitivity of leaves and flowers of subalpine plants is related to tissue type and phenology

Paul J. CaraDonna & Justin A. Bain
Harsh abiotic conditions–such as low temperatures that lead to spring and summer frost events in high-elevation and high-latitude ecosystems–can have strong negative consequences for plant growth, survival, and reproduction. Despite the predicted increase in episodic frost events under continued climate change in some ecosystems, our general understanding of the factors associated with frost sensitivity of reproductive and vegetative plant structures in natural plant communities is limited. The timing of growth and reproduction may be an...

Data from: Effects of anoxia on ATP, water, ion and pH balance in an insect (Locusta migratoria)

Mathias V. Ravn, Jacob B. Campbell, Lucie Gerber, Jon F. Harrison & Johannes Overgaard
When exposed to anoxia insects rapidly go into a hypometabolic coma from which they can recover when exposed to normoxia again. However, prolonged anoxic bouts eventually lead to death in most insects, although some species are surprisingly tolerant. Anoxia challenges ATP, ion, pH and water homeostasis, but it is not clear how fast and to what degree each of these parameters are disrupted during anoxia, nor how quickly they recover. Further, it has not been...

Data from: How to assess Drosophila heat tolerance: unifying static and dynamic tolerance assays to predict heat distribution limits

Lisa B. Jørgensen, Hans Malte & Johannes Overgaard
1. Thermal tolerance is a critical determinant of ectotherm distribution, which is likely to be influenced by future climate change. To predict such distributional changes, simple and comparable measures of heat tolerance are needed and these measures should ideally correlate with the characteristics of the species current thermal environments. 2. A recent model (thermal tolerance landscapes – TTLs) uses the exponential relation between temperature and knockdown time to describe the thermal tolerance of ectotherms across...

Data from: High suckling rates and acoustic crypsis of humpback whale neonates maximise potential for mother–calf energy transfer

Simone K. A. Videsen, Lars Bejder, Mark Johnson & Peter T. Madsen
1. The migration of humpback whales to and from their breeding grounds results in a short, critical time period during which neonatal calves must acquire sufficient energy via suckling from their fasting mothers to survive the long return journey. 2. Understanding neonate suckling behaviour is critical for understanding the energetics and evolution of humpback whale migratory behaviour and for informing conservation efforts, but despite its importance, very little is known about the details, rate and...

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