363 Works

Data from: Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade

Elisa Boscari, Anna Barmintseva, Jose Martin Pujolar, P. Doukakis, Nikolai Mugue & Leonardo Congiu
Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America....

Data from: Integrated population modelling reveals a perceived source to be a cryptic sink

Mitch D. Weegman, Stuart Bearhop, Anthony D. Fox, Geoff M. Hilton, Alyn J. Walsh, Jennifer L. McDonald & David J. Hodgson
Demographic links among fragmented populations are commonly studied as source-sink dynamics, whereby source populations exhibit net recruitment and net emigration, while sinks suffer net mortality but enjoy net immigration. It is commonly assumed that large, persistent aggregations of individuals must be sources, but this ignores the possibility that they are sinks instead, buoyed demographically by immigration. We tested this assumption using Bayesian integrated population modelling of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) at their largest...

Data from: Eggs brought in from afar: Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese can fly their eggs across the Barents Sea

Marcel Klaassen, Steffen Hahn, Harry Korthals & Jesper Madsen
Many Arctic-breeding waterbirds are thought to bring nutrients for egg production from southern latitudes to allow early breeding. It has proved problematic to quantify the extent of such capital breeding and identify whether nutrients for egg production are brought in from nearby or from afar. Before reaching their breeding grounds on Svalbard, pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus fly ∼ 1100 km across the Barents Sea from Norway. Using abdominal profile indexing (API) we scored body stores...

Data from: High suckling rates and acoustic crypsis of humpback whale neonates maximise potential for mother–calf energy transfer

Simone K. A. Videsen, Lars Bejder, Mark Johnson & Peter T. Madsen
1. The migration of humpback whales to and from their breeding grounds results in a short, critical time period during which neonatal calves must acquire sufficient energy via suckling from their fasting mothers to survive the long return journey. 2. Understanding neonate suckling behaviour is critical for understanding the energetics and evolution of humpback whale migratory behaviour and for informing conservation efforts, but despite its importance, very little is known about the details, rate and...

Data from: How to assess Drosophila heat tolerance: unifying static and dynamic tolerance assays to predict heat distribution limits

Lisa B. Jørgensen, Hans Malte & Johannes Overgaard
1. Thermal tolerance is a critical determinant of ectotherm distribution, which is likely to be influenced by future climate change. To predict such distributional changes, simple and comparable measures of heat tolerance are needed and these measures should ideally correlate with the characteristics of the species current thermal environments. 2. A recent model (thermal tolerance landscapes – TTLs) uses the exponential relation between temperature and knockdown time to describe the thermal tolerance of ectotherms across...

Data from: Effects of anoxia on ATP, water, ion and pH balance in an insect (Locusta migratoria)

Mathias V. Ravn, Jacob B. Campbell, Lucie Gerber, Jon F. Harrison & Johannes Overgaard
When exposed to anoxia insects rapidly go into a hypometabolic coma from which they can recover when exposed to normoxia again. However, prolonged anoxic bouts eventually lead to death in most insects, although some species are surprisingly tolerant. Anoxia challenges ATP, ion, pH and water homeostasis, but it is not clear how fast and to what degree each of these parameters are disrupted during anoxia, nor how quickly they recover. Further, it has not been...

Data from: Environmental DNA metabarcoding of wild flowers reveals diverse communities of terrestrial arthropods

Philip Francis Thomsen & Eva E. Sigsgaard
Terrestrial arthropods comprise the most species rich communities on Earth, and grassland flowers provide resources for hundreds of thousands of species. Diverse grassland ecosystems worldwide are threatened by various types of environmental change, which has led to decline in arthropod diversity, while monitoring grassland arthropod diversity is time consuming and strictly dependent on declining taxonomic expertise. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of complex samples has demonstrated that information on species compositions can be efficiently and non-invasively...

Data from: Prey‐specific impact of cold pre‐exposure on kill rate and reproduction

Kim Jensen, Søren Toft, Lene Sigsgard, Jesper G. Sørensen, Martin Holmstrup & Lene Sigsgaard
1.Temperature influences biological processes of ectotherms including ecological interactions, but interaction strengths may depend on species‐specific traits. Furthermore, ectotherms acclimate to prevailing thermal conditions by adjusting physiological parameters, which often implies costs to other fitness‐related parameters. Both predators and prey may therefore pay thermal acclimation costs following exposure to suboptimal temperatures. However, these costs may be asymmetrical between predator and prey, and between the predator and different species of concurrent prey. 2.We investigated whether thermal...

Data from: Better than fish on land? Hearing across metamorphosis in salamanders

Christian Bech Christensen, Henrik Lauridsen, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Michael Pedersen & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Early tetrapods faced an auditory challenge from the impedance mismatch between air and tissue in the transition from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles during the Early Carboniferous (350 Ma). Consequently, tetrapods may have been deaf to airborne sounds for up to 100 Myr until tympanic middle ears evolved during the Triassic. The middle ear morphology of recent urodeles is similar to that of early ‘lepospondyl’ microsaur tetrapods, and experimental studies on their hearing capabilities are therefore...

Data from: Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

Rumakanta Sapkota, Kamilla Knorr, Lise Nistrup Jørgensen, Karen A. O'Hanlon & Mogens Nicolaisen
The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and a smaller number of samples from oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and triticale (Triticum × Secale) was studied using next-generation sequencing. The effects of host genotype, fungicide treatment and location...

Data from: Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant faecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant-plants

Christian Pinkalski, Karl-Martin V. Jensen, Christian Damgaard & Joachim Offenberg
Nutrient supplies to plants from ants are well known from specialised myrmecophytic symbioses and from plants growing in soil close to ant nests. However, above-ground nutrient pathways may play a largely unrecognised role also in less specialised ant–plant interactions—the numerous facultative relationships, where ants forage on plants. In a laboratory experiment, weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) were confined to the canopies of coffee (Coffea arabica) seedlings, excluding any ant-to-plant transfer of nutrients via the soil strata....

Data from: Demographic inference from whole-genome and RAD sequencing data suggests alternating human impacts on goose populations since the last ice age

Jose Martin Pujolar, Love Dalén, Michael M. Hansen & Jesper Madsen
We investigated how population changes and fluctuations in the pink-footed goose might have been affected by climatic and anthropogenic factors. First, genomic data confirmed the existence of two separate populations: western (Iceland) and eastern (Svalbard/Denmark). Second, emographic inference suggests that the species survived the last glacial period as a single ancestral population with a low population size (100-1,000 individuals) that split into the current populations at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum with Iceland...

Data from: Unexpected high genetic diversity in small populations suggests maintenance by associative overdominance

Mads F. Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Bechsgaard, Christian Schlötterer & Torsten N. Kristensen
The effective population size (Ne) is a central factor in determining maintenance of genetic variation. The neutral theory predicts that loss of variation depends on Ne, with less genetic drift in larger populations. We monitored genetic drift in 42 Drosophila melanogaster populations of different adult census population sizes (10, 50 or 500) using pooled RAD sequencing. In small populations, variation was lost at a substantially lower rate than expected. This observation was consistent across two...

Data from: Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

Sofie Smedegaard Mathiesen, Jakob Thyrring, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Jørgen Berge, Alexey Sukhotin, Peter Leopold, Michaël Bekaert, Mikael Kristian Sejr & Einar E. Nielsen
Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp. are ecosystem engineers in the coastal zone globally. In order to improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp....

Data from: Large feet are beneficial for eiders Somateria mollissima

Anders Pape Møller & Karsten Laursen
1. Many waterbirds have fully (totipalmate) or partially webbed (palmate) feet that are used for locomotion in aquatic environments. 2. If webbed feet and wings both contribute to efficient diving, we predicted a positive association between the area of webbed feet and the size of the frontal locomotor apparatus (wing area, heart mass and breast muscle, after adjusting for any partial effects of body size). We predicted that individuals able to acquire more and better...

Data from: Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura

Heath A. MacMillan, Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Johannes Overgaard
There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance...

Data from: Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean

Shane Gero, Anne Bøttcher, Hal Whitehead & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Silk wrapping of nuptial gifts aids cheating behaviour in male spiders

Paolo Giovanni Ghislandi, Michelle Beyer, Patricia Velado & Cristina Tuni
Sexual traits, such as nuptial gifts, are costly and often condition-dependent. Males should be under selection to reduce these costs without impairing their reproductive success. Spider gifts consist of silk-wrapped food, but may also consist of worthless (non-nutritive) donations that successfully lead to mating, despite yielding shorter copulations. Worthless gifts may either represent a cheaper cheating strategy or the inability to produce genuine gifts due to resource limitations (i.e. poor body condition). Unless energetic constraints...

So, what comes after? The current state of visual culture and visual education

Mie Buhl

Rumination activity

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Lene Munksgaard, René Baumont, Björn Kuhla & David Humphries
The daily rumination pattern in cattle is influenced by different factors such as feeding frequency, physical and chemical characteristics of the diet, feeding time, fasting, photoperiod and grazing management. Studies have observed an apparent decrease in rumination activity in ruminal acidosis or mastitis challenging dairy cattle. Social and physical environment can also affect cattle’s rumination behaviour. Manual observation of eating and rumination in individual animal is time-consuming and labour intensive. Therefore, the need for developing...

Behavioural tests

Emma Ternman, Guilherme Amorim Franchi & Lene Munksgaard
o answer specific questions regarding cow behaviour or affective states, it is sometimes necessary to study the cow’s responses to specific stimuli in a test situation. This can be done either in the animal’s home environment or in a test arena. As specific research questions determine the test design, it is not possible to provide a general guideline that fits all types of behavioural test. However, there are several considerations common for most behaviour tests...

Ethics in experiments on live cattle: a pragmatic approach

Isabelle Veissier, Véronique Deiss, Mette Herskin, Emer Kennedy & Kenny Rutherford
There are ongoing philosophical, moral, and societal debates about experiments on live animals. Along with a consequentialist approach, it may be considered that an action – here an experiment on live animals – is morally acceptable if the knowledge it aims to produce can result in an overall benefit. In other words, it is acceptable if the constraints imposed on the animals involved are outweighed by the larger benefits expected for others (humans or animals)....

Lying, standing, and eating behaviour

Lene Munksgaard, Emma Ternman, Isabelle Veissier, Carol-Anne Duthie & René Baumont
Standing and lying behaviours are well-defined. Lying is often described as when the flank or sternum of the animal is in contact with the ground, and end of lying when all four legs are perpendicular to the body. The transition from lying to standing and vice versa requires only a few seconds, and therefore differences in the description of lying do not greatly affect the calculation of time spent lying or standing. By contrast, if...

A checklist to validate sensor output for the recording of cattle behaviour

Matthieu Bouchon, Alex Bach, Bruno Meunier, Emma Ternman, Kees Van Reenen, Isabelle Veissier & Lene Munksgaard
A process of validation assesses the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose within a specific context. Ideally, the validation of a tool should describe the range of purposes and contexts in which it is appropriate. This generally cannot be done completely. Therefore, when such a wide validation cannot be done, the validation process needs to refer clearly to the purpose of the use of the tool and to which animals it...

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