329 Works

Rumen fluid sampling via oral stomach tubing method

Sanne van Gastelen, Wouter Muizelaar, Paolo Bani, Björn Kuhla, Mogens Larsen & David Yáñez-Ruiz
There are different purposes for collecting rumen fluid, e.g. assessment of rumen fermentation characteristics and rumen microbiota, as well as ex vivo incubations for feed analysis. Collecting rumen content through the fistula from rumen cannulated ruminants is considered the reference method for the collection of representative samples of rumen digesta, but access to surgically-modified animals is not universal and restricted to research facilities. Hence, a less invasive alternative has been developed: the oral stomach tubing...

Dark diversity reveals importance of biotic resources and competition for plant diversity across habitats

Camilla Fløjgaard, José Valdez, Lars Dalby, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Kevin Clausen, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Meelis Partel & Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg
Species richness is the most commonly used metric to quantify biodiversity. However, examining dark diversity, the group of missing species which can potentially inhabit a site, can provide a more thorough understanding of the processes influencing observed biodiversity and help evaluate the restoration potential of local habitats. So far, dark diversity has mainly been studied for specific habitats or largescale landscapes while less attention has been given to variation across broad environmental gradients or as...

Criteria for defining interictal epileptiform discharges in EEG: a clinical validation study

Mustafa Aykut Kural, Lene Duez, Vibeke Sejer Hansen, Pål Gunnar Larsson, Stefan Rampp, Reinhard Schulz, Hatice Tankisi, Richard Wennberg, Bo Bibby, Michael Scherg & Sandor Beniczky
Objective: To define and validate criteria for accurate identification of EEG interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) using: (a) the six sensor space criteria proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), and, (b) a novel source space method. Criteria yielding high specificity are needed because EEG “over-reading” is a common cause of epilepsy misdiagnosis. Methods: Seven raters reviewed EEG segments containing sharp waveforms from 100 patients with and without epilepsy. Clinical diagnosis gold standard was...

Introduction to citizen science. The case of Fangstjournalen.dk

Jitka Stilund Hansen, Signe Gadegaard, Karsten Kryger Hansen, Gertrud Stougård Thomsen, Asger Væring Larsen & Katrine Flindt Holmstrand

FAIR data in a Citizen Science project “Fangstjournalen”

Katrine Flindt Holmstrand, Asger Væring Larsen, Signe Gadegaard, Jitka Stilund Hansen, Karsten Kryger Hansen & Gertrud Stougård Thomsen
In this video Researcher Christian Skov from DTU Aqua tells about the Citizen Science project “Fangstjournalen” and how Research Data Management, data sharing and following the FAIR guiding principles for research data can increase the impact and the value of the research - even beyond the scope of the project. This video is produced by four Danish Universities as part of a project financially supported by DEFF. The aim of the project is to identify...

Different pollination approaches to compare the seed set of diploid and tetraploid red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

Shuxuan Jing, Per Kryger & Birte Boelt
In red clover seed production, low seed yield is limiting the commercial exploitation of tetraploid red clover. To explore if pollination is the limiting factor for the seed yield in tetraploid red clover, we investigated pollinator behaviour and plant reproductive success in diploid (2x) cultivar ‘Rajah’ and tetraploid (4x) cultivar ‘Amos’ using honey bee and hand pollination approaches. We measured the seed set at the flower head level with the increasing visitation rate in honey...

Genotypes of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides using 17 nuclear microsatellite loci at 14 locations.

Qin Zhu, Iderbat Damaba, Qingshan Zhao, Kunpeng Yi, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Davaasuren Batmunkh, Xin Wang, Sonia Rozenfeld, Sachiko Moriguchi, Aibin Zhan, Lei Cao & Anthony David Fox
Dispersal affects the spatial distribution and population structure of species.Dispersal is often male-biased in mammals while female-biased in birds, with the notable exception of the Anatidae. In this study, we tested genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal (SBD) in the Swan Goose Anser cygnoides, an Asian endemic and IUCN vulnerable species, which has been increasingly restricted to breeding on Mongolian steppe wetlands. We analyzed the genotypes of 278 Swan Geese samples from 14 locations at 14...

COVID-19-forskning: Del data om dine aktiviteter i ny app, og gør en forskel

Trine Rolighed Thomsen, Zahra Partovi Nasr & Carsten Obel

Data from: Pervasive early 21st-century vegetation changes across Danish semi-natural ecosystems – more losers than winners and a shift towards competitive, tall-growing species

Allan Timmermann, Christian Damgaard, Morten T. Strandberg & Jens-Christian Svenning
1. Semi-natural open habitats in northwestern Europe are highly prioritized for conservation and optimization of management planning is essential for continued protection of their diversity. We evaluate whether current management practices, which consist mainly of summer grazing by livestock, are sufficient to maintain plant species composition in a stable state across semi-natural areas in Denmark, or if shifts in functional composition are taking place. Further, we investigate important drivers of any on-going changes through trait...

Data from: Genomic footprints of speciation in Atlantic eels (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata)

Magnus W. Jacobsen, Jose Martin Pujolar, Louis Bernatchez, Kasper Munch, Jianbo Jian, Yongchao Niu & Michael M. Hansen
The importance of speciation-with-gene-flow scenarios is increasingly appreciated. However, the specific processes and the resulting genomic footprints of selection are subject to much discussion. We studied the genomics of speciation between the two panmictic, sympatrically spawning sister-species; European (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (A. rostrata). Divergence is assumed to have initiated more than 3 million years ago, and although low gene flow still occurs strong postzygotic barriers are present. Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing identified...

Data from: Gene flow and population structure of a common agricultural wild species (Microtus agrestis) under different land management regimes

Chiara Marchi, Liselotte W. Andersen, Christian Damgaard, Kent Olsen, Thomas S. Jensen & Volker Loeschcke
The impact of landscape structure and land management on dispersal of populations of wild species inhabiting the agricultural landscape was investigated focusing on the field vole (Microtus agrestis) in three different areas in Denmark using molecular genetic markers. The main hypotheses were the following: (i) organic farms act as genetic sources and diversity reservoirs for species living in agricultural areas and (ii) gene flow and genetic structure in the agricultural landscape are influenced by the...

Data from: Palaeo-precipitation is a major determinant of palm species richness patterns across Madagascar: a tropical biodiversity hotspot

Mijoro Rakotoarinivo, Anne Blach-Overgaard, William J. Baker, John Dransfield, Justin Moat, Jens-Christian Svenning & J.-C. Svenning
The distribution of rainforest in many regions across the Earth was strongly affected by Pleistocene ice ages. However, the extent to which these dynamics are still important for modern-day biodiversity patterns within tropical biodiversity hotspots has not been assessed. We employ a comprehensive dataset of Madagascan palms (Arecaceae) and climate reconstructions from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) to assess the relative role of modern environment and LGM climate in explaining geographical...

Skrottede vacciner: Hvad betyder det for lysten til at blive vaccineret?

Michael Bang Petersen & Marie Fly Lindholt

Data from: Range contraction and increasing isolation of a polar bear subpopulation in an era of sea-ice loss

Kristin L. Laidre, Erik W. Born, Stephen N. Atkinson, Øystein Wiig, Liselotte W. Andersen, Nicholas J. Lunn, Markus Dyck, Eric V. Regehr, Richard McGovern & Patrick Heagerty
Climate change is expected to result in range shifts and habitat fragmentation for many species. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice will reduce barriers to dispersal or eliminate movement corridors, resulting in increased connectivity or geographic isolation with sweeping implications for conservation. We used satellite telemetry, data from individually marked animals (research and harvest), and microsatellite genetic data to examine changes in geographic range, emigration, and interpopulation connectivity of the Baffin Bay (BB) polar...

Extracting physiological information in experimental biology via Eulerian video magnification

Henrik Lauridsen, Selina Gonzales, Daniela Hedwig, Kathryn L. Perrin, Catherine J.A. Williams, Peter H. Wrege, Mads F. Bertelsen, Michael Pedersen & Jonathan T. Butcher
Background: Videographic material of animals can contain inapparent signals, such as color changes or motion that hold information about physiological functions, such as heart and respiration rate, pulse wave velocity and vocalization. Eulerian video magnification allows enhancement of such signals to enable their detection. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how signals relevant to experimental physiology can be extracted from non-contact videographic material of animals. Results: We applied Eulerian video magnification to detect...

Data from: Testing the thermal limits: non-linear reaction norms drive disparate thermal acclimation responses in Drosophila melanogaster

Paul V. Salachan, Hélène Burgaud & Jesper G. Sørensen
Critical thermal limits are important ecological parameters for studying thermal biology and for modelling species’ distributions under current and changing climatic conditions (including predicting the risk of extinction for species from future warming). However, estimates of the critical thermal limits are biased by the choice of assay and assay conditions, which differ among studies. Furthermore, estimates of the potential for phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) to buffer against future warming are usually based on single assay...

Food quality of Ephestia eggs, the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi and mixed diet for Orius majusculus

Søren Toft, Kim Jensen, Jesper Sørensen, Lene Sigsgaard & Martin Holmstrup
We studied the food quality of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi to the pirate bug Orius majusculus using Ephestia eggs as high‐quality comparison prey. Several performance parameters were tested on individuals that had been reared and maintained on each of the two single‐prey diets or on a mixed diet. All fitness parameters were lower in individuals fed aphids only, indicating poor food quality of this prey. Compared with the pure Ephestia egg diet, the mixed diet...

Data from: Facile fabrication of Mn2+ doped ZnO photocatalysts by electrospinning

Yuting Wang, Xin Hao, Zegao Wang, Mingdong Dong & Lifeng Cui
In this study, we report a high efficiency photocatalyst synthesized by Mn2+ doped ZnO nanofibers (NFs) fabricated by facile electrospinning and a following annealing process, in which Mn2+ successes incorporate to ZnO NFs lattice without changing any morphology and crystalline structure of ZnO. The photodegradation properties were studied for ZnO doping with different concentrations of Mn2+ (5, 10, 15 and 50 at.%). The 50 % Mn2+-doped ZnO NFs owns excellent active photocatalytic performance (quantum efficiency...

Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) reaction to a 3D seismic airgun survey in the North Sea

Joanna Sarnocinska, Jonas Teilmann, Jeppe Balle, Floris Van Beest, Matthieu Delefosse & Jakob Tougaard
The most common cetacean in the North Sea is the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Underwater noise is increasingly recognized as a source of impact on the marine environment and seismic airguns were one of the first man-made high intensity sound source to receive attention with respect to potential impact on marine mammals. In this study, we investigate the effects of a 3D seismic survey on harbor porpoise echolocation activity in the Danish sector of the...

Data from: Genetic structuring in a Neotropical palm analyzed through an Andean orogenesis‐scenario

Sebastián Escobar, Jean‐Christophe Pintaud, Henrik Balslev, Rodrigo Bernal, Mónica Moraes Ramírez, Betty Millán & Rommel Montúfar
Andean orogenesis has driven the development of very high plant diversity in the Neotropics through its impact on landscape evolution and climate. The analysis of the intraspecific patterns of genetic structure in plants would permit inferring the effects of Andean uplift on the evolution and diversification of Neotropical flora. In this study, using microsatellite markers and Bayesian clustering analyses, we report the presence of four genetic clusters for the palm Oenocarpus bataua var. bataua which...

Data from: Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

Eero J. Vesterinen, Helena K. Wirta, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg & Tomas Roslin
How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure...

Data from: How much starvation, desiccation and oxygen depletion can Drosophila melanogaster tolerate before its upper thermal limits are affected?

Tommaso Manenti, Tomás Rocha Cunha, Jesper Givskov Sørensen & Volker Loeschcke
Heat tolerance is commonly assessed as the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) using the dynamic method exposing organisms to a gradually increasing (ramping) temperature until organisms fall into a coma. The CTmax estimate is dependent on the ramping rate, with decreased rates leading to longer treatments and ultimately lower CTmax estimates. There is a current discussion surrounding the physiological dynamics of the effect of the time of exposure by temperature interaction on these estimates. Besides temperature...

Data from: The fitness landscape of the codon space across environments

Inês Fragata, Sebastian Matuszweski, Mark A. Schmitz, Thomas Bataillon, Jeffrey D. Jensen & Claudia Bank
Fitness landscapes map the relationship between genotypes and fitness. However, most fitness landscape studies ignore the genetic architecture imposed by the codon table and thereby neglect the potential role of synonymous mutations. To quantify the fitness effects of synonymous mutations and their potential impact on adaptation on a fitness landscape, we use a new software based on Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods and re-estimate selection coefficients of all possible codon mutations across 9 amino-acid...

Data from: Kinship influences sperm whale social organization within, but generally not among, social units

Christine M. Konrad, Shane Gero, Timothy Frasier & Hal Whitehead
Sperm whales have a multi-level social structure based upon long-term, cooperative social units. What role kinship plays in structuring this society is poorly understood. We combined extensive association data (518 days, during 2005-2016) and genetic data (18 microsatellites and 346bp mtDNA control region sequences) for 65 individuals from 12 social units from the Eastern Caribbean to examine patterns of kinship and social behaviour. Social units were clearly matrilineally-based, evidenced by greater relatedness within social units...

Data from: Identification of transcription factor genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot (Daucus carota L.) using RNA-Seq

Miyako Kodama, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen, Shrikant Sharma, Inger Bæksted Holme, Bjarne Joernsgaard, Tsaneta Dzhanfezova, Daniel Buchvaldt Amby, Filipe Garrett Vieira, Shanlin Liu & M. Thomas P. Gilbert
Background Anthocyanins are water-soluble colored flavonoids present in multiple organs of various plant species including flowers, fruits, leaves, stems and roots. DNA-binding R2R3-MYB transcription factors, basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors, and WD40 repeat proteins are known to form MYB-bHLH-WD repeat (MBW) complexes, which activates the transcription of structural genes in the anthocyanin pathway. Although black cultivars of carrots (Daucus carota L.) can accumulate large quantities of anthocyanin in their storage roots, the regulatory genes responsible...

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