18 Works

Data from: Detecting spring after a long winter: coma or slow vigilance in cold, hypoxic turtles?

Jesper G. Madsen, Tobias Wang & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Many freshwater turtle species can spend the winter submerged in ice-covered lakes by lowering their metabolism, and it has been proposed that such severe metabolic depression render these turtles comatose. This raises the question how they can detect the arrival of spring and respond in a sensible way to sensory information during hibernation. Using evoked potentials from cold or hypoxic turtles exposed to vibration and light we show that hibernating turtles maintain neural responsiveness to...

Data from: Molecular and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia

Laura Parducci, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Keith D. Bennett, Yoshihisa Suyama, James Haile, Kurt H. Kjær, Nicolaj K. Larsen, Andreas D. Drouzas, Eske Willerslev & Kurt H. Kjaer
Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to...

Data from: Gene flow and population structure of a common agricultural wild species (Microtus agrestis) under different land management regimes

Chiara Marchi, Liselotte W. Andersen, Christian Damgaard, Kent Olsen, Thomas S. Jensen & Volker Loeschcke
The impact of landscape structure and land management on dispersal of populations of wild species inhabiting the agricultural landscape was investigated focusing on the field vole (Microtus agrestis) in three different areas in Denmark using molecular genetic markers. The main hypotheses were the following: (i) organic farms act as genetic sources and diversity reservoirs for species living in agricultural areas and (ii) gene flow and genetic structure in the agricultural landscape are influenced by the...

Data from: Palaeo-precipitation is a major determinant of palm species richness patterns across Madagascar: a tropical biodiversity hotspot

Mijoro Rakotoarinivo, Anne Blach-Overgaard, William J. Baker, John Dransfield, Justin Moat, Jens-Christian Svenning & J.-C. Svenning
The distribution of rainforest in many regions across the Earth was strongly affected by Pleistocene ice ages. However, the extent to which these dynamics are still important for modern-day biodiversity patterns within tropical biodiversity hotspots has not been assessed. We employ a comprehensive dataset of Madagascan palms (Arecaceae) and climate reconstructions from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) to assess the relative role of modern environment and LGM climate in explaining geographical...

Data from: Downscaling pollen-transport networks to the level of individuals

Cristina Tur, Anna Traveset, Kristian Trøjelsgaard & Jens M. Olesen
1. Most plant-pollinator network studies are conducted at species level whereas little is known about network patterns at the individual level. In fact, nodes in traditional species-based interaction networks are aggregates of individuals establishing the actual links observed in nature. Thus, emergent properties of interaction networks might be the result of mechanisms acting at the individual level. 2. Pollen loads carried by insect flower-visitors from two mountain communities were studied to construct pollen-transport networks. For...

Data from: Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe, San-Marie Joliffe, Jock Henwood & David S. Richardson
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses...

Data from: Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system

Reut Berger-Tal, Cristina Tuni, Yael Lubin, Debroah Smith, Trine Bilde & Deborah Smith
Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate...

Data from: Selection, genome-wide fitness effects and evolutionary rates in the model legume Medicago truncatula

Timothy Paape, Thomas Bataillon, Peng Zhou, Tom J. Y. Kono, Roman Briskine, Nevin D. Young & Peter Tiffin
Sequence data for >20 000 annotated genes from 56 accessions of Medicago truncatula were used to identify potential targets of positive selection, the determinants of evolutionary rate variation and the relative importance of positive and purifying selection in shaping nucleotide diversity. Based upon patterns of intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, c. 50–75% of nonsynonymous polymorphisms are subject to strong purifying selection and 1% of the sampled genes harbour a signature of positive selection. Combining polymorphism...

Data from: Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider

Lena Grinsted, Jonathan N. Pruitt, Virginia Settepani & Trine Bilde
Deciphering the mechanisms involved in shaping social structure is key to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to sociality. Individual specialization within groups can increase colony efficiency and consequently productivity. Here, we test the hypothesis that within-group variation in individual personalities (i.e. boldness and aggression) can shape task differentiation. The social spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) showed task differentiation (significant unequal participation) in simulated prey capture events across 10-day behavioural assays in the field,...

Data from: Demographic responses of a site-faithful and territorial predator to its fluctuating prey: long-tailed skuas and arctic lemmings

Frédéric Barraquand, Toke T. Høye, John-André Henden, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Olivier Gilg, Niels M. Schmidt, Benoît Sittler & Rolf A. Ims
1. Environmental variability, through interannual variation in food availability or climatic variables, is usually detrimental to population growth. It can even select for constancy in key life-history traits, though some exceptions are known. Changes in the level of environmental variability are therefore important to predict population growth or life-history evolution. Recently, several cyclic vole and lemming populations have shown large dynamical changes, that might affect rodent predator demography or life histories. 2. Skuas constitute an...

Data from: Female crickets assess relatedness during mate guarding and bias storage of sperm toward unrelated males

Cristina Tuni, Maxine Beveridge & Leigh W. Simmons
Recent evidence shows that females exert a post-copulatory fertilization bias in favour of unrelated males to avoid the genetic incompatibilities derived from inbreeding. One of the mechanisms suggested for fertilization biases in insects is female control over transport of sperm to the sperm-storage organs. We investigated post-copulatory inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms in females of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We assessed the relative contribution of related and unrelated males to the sperm stores of double-mated females. To demonstrate...

Data from: How to characterize chemical exposure to predict ecologic effects on aquatic communities?

Ralf B. Schäfer, Nadine Gerner, Ben J. Kefford, Jes J. Rasmussen, Mikhail A. Beketov, Dick De Zwart, Matthias Liess & Peter C. Von Der Ohe
Reliable characterization of exposure is indispensable for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. To deal with mixtures, several approaches have been developed, but their relevance for predicting ecological effects on communities in the field has not been elucidated. In the present study, we compared nine metrics designed for estimating the total toxicity of mixtures regarding their relationship with an effect metric for stream macroinvertebrates. This was done using monitoring data of biota and organic chemicals, mainly...

Data from: North-south differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus)

Astrid V. Stronen, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Demontis, Ettore Randi, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Małgorzata Pilot, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Ihor Dykyy, Josip Kusak, Elena Tsingarska, Ilpo Kojola, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Aivars Ornicans, Vladimir A. Lobkov, Vitalii P. Dumenko & Sylwia D. Czarnomska
European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with...

Data from: Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

Jennifer A. Dunne, Kevin D. Lafferty, Andrew P. Dobson, Ryan F. Hechinger, Armand M. Kuris, Neo D. Martinez, John P. McLaughlin, Kim N. Mouritsen, Robert Poulin, Karsten Reise, Daniel B. Stouffer, David W. Thieltges, Richard J. Williams & Claus Dieter Zander
Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite...

Data from: Environmental and historical imprints on beta diversity: insights from variation in rates of species turnover along gradients

Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Nathan J. Sanders, Signe Normand, Jens-Christian Svenning, Simon Ferrier, Aaron D. Gove, Robert R. Dunn, N. J. Sanders, S. Normand, R. R. Dunn, J.-C. Svenning, A. D. Gove & S. Ferrier
A common approach for analysing geographical variation in biodiversity involves using linear models to determine the rate at which species similarity declines with geographical or environmental distance and comparing this rate among regions, taxa or communities. Implicit in this approach are weakly justified assumptions that the rate of species turnover remains constant along gradients and that this rate can therefore serve as a means to compare ecological systems. We use generalized dissimilarity modelling, a novel...

Data from: Rates of fitness decline and rebound suggest pervasive epistasis

L. Perfeito, A. Sousa, T. Bataillon & I. Gordo
Unraveling the factors that determine the rate of adaptation is a major question in evolutionary biology. One key parameter is the effect of a new mutation on fitness, which invariably depends on the environment and genetic background. The fate of a mutation also depends on population size, which determines the amount of drift it will experience. Here, we manipulate both population size and genotype composition and follow adaptation of 23 distinct Escherichia coli genotypes. These...

Data from: Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici

Sajid Ali, Pierre Gladieux, Hidayatur Rahman, Muhammad Shahab Saqib, Muhammad Fiaz, Habib Ahmed, Marc Leconte, Angélique Gautier, Annemarie Fejer Justesen, Mogens Støvring Hovmøller, Jérôme Enjalbert & Claude De Vallavieille-Pope
Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally-spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration in the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used...

Data from: Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade

Elisa Boscari, Anna Barmintseva, Jose Martin Pujolar, P. Doukakis, Nikolai Mugue & Leonardo Congiu
Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America....

Registration Year

  • 2013
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    18
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    2
  • University of Copenhagen
    2
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • University of Padua
    1
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    1
  • University of Hamburg
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1
  • Princeton University
    1
  • University of Zagreb
    1