36 Works

Data from: Competitor relatedness, indirect soil effects and plant co-existence

Bodil K. Ehlers, Patrice David, Christian F. Damgaard & Thomas Lenormand
How species co-exist is a central question in ecology. Niche differentiation can prevent two species from excluding each other by competition. However, this interaction can vary in space because of internal factors such as intraspecific genetic variation, or external ones such as the presence of a third species. While these effects have been repeatedly observed, their joint effect on the outcome of competition has rarely been considered. We experimentally investigated how a dominant ecosystem engineer...

Data from: A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

Thomas Bataillon, Nicolas Galtier, Aurelien Bernard, Nicolai Cryer, Nicolas Faivre, Sylvain Santoni, Dany Severac, Theis N. Mikkelsen, Klaus S. Larsen, Claus Beier, Jesper G. Sørensen, Martin Holmstrup, Bodil Ehlers, Bodil K. Ehlers & Teis N. Mikkelsen
Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that...

Data from: The shield effect: nuptial gifts protect males against precopulatory sexual cannibalism

Søren Toft & Maria Jose Albo
Several not mutually exclusive functions have been ascribed to nuptial gifts across different taxa. Although the idea that a nuptial prey gift may protect the male from pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism is attractive, it has previously been considered of no importance based on indirect evidence and rejected by experimental tests. We reinvestigated whether nuptial gifts may function as a shield against female attacks during mating encounters in the spider Pisaura mirabilis and whether female hunger influences...

Data from: Cultural turnover among Galápagos sperm whales

Mauricio Cantor, Hal Whitehead, Shane Gero & Luke Rendell
While populations may wax and wane, it is rare for an entire population to be replaced by a completely different set of individuals. We document the large-scale relocation of cultural groups of sperm whale off the Galápagos Islands, in which two sympatric vocal clans were entirely replaced by two different ones. Between 1985 and 1999, whales from two clans (called Regular and Plus-One) defined by cultural dialects in coda vocalizations were repeatedly photo-identified off Galápagos....

Data from: Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Mohamed Abdelhalim, Anil Kunapareddy, Åshild Ergon, Anne Marte Tronsmo, May Bente Brurberg, Ingerd Skow Hofgaard, Torben Asp & Odd Arne Rognli
Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance...

Data from: PSMC (pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent) analysis of RAD (restriction site associated DNA) sequencing data

Shenglin Liu & Michael M. Hansen
The pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent (PSMC) method uses the genome sequence of a single individual to estimate demographic history covering a time span of thousands of generations. Although originally designed for whole-genome data, we here use simulations to investigate its applicability to reference genome-aligned restriction site associated DNA (RAD) data. We find that RAD data can potentially be used for PSMC analysis, but at present with limitations. The key factor is the proportion (p) of...

Data from: Sex-specific, inverted rhythms of breeding-site attendance in an Arctic seabird

Nicholas Per Huffeldt & Flemming R. Merkel
In contrast to daily rhythms that are common in the presence of the geophysical light–dark cycle, organisms at polar latitudes exhibit many diel activity patterns during natural periods of continuous solar light or darkness (polar day and night, respectively), from 24 h rhythms to arrhythmicity. In Arctic Greenland (73.7° N, 56.6° W) during polar day, we observed breeding-site attendance rhythms of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia; n = 21 pairs), a charadriiform seabird, which provide biparental...

Data from: Effects of food abundance and early clutch predation on reproductive timing in a high Arctic shorebird exposed to advancements in arthropod abundance

Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels Martin Schmidt, Olivier Gilg, Jannik Hansen, Lars Holst Hansen, Jérôme Moreau & Theunis Piersma
Climate change may influence the phenology of organisms unequally across trophic levels and thus lead to phenological mismatches between predators and prey. In cases where prey availability peaks before reproducing predators reach maximal prey demand, any negative fitness consequences would selectively favor resynchronization by earlier starts of the reproductive activities of the predators. At a study site in northeast Greenland, over a period of 17 years, the median emergence of the invertebrate prey of Sanderling...

Data from: Environment not dispersal limitation drives clonal composition of arctic Daphnia in a recently deglaciated area

Tsegazeabe Hadush Haileselasie, Joachim Mergeay, Lawrence J. Weider, Ruben Sommaruga, Thomas A. Davidson, Mariana Meerhoff, Hartmut Arndt, Klaus Jürgens, Erik Jeppesen & Luc De Meester
One of the most prominent manifestations of the ongoing climate warming is the retreat of glaciers and ice sheets around the world. Retreating glaciers result in the formation of new ponds and lakes, which are available for colonization. The gradual appearance of these new habitat patches allows us to determine to what extent the composition of asexual Daphnia (water flea) populations is affected by environmental drivers versus dispersal limitation. Here we used a landscape genetics...

Data from: Linear reaction norms of thermal limits in Drosophila: predictable plasticity in cold but not in heat tolerance

Mads Fristrup Schou, Marie Brandt Mouridsen, Jesper Givskov Sørensen & Volker Loeschcke
1. Thermal limits of ectotherms have been studied extensively and are believed to be evolutionary constrained, leaving ectotherms at risk under future climate change. Phenotypic plasticity may extend the thermal limits, but we lack detailed characterizations of thermal limit reaction norms as well as an understanding of the interspecific variation of these reaction norms. 2. Here we investigated the interspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity of thermal limits in 13 Drosophila species. We obtained high-resolution reaction...

Data from: Historical DNA documents long distance natal homing in marine fish

Sara Bonanomi, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Anja Retzel, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Martin Wæver Wæver Pedersen, Dorte Meldrup, Christophe Pampoulie, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær & Einar Nielsen
The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long distance natal homing (> 1000 km) over more than sixty years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation Single Nucleotide Polymorphism assay we demonstrate that the vast majority of...

Data from: From tissue to silicon to plastic: three-dimensional printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

Henrik Lauridsen, Kasper Hansen, Mathias Ø. Nørgård, Tobias Wang & Michael Pedersen
Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional (3D) space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional (2D) illustrations, but in recent years 3D virtual modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently 2D screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D-printed scale models. We have applied...

Data from: Few genetic and environmental correlations between life history and stress resistance traits affect adaptation to fluctuating thermal regimes

Tommaso Manenti, Jesper G. Sørensen, Neda N. Moghadam & Volker Loeschcke
Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations...

Data from: The reciprocal relationship between competition and intraspecific trait variation

Jonathan A. Bennett, Kersti Riibak, Riin Tamme, Rob J. Lewis & Meelis Pärtel
Trait differences among plants are expected to influence the outcome of competition; competition should be strongest between similar species (or individuals) under limiting similarity, and between dissimilar species within competitive hierarchies. These hypotheses are often used to infer competitive dynamics from trait patterns within communities. However, plant traits are frequently plastic in response to competition. This variation is poorly accounted for in trait-based studies of competition and community assembly. To explore the relationship between trait...

Data from: Data for evaluation of fast kurtosis imaging, b-value optimization and exploration of diffusion MRI contrast

Brian Hansen & Sune Nørhøj Jespersen
Here we describe and provide diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data that was acquired in neural tissue and a physical phantom. Data acquired in biological tissue includes: fixed rat brain (acquired at 9.4T) and spinal cord (acquired at 16.4T) and in normal human brain (acquired at 3T). This data was recently used for evaluation of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) contrasts and for comparison to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameter contrast. The data has also been...

Data from: Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature

Jesper Givskov Sørensen, Mads Fristrup Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke
Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally...

Data from: The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts

Thomas Larsen, Marc Ventura, Kristine Maraldo, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Emilio O. Casamayor, Yiming V. Wang, Nils Andersen & Diane M. O'Brien
Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts has been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make...

Data from: What North America’s skeleton crew of megafauna tells us about community disassembly

Matt Davis
Functional trait diversity is increasingly used to model future changes in community structure despite a poor understanding of community disassembly's effects on functional diversity. By tracking the functional diversity of the North American large mammal fauna through the End-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction and up to the present, I show that contrary to expectations, functionally unique species are no more likely to go extinct than functionally redundant species. This makes total functional richness loss no worse than...

Data from: Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean

Shane Gero, Anne Bøttcher, Hal Whitehead & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura

Heath A. MacMillan, Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Johannes Overgaard
There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance...

Data from: Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

Sofie Smedegaard Mathiesen, Jakob Thyrring, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Jørgen Berge, Alexey Sukhotin, Peter Leopold, Michaël Bekaert, Mikael Kristian Sejr & Einar E. Nielsen
Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp. are ecosystem engineers in the coastal zone globally. In order to improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp....

Data from: The effect of demographic correlations on the stochastic population dynamics of perennial plants

Aldo Compagnoni, Andrew J. Bibian, Brad M. Ochocki, Haldre S. Rogers, Emily L. Schultz, Michelle E. Sneck, Bret D. Elderd, Amy M. Iler, David W. Inouye, Hans Jacquemyn, Tom E.X. Miller & Tom E. X. Miller
Understanding the influence of environmental variability on population dynamics is a fundamental goal of ecology. Theory suggests that, for populations in variable environments, temporal correlations between demographic vital rates (e.g., growth, survival, reproduction) can increase (if positive) or decrease (if negative) the variability of year-to-year population growth. Because this variability generally decreases long-term population viability, vital rate correlations may importantly affect population dynamics in stochastic environments. Despite long-standing theoretical interest, it is unclear whether vital...

Data from: Eggs brought in from afar: Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese can fly their eggs across the Barents Sea

Marcel Klaassen, Steffen Hahn, Harry Korthals & Jesper Madsen
Many Arctic-breeding waterbirds are thought to bring nutrients for egg production from southern latitudes to allow early breeding. It has proved problematic to quantify the extent of such capital breeding and identify whether nutrients for egg production are brought in from nearby or from afar. Before reaching their breeding grounds on Svalbard, pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus fly ∼ 1100 km across the Barents Sea from Norway. Using abdominal profile indexing (API) we scored body stores...

Data from: One fly to rule them all—muscid flies are the key pollinators in the Arctic

Mikko Tiusanen, Paul D.N. Hebert, Niels-Martin Schmidt, Tomas Roslin & Niels Martin Schmidt
Global change is causing drastic changes in the pollinator communities of the Arctic. While arctic flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, flies in family Muscidae have been proposed as a pollinator group of particular importance. To understand the functional outcome of current changes in pollinator community composition, we examined the role of muscids in the pollination of a key plant species, the mountain avens (Dryas). We monitored the seed set of Dryas...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    36

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    36

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    36
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • Dalhousie University
    2
  • Grønlands Naturinstitut
    2
  • University of Tartu
    2
  • Technical University of Denmark
    2
  • Kiel University
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    1
  • Rice University
    1
  • National University of Malaysia
    1