49 Works

Data from: Male spiders control offspring sex ratio through greater production of female-determining sperm

Bram Vanthournout, Mette Marie Busck, Jesper Bechsgaard, Frederik Hendrickx, Andreas Schramm & Trine Bilde
Sex allocation theory predicts that when sons and daughters have different reproductive values, parents should adjust offspring sex ratio towards the sex with the higher fitness return. Haplo-diploid species directly control offspring sex ratio, but species with chromosomal sex determination (CSD) were presumed to be constrained by Mendelian segregation. There is now increasing evidence that CSD species can adjust sex ratio strategically, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. One hypothesis states that adaptive...

Data from: Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

Halvor Knutsen, Per Erik Jorde, Jeffrey A. Hutchings, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær, Kris-Emil Mose Jørgensen, Carl Andre, Marte Sodeland, Jon Albretsen, Esben M. Olsen & Peter Grønkjaer
Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution, diversification, and the potential for organisms to adapt and persist in response to a changing environment. Recent studies have documented cryptic, sympatric populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in coastal areas. We analyzed genetic origin of...

Data from: Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes

Molly Schumer, Chenling Xu, Daniel L Powell, Arun Durvasula, Laurits Skov, Chris Holland, John C Blazier, Sriram Sankararaman, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G Rosenthal & Molly Przeworski
To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the “minor” parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human...

Data from: Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter - complementary insights from complementary methods

Niels M. Schmidt, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Eero J. Vesterinen, Tomas Roslin & Anders Michelsen
Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and...

Data from: Living in two worlds: evolutionary mechanisms act differently in the native and introduced ranges of an invasive plant

Wen-Yong Guo, Carla Lambertini, Petr Pyšek, Laura A. Meyerson & Hans Brix
Identifying the factors that influence spatial genetic structure among populations can provide insights into the evolution of invasive plants. In this study, we used the common reed (Phragmites australis), a grass native in Europe and invading North America, to examine the relative importance of geographic, environmental (represented by climate here) and human effects on population genetic structure and its changes during invasion. We collected samples of P. australis from both the invaded North American and...

Data from: A 2.6‐g sound and movement tag for studying the acoustic scene and kinematics of echolocating bats

Laura Stidsholt, Mark Johnson, Kristian Beedholm, Lasse Jakobsen, Kathrin Kugler, Signe Brinkløv, Angeles Salles, Cynthia F. Moss & Peter Teglberg Madsen
1. To study sensorimotor behaviour in wild animals, it is necessary to synchronously record the sensory inputs available to the animal, and its movements. To do this, we have developed a biologging device that can record the primary sensory information and the associated movements during foraging and navigating in echolocating bats. 2. This 2.6 -gram tag records the sonar calls and echoes from an ultrasonic microphone, while simultaneously sampling fine-scale movement in three dimensions from...

Data from: Human paths have positive impacts on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Meredith Root-Bernstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
We assess the impacts of human paths, trails and roads on plant species richness and Shannon diversity. Most reviews of this topic have not considered community-level measures, and have focused on excessive tourism impacts. We found significant positive effects of paths on plant richness and diversity. The effect size for richness was highest when studies included roads (paved) or trails (unpaved). The effect size found for diversity was highest when studies were in grasslands. We...

Data from: Genomic parallelism and lack thereof in contrasting systems of three‐spined sticklebacks

Shenglin Liu, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Peter Grønkjær, Rasmus Nygaard & Michael M. Hansen
Parallel evolution and the extent to which it involves gene reuse has attracted much interest. Whereas it has theoretically been predicted under which circumstances gene reuse is expected, empirical studies that directly compare systems showing high and low parallelism are rare. Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), where freshwater populations have been independently founded by ancestral marine populations, represent prime examples of phenotypic and genomic parallelism, but cases exist where parallelism is low. Based on RAD (Restriction...

Data from: A widespread thermodynamic effect, but maintenance of biological rates through space across life’s major domains

Jesper G. Sørensen, Craig R. White, Grant A. Duffy & Steven L. Chown
For over a century, the hypothesis of temperature compensation, the maintenance of similar biological rates in species from different thermal environments, has remained controversial. An alternative idea, that fitness is greater at higher temperatures (the thermodynamic effect), has gained increasing traction. This alternative hypothesis is also being used to understand large-scale biodiversity responses to environmental change. Yet evidence in favour of each of these contrasting hypotheses continues to emerge. In consequence, the fundamental nature of...

Data from: Laboratory maintenance does not alter ecological and physiological patterns among species: a Drosophila case study

Heidi J. MacLean, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Jesper G. Sorensen & Johannes Overgaard
Large comparative studies in animal ecology, physiology, and evolution often use animals reared in the laboratory for many generations; however, the relevance of these studies hinges on the assumption that laboratory populations are still representative for their wild living conspecifics. In the present study, we investigate if laboratory-maintained and freshly-collected animal populations are fundamentally different and if data from laboratory-maintained animals are valid to use in large comparative investigations of ecological and physiological patterns. Here,...

Data from: Heaviside's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii) relax acoustic crypsis to increase communication range

Morgan J. Martin, Tess Gridley, Simon H. Elwen & Frants H. Jensen
The costs of predation may exert significant pressure on the mode of communication used by an animal, and many species balance the benefits of communication (e.g. mate attraction) against the potential risk of predation. Four groups of toothed whales have independently evolved narrowband high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation signals. These signals help NBHF species avoid predation through acoustic crypsis by echolocating and communicating at frequencies inaudible to predators such as mammal-eating killer whales. Heaviside’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii)...

Data from: Identifying drivers of parallel evolution: a regression model approach

Susan F Bailey, Qianyun Guo & Thomas Bataillon
Parallel evolution, defined as identical changes arising in independent populations, is often attributed to similar selective pressures favoring the fixation of identical genetic changes. However, some level of parallel evolution is also expected if mutation rates are heterogeneous across regions of the genome. Theory suggests that mutation and selection can have equal impacts on patterns of parallel evolution; however empirical studies have yet to jointly quantify the importance of these two processes. Here, we introduce...

Data from: Using museum specimens to track morphological shifts through climate change

Heidi J. MacLean, Matthew E. Nielsen, Joel G. Kingsolver & Lauren B. Buckley
Museum specimens offer a largely untapped resource for detecting morphological shifts in response to climate change. However, morphological shifts can be obscured by shifts in phenology or distribution or sampling biases. Additionally, interpreting phenotypic shifts requires distinguishing whether they result from plastic or genetic changes. Previous studies using collections have documented consistent historical size changes, but the limited studies of other morphological traits have often failed to support, or even test, hypotheses. We explore the...

Data from: Overestimation of the adaptive substitution rate in fluctuating populations

Marjolaine Rousselle, Maeva Mollion, Benoit Nabholz, Thomas Bataillon & Nicolas Galtier
Estimating the proportion of adaptive substitutions (α) is of primary importance to uncover the determinants of adaptation in comparative genomic studies. Several methods have been proposed to estimate α from patterns polymorphism and divergence in coding sequences. However, estimators of α can be biased when the underlying assumptions are not met. Here we focus on a potential source of bias, i.e., variation through time in the long term population size (N) of the considered species....

Data from: Global patterns of the double mutualism phenomenon

Francisco Fuster, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Jens M. Olesen & Anna Traveset
A double mutualism (DM) occurs when two interacting species benefit each other in two different functions, e.g. when an animal species acts both as pollinator and seed disperser of the same plant. Besides the double benefit, a DM also imposes a larger risk to both functions if the performance of one partner declines. We conducted the first global review of DMs involving pollinators and seed dispersers, aiming to: (1) assess their prevalence across ecosystems and...

Data from: Introgression of Chinese haplotypes contributed to the improvement of Danish Duroc pigs

Minhui Chen, Guosheng Su, Jinluan Fu, Aiguo Wang, Jian-Feng Liu, Mogens S. Lund & Bernt Guldbrandtsen
The distribution of Asian ancestry in the genome of Danish Duroc pigs was investigated using whole-genome sequencing data from European wild boars, Danish Duroc, Chinese Meishan and Bamaxiang pigs. Asian haplotypes deriving from Meishan and Bamaxiang occur widely across the genome. Signatures of selection on Asian haplotypes are common in the genome, but few of these haplotypes have been fixed. By defining 50 kb windows with more than 50% Chinese ancestry, which did not exhibit...

Data from: Signatures of selection and environmental adaptation across the goat genome post-domestication

Licia Colli, Marco Milanesi, Andrea Talenti, Francesca Bertolini, Minhui Chen, Alessandra Crisà, Kevin Daly, Marcello Del Corvo, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Johannes A. Lenstra, Ben D. Rosen, Elia Vajana, Gennaro Catillo, Stéphane Joost, Ezequiel Luis Nicolazzi, Estelle Rochat, Max F. Rothschild, Bertrand Servin, Tad S. Sonstegard, Roberto Steri, Curtis P. Van Tassel, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Paola Crepaldi, Alessandra Stella & AdaptMap Consortium
Background: Since goat was domesticated 10,000 years ago, many factors have contributed to the differentiation of goat breeds and these are classified mainly into two types: (i) adaptation to different breeding systems and/or purposes and (ii) adaptation to different environments. As a result, approximately 600 goat breeds have developed worldwide; they differ considerably from one another in terms of phenotypic characteristics and are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. In this work, we...

Data from: Microglial activation in early Alzheimer trajectory is associated with higher grey matter volume

Grazia Daniela Femminella, Melanie Dani, Melanie Wood, Zhen Fan, Valeria Calsolaro, Rebecca Atkinson, Trudi Edginton, Rainer Hinz, David J. Brooks & Paul Edison
Objective: To investigate the influence of microglial activation in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease trajectory, we assessed the relationship between microglial activation and grey matter volume and hippocampal volume in MCI patients. Methods: In this study, fifty-five participants (37 early stages MCI and 18 controls) underwent [11C]PBR28 PET, a marker of microglial activation; volumetric MRI to evaluate grey matter and hippocampal volumes as well as clinical and neuropsychometric evaluation. [11C]PBR28 VT (volume of distribution)...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Where do wintering cormorants come from? Long-term changes in the geographical origin of a migratory bird on a continental scale

Morten Frederiksen, Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt, Loïc Marion & Thomas Bregnballe
1. Populations of migratory birds often mix to a considerable extent in their wintering areas. Knowledge about the composition of wintering populations is highly relevant in relation to management, not least for species, such as the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, prone to conflicts with human interests. However, few studies have been able to estimate long-term changes in winter population composition. 2. We use 30 years of ringing and recovery data (1983-2013) from all major...

Data from: Trait correlation network analysis identifies biomass allocation traits and stem specific length as hub traits in herbaceous perennial plants

Michael Kleyer, Juliane Trinogga, Miguel A. Cebrián-Piqueras, Anastasia Trenkamp, Camilla Fløjgaard, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Vanessa Minden, Martin Maier, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Dirk C. Albach, Bernd Blasius & Rasmus Ejrnaes
Correlations among plant traits often reflect important trade‐offs or allometric relationships in biological functions like carbon gain, support, water uptake, and reproduction that are associated with different plant organs. Whether trait correlations can be aggregated to “spectra” or “leading dimensions,” whether these dimensions are consistent across plant organs, spatial scale, and growth forms are still open questions. To illustrate the current state of knowledge, we constructed a network of published trait correlations associated with the...

Data from: Prey‐specific impact of cold pre‐exposure on kill rate and reproduction

Kim Jensen, Søren Toft, Lene Sigsgard, Jesper G. Sørensen, Martin Holmstrup & Lene Sigsgaard
1.Temperature influences biological processes of ectotherms including ecological interactions, but interaction strengths may depend on species‐specific traits. Furthermore, ectotherms acclimate to prevailing thermal conditions by adjusting physiological parameters, which often implies costs to other fitness‐related parameters. Both predators and prey may therefore pay thermal acclimation costs following exposure to suboptimal temperatures. However, these costs may be asymmetrical between predator and prey, and between the predator and different species of concurrent prey. 2.We investigated whether thermal...

Data from: Experimental warming in the field delays phenology and reduces body mass and survival: implications for the persistence of a pollinator under climate change

Paul J. CaraDonna, James L. Cunningham & Amy M. Iler
1. Climate change is rapidly altering thermal environments across the globe. The effects of increased temperatures in already warm environments may be particularly strong because organisms are likely to be near their thermal safety margins, with limited tolerance to additional heat stress. 2. We conduct an in situ field experiment over two years to investigate the direct effects of temperature on an early-season solitary bee in a warm, arid region of the Southwestern USA. Our...

Data from: How to assess Drosophila heat tolerance: unifying static and dynamic tolerance assays to predict heat distribution limits

Lisa B. Jørgensen, Hans Malte & Johannes Overgaard
1. Thermal tolerance is a critical determinant of ectotherm distribution, which is likely to be influenced by future climate change. To predict such distributional changes, simple and comparable measures of heat tolerance are needed and these measures should ideally correlate with the characteristics of the species current thermal environments. 2. A recent model (thermal tolerance landscapes – TTLs) uses the exponential relation between temperature and knockdown time to describe the thermal tolerance of ectotherms across...

Data from: Environmental DNA metabarcoding of wild flowers reveals diverse communities of terrestrial arthropods

Philip Francis Thomsen & Eva E. Sigsgaard
Terrestrial arthropods comprise the most species rich communities on Earth, and grassland flowers provide resources for hundreds of thousands of species. Diverse grassland ecosystems worldwide are threatened by various types of environmental change, which has led to decline in arthropod diversity, while monitoring grassland arthropod diversity is time consuming and strictly dependent on declining taxonomic expertise. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of complex samples has demonstrated that information on species compositions can be efficiently and non-invasively...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    49

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    49

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    49
  • University of Copenhagen
    4
  • University of Alberta
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • Columbia University
    2
  • Princeton University
    2
  • Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier
    2
  • University of Toulouse
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2