50 Works

Data from: Nest attentiveness drives nest predation in arctic sandpipers

Nicolas Meyer, Loïc Bollache, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Jerôme Moreau, Eve Afonso, Anders Angerbjörn, Joël Bety, Dorothee Ehrich, Vladimir Gilg, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Jannik Hansen, Richard Lanctot, Johannes Lang, Nicolas Lecomte, Laura McKinnon, Jeroen Reneerkens, Sarah Saalfeld, Brigitte Sabard, Niels Schmidt, Benoît Sittler, Paul Smith, Aleksandr Sokolov, Vasiliy Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, Rob Van Bemmelen … & Olivier Gilg
Most birds incubate their eggs to allow embryo development. This behaviour limits the ability of adults to perform other activities. Hence, incubating adults trade-off incubation and nest protection with foraging to meet their own needs. Parents can either cooperate to sustain this trade-off or incubate alone. The main cause of reproductive failure at this reproductive stage is predation and adults reduce this risk by keeping the nest location secret. Arctic sandpipers are interesting biological models...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Data set showing the number of tail scars of North American and Eurasian beavers

Martin Mayer
Intraspecific competition plays an important role for territory acquisition and occupancy, in turn affecting individual fitness. Thus, understanding the drivers of intraspecific aggression can increase our understanding of population dynamics. Here, we investigated intraspecific aggression in Eurasian (Castor fiber) and North American (C. canadensis) beavers that are both monogamous, territorial mammals. Combined, we examined tail scars from >1000 beavers (>2000 capture events) as part of two long-term studies in Norway and the USA. We investigated...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study

Lina Cai, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian'an Luan, Panos Deloukas, Paul W. Franks, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Catalina Bonet, Guy Fagherazzi, Leif C. Groop, Rudolf Kaaks, José María Huerta, Giovanna Masala, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Matthias B. Schulze, Annemieke M.W. Spijkeman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino … & Nicholas J. Wareham
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic...

Fear the reaper: ungulate carcasses may generate an ephemeral landscape of fear for rodents

Shane Frank, Rakel Blaalid, Martin Mayer, Andreas Zedrosser & Sam Steyaert
Animal carcasses provide an ephemeral pulse of nutrients for scavengers that utilize them. Carcass sites can increase species interactions and/or ephemeral, localized landscapes of fear for prey within the vicinity. Few studies have applied the landscape of fear to carcasses. Here we use a mass die-off of reindeer caused by lightning in Norway to test whether rodents avoided larger scavengers (e.g. corvids and fox). We used the presence and abundance of faeces as a proxy...

The long-range echo scene of the sperm whale biosonar

Pernille Tonnesen
Sperm whales use their gigantic nose to produce the most powerful sounds in the animal kingdom, presumably to echolocate deep-sea prey at long ranges and possibly to debilitate prey. To test these hypotheses, we deployed sound recording tags (DTAG-4) on the tip of the nose of three sperm whales. One of these recordings yielded over 6000 echo streams from organisms detected up to 144 m ahead of the whale, supporting a long-range prey detection function...

Data from: Manipulating plant community composition to steer efficient N-cycling in intensively managed grasslands

Diego Abalos
1. Minimizing nitrogen (N) losses and increasing plant N uptake in agroecosystems is a major global challenge. Ecological concepts from (semi)natural grasslands suggest that manipulating plant community composition using plants species with different traits may represent a promising opportunity to face this challenge. Here we translate these trait-based concepts to agricultural systems in a field experiment, aiming to reveal the main determinants of how plant community composition regulates N-cycling in intensively managed grasslands. 2. We...

Data for: Environmental conditions alter behavioural organization and rhythmicity of a large Arctic ruminant across the annual cycle

Floris Van Beest, Laissa Beumer, Marianna Chimienti, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Nicholas Huffeldt, Stine Pedersen & Niels Schmidt
The existence and persistence of rhythmicity in animal activity during phases of environmental change is of interest in ecology and chronobiology. A wide diversity of biological rhythms in response to exogenous conditions and internal stimuli have been uncovered, especially for polar vertebrates. However, empirical data supporting circadian organization of large ruminating herbivores remains inconclusive. Using year-round tracking data of the largest Arctic ruminant, the muskox (Ovibos moschatus), we modelled rhythmicity as a function of behaviour...

Scale-dependent drivers of the phylogenetic structure and similarity of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia

Sebastián González-Caro, Joost Duivenvoorden, Henrik Balslev, Jaime Cavelier, Carlos Grández, Manuel Macia, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Mauricio Sanchez, Renato Valencia & Alvaro Duque
1. The extent to which historical dispersal, environmental features and geographic barriers shape the phylogenetic structure and turnover of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia at multiple spatial scales remains poorly understood. 2. We used 85 floristically standardized 0.1-ha plots (DBH ³ 2.5 cm) distributed in three subregions of northwestern (NW) Amazonia across three main habitat types (floodplain, swamp, terra firme forests), to hypothesize that: i) historical dispersal overcome geographical barriers, which meant low local phylogenetic...

Efficacy of high-intensity aerobic exercise on brain MRI measures in multiple sclerosis

Martin Langeskov-Christensen, Lars Grøndahl Hvid, Simon Fristed Eskildsen, Mikkel Karl Emil Nygaard, Steffen Ringgaard, Henrik Boye Jensen, Helle Hvilsted Nielsen, Thor Petersen, Egon Stenager & Ulrik Dalgas
Objective: To determine whether 24 weeks of high-intensity progressive aerobic exercise (PAE) affects brain MRI measures in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, phase 2 trial (with a crossover follow-up) including an exercise group (supervised PAE followed by self-guided physical activity) and a waitlist group (habitual lifestyle followed by supervised PAE). Mildly to severely impaired MS patients aged 18-65 years were randomized (1:1). The primary outcome was percentage brain volume...

Deep-diving beaked whales dive together but forage apart

Jesús Alcázar Treviño, Mark Johnson, Patricia Arranz, Victoria Warren, Carlos Pérez-González, Tiago Marques, Peter Madsen & Natacha Aguilar De Soto
Echolocating animals that forage in social groups can potentially benefit from eavesdropping on other group members, cooperative foraging or social defence, but may also face problems of acoustic interference and intra-group competition for prey. Here, we investigated these potential trade-offs of sociality for extreme deep-diving Blainville´s and Cuvier’s beaked whales. These species perform highly synchronous group dives as a presumed predator-avoidance behaviour but the benefits and costs of this on foraging have not been investigated....

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Feed and water intake

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, David Humphries, Martin Weisbjerg, Peter Lund, Emer Kennedy, Michael O'Donovan, Michelle Liddane, Norann Galvin, Jan Dijkstra & René Baumont
Knowledge about dry matter intake (DMI) is a very important element in cattle management. Modern, high producing dairy cows require great amount of feed in order to meet the nutrient and energy requirements for maintenance and milk production, particularly during early lactation. In beef animals, current breeding strategies aim to select animals with low residual feed intake. Therefore, individual feed intake evaluation helps to identify the productivity and efficiency of each animal, in relation to...

Data from: Reintroducing extirpated herbivores could partially reverse the late Quaternary decline of large and grazing species

Simon D. Schowanek, Matt Davis, Erick J. Lundgren, Owen Middleton, John Rowan, Rasmus Ø. Pedersen, Daniel Ramp, Christopher J. Sandom & Jens-Christian Svenning
Aim: Reinstating large, native herbivores is an essential component of ecological restoration efforts, as these taxa can be important drivers of ecological processes. However, many herbivore species have gone globally or regionally extinct during the last 50,000 years, leaving simplified herbivore assemblages and trophically downgraded ecosystems. Here, we discuss to what extent trophic rewilding can undo these changes by reinstating native herbivores. Location: Global Time Period: We report functional trait changes from the Late Pleistocene...

Maintenance of hindgut reabsorption during cold exposure is a key adaptation for Drosophila cold tolerance

Mads Kuhlmann Andersen & Johannes Overgaard
Maintaining extracellular osmotic and ionic homeostasis is crucial for organismal function. In insects, hemolymph volume and ion content is regulated by the secretory Malpighian tubules and reabsorptive hindgut. When exposed to stressful cold, homeostasis is gradually disrupted, characterized by a debilitating increase in extracellular K+ concentration (hyperkalemia). Accordingly, studies have found a strong link between the species-specific cold tolerance and their ability to maintain ion and water homeostasis at low temperature. This is also true...

Targeted conservation genetics of the endangered chimpanzee

Peter Frandsen, Claudia Fontsere, Sven Nielsen, Kristian Hanghøj, Natalia Castejon-Fernandez, Esther Lizano, David Hughes, Jessica Hernandez-Rodriquez, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Frands Carlsen, Hans Siegismund, Thomas Mailund, Tomas Marques Bonet & Christina Hvilsom
Populations of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) are in an impending risk of going extinct in the wild as a consequence of damaging anthropogenic impact on their natural habitat and illegal pet and bushmeat trade. Conservation management programmes for the chimpanzee have been established outside their natural range (ex situ), and chimpanzees from these programmes could potentially be used to supplement future conservation initiatives in the wild (in situ). However, these programmes have often suffered...

Data from: Megafauna decline have reduced pathogen dispersal which may have increased emergent infectious diseases

Chris Doughty, Tomos Prys-Jones, Soren Faurby, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Andrew Abraham, Victor Leshyk, Nathan Nieto, Jens-Christian Svenning & Mauro Galetti
The Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna (defined as animal species > 44.5 kg) reduced the dispersal of seeds and nutrients, and likely also microbes and parasites. Here we use body-mass based scaling and range maps for extinct and extant mammal species to show that these extinctions led to an almost seven-fold reduction in the movement of gut-transported microbes, such as Escherichia coli (3.3–0.5 km 2 d − 1 ). Similarly, the extinctions led to a...

Data from: Bayesian modelling reveals host genetics associated with rumen microbiota jointly influence methane emission in dairy cows

Qianqian Zhang, Gareth Difford, Goutam Sahana, Peter Løvendahl, Jan Lassen, Mogens Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen & Luc Janss
Reducing methane emissions from livestock production is of great importance for the sustainable management of the Earth’s environment. Rumen microbiota play an important role in producing biogenic methane. However, knowledge of how host genetics influences variation in ruminal microbiota and their joint effects on methane emission is limited. We analyzed data from 750 dairy cows, using a Bayesian model to simultaneously assess the impact of host genetics and microbiota on host methane emission. We estimated...

Data and code for: Past and future extinctions shape the body size - fruit size relationship between palms and mammalian frugivores

Jun Ying Lim, Jens-Christian Svenning, Bastian Göldel, Søren Faurby & W. Daniel Kissling
The dispersal of seeds by mammalian frugivores influences the structure and composition of plant communities, but most ecosystems have undergone defaunation over thousands of years, a process that continues today. Understanding how past defaunation has affected fruit-frugivore interactions will thus provide insights into how ecosystems may respond to future frugivore loss. By integrating palm and mammalian frugivore trait and occurrence data worldwide, we reveal a global positive relationship between fruit size and body size of...

Earlier springs enable High-Arctic wolf spiders to produce a second clutch - supplementary data

Toke T. Høye, Jean-Claude Kresse, Amanda M. Koltz & Joseph J. Bowden
Spiders at southern latitudes commonly produce multiple clutches, but this has not been observed at high latitudes where activity seasons are much shorter. Yet the timing of snowmelt is advancing in the Arctic, which may allow some species to produce an additional clutch. To determine if this is already happening, we used specimens of the wolf spider Pardosa glacialis caught by pitfall traps from the long-term (1996-2014) monitoring program at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. We dissected...

Data from: Drivers of spatiotemporal variation in survival in a flyway population: a multi-colony study

Rune Skjold Tjørnløv, Morten Frederiksen, Bruno Ens, Markus Öst, Kim Jaatinen, Rolf Larsson, Thomas Christensen & Morten Frederiksen
1. Spatio-temporal variation in population dynamics of migratory populations is shaped by exposure to different environments during the annual cycle. Hence, exposure to similar environments should translate into synchrony in vital rates. Despite a wide-ranging breeding population, the Baltic/Wadden Sea flyway population of eiders (Somateria m. mollissima) shares wintering grounds in the southern Baltic Sea, inner Danish waters and the Wadden Sea; different colonies within this flyway population are therefore likely to exhibit some degree...

Staphylococcus aureus phenol soluble modulin aggregation kinetics

Maria Andreasen & Masihuz Zaman
The infective ability of the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, recognized as the most frequent cause of biofilm-associated infections, is associated with biofilm mediated resistance to host immune response. Phenol-soluble modulins (PSM) comprise the structural scaffold of S. aureus biofilms through self-assembly into functional amyloids, but the role of individual PSMs during biofilm formation remains poorly understood and the molecular pathways of PSM self-assembly have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate high degree of cooperation...

No water, no eggs: insights from a warming outdoor mesocosm experiment

Rupesh Maurya, Krishna Swamy, Volker Loeschcke & Subhash Rajpurohit
Insects are susceptible to dehydration and change in atmospheric humidity could affect their fitness. To understand the impacts of humidity changes on insect’s reproductive fitness we released an outcrossed Drosophila melanogaster population to outdoor mesocosm units and tracked their fecundity over ninety days under progressively developing summer season. The study was carried out in a tropical urban garden. Often temperature has been found to be the key player in changes in reproductive output in a...

Data from: Nationwide trends in incidence and mortality of stroke among younger and older adults in Denmark

Nils Skajaa
Objective: To investigate the extent to which the incidence and mortality of a first-time stroke among younger and older adults changed from 2005 to 2018 in Denmark using nationwide registries. Methods: We used the Danish Stroke Registry and the Danish National Patient Registry to identify patients aged 18–49 years (younger adults) and those aged 50+ years (older adults) with a first-time ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We computed age-standardized incidence rates and 30-day...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    50

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    47
  • Audiovisual
    2
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    50
  • Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador
    3
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • Aalborg University
    2
  • Technical University of Denmark
    2
  • Institut d'Investigació Biomédica de Bellvitge
    1
  • Northwestern University
    1
  • Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra
    1
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1
  • Azienda Ospedaliera Citta' Della Salute E Della Scienza Di Torino
    1