40 Works

Elevational shifts in foliar-soil δ15N in the Hengduan Mountains and different potential mechanisms

Qiong Chen, Ji Chen, Mathias Neumann Andersen & Xiaoli Cheng
The natural abundance of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) provides insights into the N dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, the determination of which is considered an effective approach for gaining a better understanding ecosystem N cycling. However, there is currently little information available regarding the patterns and mechanisms underlying the variation in foliar-soil δ15N among mountain ecosystems. In this study, we examined the determinants of foliar-soil δ15N in association with N transportation rates along an elevational gradient...

Molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity in a thermally varying environment

Paul Vinu Salachan & Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Adaptation to environmental variability is a prerequisite for species’ persistence in their natural environments. With climate change predicted to increase the frequency and severity of temperature fluctuations, ectothermic organisms may increasingly depend on acclimation capacity to accommodate thermal variability. To elucidate the molecular basis of fluctuating temperature induced phenotypic plasticity, we investigated heat tolerance and the mechanisms induced by acclimation to thermal variability as compared to those seen at constant temperature. We ran genome-wide transcriptomic...

Combining population genomics with demographic analyses highlights habitat patchiness and larval dispersal as determinants of connectivity in coastal fish species

Halvor Knutsen, Diana Catarino, Lauren Rogers, Marte Sodeland, Morten Mattingsdal, Marlene Jahnke, Jeffrey Hutchings, Ida Mellerud, Sigurd Espeland, Kerstin Johanneson, Olivia Roth, Michael Hansen, Sissel Jentoft, Carl Andre & Per Erik Jorde
Gene flow shapes spatial genetic structure as well as the potential for local adaptation of populations. Among marine animals with non-migratory adults, the presence or absence of a pelagic larval stage is thought to be a key determinant in shaping gene flow and the genetic structure of populations. In addition, the spatial distribution of suitable habitats will influence the distribution of biological populations and their pattern of gene flow. We used whole genome sequencing to...

Data from: Hay provision affects 24-h performance of normal and abnormal oral behaviors in dairy calves

Blair Caitlin Downey, Margit Bak Jensen & Cassandra Blaine Tucker
Dairy calves often perform abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) including tongue rolling and non-nutritive oral manipulation (NNOM) when opportunities to perform feeding behaviors are restricted. Many US dairy farms limit access to milk, a well-studied risk factor for ARBs. However, farms also commonly do not feed forage to young calves, and the motor patterns of oral ARBs resemble those necessary for acquiring and chewing solid feed. Our objective was to assess how access to hay from...

A novel trophic cascade between cougars and feral donkeys shapes desert wetlands

Erick Lundgren
Introduced large herbivores have partly filled ecological gaps formed in the late Pleistocene, when many of the Earth’s megafauna were driven extinct. However, extant predators are generally considered incapable of exerting top-down influences on introduced megafauna, leading to unusually strong disturbance and herbivory relative to native herbivores. We report on the first documented predation of juvenile feral donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) by cougars (Puma concolor) in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. We...

Estimating the abundance of the critically endangered Baltic Proper harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population using passive acoustic monitoring

Mats Amundin, Julia Carlström, Len Thomas, Ida Carlén, Jens Koblitz, Jonas Teilmann, Jakob Tougaard, Nick Tregenza, Daniel Wennerberg, Olli Loisa, Katharina Brundiers, Monika Kosecka, Line A. Kyhn, Cinthia Tiberi Ljungqvist, Signe Sveegaard, Louise Burt, Iwona Pawliczka, Ivar Jüssi, Radomil Koza, Bartłomiej Arciszewski, Anders Galatius, Martin Jabbusch, Jussi Laaksonlaita, Sami Lyytinen, Jussi Niemi … & Harald Benke
Knowing the abundance of a population is a crucial component to assess its conservation status and develop effective conservation plans. For most cetaceans, abundance estimation is difficult given their cryptic and mobile nature, especially when the population is small and has a transnational distribution. In the Baltic Sea, the number of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) has collapsed since the mid-20th century and the Baltic Proper harbour porpoise is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN...

Genome-wide methylation in the panmictic European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

Shenglin Liu, Aja Noersgaard Buur Tengstedt, Magnus W. Jacobsen, Jose Martin Pujolar, Bjarni Jónsson, Javier Lobón-Cervià, Louis Bernatchez & Michael M. Hansen
The role of methylation in adaptive, developmental and speciation processes has attracted considerable interest, but interpretation of results is complicated by diffuse boundaries between genetic and non-genetic variation. We studied whole genome genetic and methylation variation in the European eel, distributed from subarctic to subtropical environments, but with panmixia precluding genetically based local adaptation beyond single-generation responses. Overall methylation was 70.9%, with hypomethylation predominantly found in promoters and first exons. Redundancy analyses involving juvenile glass...

Scale-dependent species-area relationship: niche-based versus stochastic processes in a typical subtropical forest

Haibao Ren, Jens-Christian Svenning, Xiangcheng Mi, James A. Lutz, Jinxing Zhou & Keping Ma
Determining the patterns and drivers of the small-scale species-area relationship (SAR) is crucial for improving our understanding of community assembly and biodiversity patterns. Niche-based and stochastic processes are two principal categories of mechanisms potentially driving SARs. However, their relative importance has rarely been quantified rigorously owing to scale-dependence and the simplified niche volumes often used. In a fully mapped, 24-ha plot of a typical subtropical forest, we built the SARs and well-defined niche-hyper-volumes of a...

Plant dispersal characteristics shape the relationship of diversity with area and isolation

Anna Walentowitz, Claudia Troiano, Julie B. Christiansen, Manuel Steinbauer & Anders S. Barfod
Aim This study disentangles how plant dispersal syndromes influence the relationship of species richness with area and isolation while also accounting for the human impact on island biodiversity. It builds on the potential of islands at the mesoscale and of similar origin to contribute to the ongoing discussion in island biogeography on what determines species richness and filtering. Location Denmark, 54 saltwater and brackish water islands in the North and Baltic Sea Taxon Vascular plants,...

Plant growth over one growing season of Medicago truncatula in competition with conspecifics of different genetic relatedness

Bodil Ehlers
Kin recognition and kin selection have long been known to occur in animals where it shapes altruistic behavior towards relatives. More recently, studies have found that kin recognition and altered behavior towards kin can also occur in plants. However, inferring the underlying mechanism responsible for variation in plant performance in experimental studies is challenging as often, results can be explained by alternative and non-exclusive mechanisms such as niche differences, kin competition avoidance, and genetic variation...

Language and Robots: from Relations to Processes of Relations

Cathrine Hasse
The word „robot“ does not have a fixed meaning and human interactions with robots do not somehow bring it to the fore. Mark Coeckelbergh suggests as much when he presents linguistic interaction with robots as a process of becoming aware of a quasi-personal relation. A focus on material linguistic practices yields a very different story of shifting signifiers that are subject to human experiences of changing relations with robots. The material encounter with robots is...

Water availability rather than temperature control soil fauna community structure and prey-predator interactions

Adriane Aupic-Samain, Virginie Baldy, Ninon Delcourt, Paul Henning Krogh, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez & Mathieu Santonja
The ongoing climate change may strongly impact soil biodiversity with cascading effects on the processes they drive. Thus, it is of prime interest to improve our knowledge about responses by soil organisms such as collembolans to expected shifts in environmental conditions by considering communities comprising both detritivores and predators. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how simulated climate change and predation under laboratory conditions alter a collembolan community. To infer the impact...

Flying insect biomass is negatively associated with urban cover in surrounding landscapes

Cecilie Svenningsen, Diana Bowler, Susanne Hecker, Jesper Bladt, Volker Grescho, Nicole Van Dam, Jens Dauber, David Eichenberg, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Camilla Fløjgaard, Mark Frenzel, Tobias Frøslev, Anders Hansen, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Yuanyuan Huang, Jonas Larsen, Juliana Menger, Nur Liyana Nayan, Lene Pedersen, Anett Richter, Robert Dunn, Anders Tøttrup & Aletta Bonn
Aim In this study, we assessed the importance of local to landscape-scale effects of land cover and land use on flying insect biomass. Our main prediction was that insect biomass would be lower within more intensely used land, especially in urban areas and farmland. Location Denmark and parts of Germany. Methods We used rooftop-mounted car nets in a citizen science project (‘InsectMobile’) to allow for large-scale geographic sampling of flying insects. Citizen scientists sampled insects...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

Clearance rates of Mytilus edulis exposed to parasites and microplastic

Kim Mouritsen, Nina P. Dalsgaard, Sarah B. Flensburg, Josefine C. Madsen & Christian Selbach
Fear is an integral part of predator-prey interactions with cascading effects on the structure and function of ecosystems. Fear of parasitism holds a similar ecological potential but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in host-parasite interactions is limited by lack of empirical examples. Here, we experimentally test if blue mussels Mytilus edulis respond behaviourally to the mere presence of infective transmission stages of the trematode Himasthla elongata by ceasing filtration activity, thereby avoiding infection. Our...

Data for: Mapping the ecological resilience of Atlantic postglacial heaths

Mette Løvschal & Christian Damgaard
Anthropogenic heathlands are semi-cultural ecosystems with a unique cultural and biodiversity value, considered worthy of preservation across most of the world. Their rate of loss, however, is alarming. Currently, we know little about the heathlands’ actual span of instability and their association with abiotic and anthropogenic factors, including how much additional intervention they need to persist. Consequently, we are missing out on vital knowledge for conservation, management, and the historical persistence of heathlands. This paper...

Data from: Contrasting climate sensitivity of Pinus cembra tree-ring traits in the Carpathians

Angela Luisa Prendin
High elevation ecosystems are one of the most sensitive to climate change. The analysis of growth and xylem structure of trees from marginal populations, especially the ones growing at the treeline, could provide early-warning signs to better understand species-specific responses to future climate conditions. In this study, we combined classical dendrochronology with wood density and anatomical measurements to investigate the climate sensitivity of Pinus cembra L., a typical European high-elevation tree species distributed in isolated...

Thermobarometry at extreme conditions - what can possibly go wrong? An example

Thorsten Joachim Nagel & Kathrin Fassmer
We present eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from Danmarkshavn (Greenlandic Caledonides). So far, one ultra-high pressure (UHP) location has been described from NE Greenland. There, thermobarometry yielded conditions of 972 ºC/36 kbar (Gilotti and Ravna, 2002). Eclogites from Danmarkshavn show spectacular exsolution of Qtz from Cpx, which is known from UHP assemblages. The sample most suitable for unraveling precise conditions, however, is a garnet pyroxenite containing abundant Cpx and Opx, some Grt, minor accessory minerals as...

Complex ascent of mantle plumes in a phase-changing world

Anders Lillevang Vesterholt & Thorsten J. Nagel
Phase changes in the mantle have long been known to play a major role for convection in a one-component mantle. When considering cases with depleted ambient upper mantle and upwelling mantle either chemically or mechanically enriched with basaltic crust, very complex density-difference histories are possible for a wide range of realistic temperature-composition scenarios. We explore the ascent of enriched mantle plumes in ambient mantle using combined thermodynamic and themomechanical modelling. Plumes are unlikely to feel...

Guidelines to apply for ethical approval of animal experiments

Jan Langbein, Mette Herskin, Frédéric Dehareng, Emer Kennedy, Kenny Rutherford, Antonio Velarde, Véronique Deiss & Isabelle Veissier
This chapter presents common aspects applying in all EU Member States and in the UK (since Directive 2010/63/EU was transposed into British law before Brexit), and gives the specifications that apply in each research institute of the SmartCow project.

Validation of eating duration using an automatic feeding system

Emma Ternman, Marta Terré, Matthieu Bouchon, Bruno Meunier, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Feed intake is important to consider when studying welfare, productivity and efficiency in ruminants, particularly cattle. Over the last decade, several methods for automatic intake recording have been developed. These methods have been described in the chapter on feed and water intake of the present book of methods. Automatic feed bins do not only record feed intake, but also feeding behaviour. The duration of feed bin visits estimated by the Insentec Roughage Intake Control system...

Echolocation call parameters of Daubenton's bats during exposure to masking noise

Ilias Foskolos, Michael Bjerre Pedersen, Signe Brinkløv, Kristian Beedholm, Astrid Særmark Uebel, Jamie Macaulay, Laura Stidsholt & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Echolocating bats hunt prey on the wing under conditions of poor lighting by emission of loud calls and subsequent auditory processing of weak returning echoes. To do so, they need adequate echo-to-noise ratios (ENRs) to detect and distinguish target echoes from masking noise. Early obstacle avoidance experiments report high resilience to masking in free-flying bats, but whether this is due to spectral or spatiotemporal release from masking, advanced auditory signal detection or an increase in...

Future seasonal changes in habitat for Arctic whales during predicted ocean warming

Philippine Chambault, Kit M Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Olga Shpak, Jonas Teilmann, Christoffer M. Albertsen & Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Ocean warming is causing shifts in the distributions of marine species, but the location of suitable habitats in the future is unknown, especially in remote regions such as the Arctic. Using satellite tracking data from a 28-year long period, covering all three endemic Arctic cetaceans (227 individuals) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic, together with climate models under two emission scenarios, species distributions were projected to assess responses of these whales to climate change...

Data from: Glacial ice supports a distinct and undocumented polar bear subpopulation persisting in late 21st-century sea-ice conditions

Kristin Laidre, Megan Supple, Erik Born, Eric Regehr, Øystein Wiig, Fernando Ugarte, Jon Aars, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne, Peter Hegelund, Carl Isaksen, Geir Akse, Benjamin Cohen, Harry Stern, Twila Moon, Christopher Vollmers, Russ Corbett-Detig, David Paetkau & Beth Shapiro
Polar bears are susceptible to climate warming because of their dependence on sea ice, which is declining rapidly. We present the first evidence for a genetically distinct and functionally isolated group of polar bears in Southeast Greenland. These bears occupy sea-ice conditions resembling those projected for the High Arctic in the late 21st century, with an annual ice-free period that is >100 days longer than the estimated fasting threshold for the species. Whereas polar bears...

Data for: Forecasting shifts in habitat suitability of three marine predators suggests a rapid decline in inter-specific overlap under future climate change

Floris Van Beest, Rune Dietz, Anders Galatius, Line Kyhn, Signe Sveegaard & Jonas Teilmann
Aim: To estimate spatiotemporal changes in habitat suitability and inter-specific overlap among three marine predators: Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) under contemporary and future conditions. Location: The southwestern region of the Baltic Sea, including the Danish Straits and the Kattegat, one of the fastest-warming semi-enclosed seas in the world. Methods: Location data (>200 tagged individuals) were analysed within the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to estimate...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    33
  • Text
    6
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    40
  • University of Copenhagen
    6
  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    2
  • Institute for Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture
    2
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
    2
  • University of Oslo
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2
  • Norwegian Polar Institute
    2
  • Technical University of Denmark
    2
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1