83 Works

Data from: Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems

Adam Tomasovych, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Tristan J. Betzner, Nicole Bitler Kuehnle, Stewart Edie, Sora Kim, K. Supriya, Alexander E. White, Carsten Rahbek, Shan Huang, Trevor D. Price & David Jablonski
Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size—on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level...

Data from: Effects of hummingbird morphology on specialization in pollination networks vary with resource availability

Boris A. Tinoco, Catherine H. Graham, Juan M. Aguilar & Matthias Schleuning
Specialization of species in interaction networks influences network stability and ecosystem functioning. Spatial and temporal variation in resource availability may provide insight into how ecological factors, such as resource abundance, and evolutionary factors, such as phylogenetically conserved morphological traits, influence specialization within mutualistic networks. We used independent measures of hummingbird abundance and resources (nectar), information on hummingbird traits and plant–hummingbird interactions to examine how resource availability and species' morphology influence the specialization of hummingbirds in...

Data from: Unique evolutionary trajectories in repeated adaptation to hydrogen sulphide-toxic habitats of a neotropical fish (Poecilia mexicana)

Markus Pfenninger, Simit Patel, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Barbara Feldmeyer, Rüdiger Riesch & Martin Plath
Replicated ecological gradients are prime systems to study processes of molecular evolution underlying ecological divergence. Here, we investigated the repeated adaptation of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to habitats containing toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and compared two population pairs of sulphide-adapted and ancestral fish by sequencing population pools of >200 individuals (Pool-Seq). We inferred the evolutionary processes shaping divergence and tested the hypothesis of increase of parallelism from SNPs to molecular pathways. Coalescence analyses showed...

Data from: Positive selection in development and growth rate regulation genes involved in species divergence of the genus Radix

Barbara Feldmeyer, Bastian Greshake, Elisabeth Funke, Simit Patel, Ingo Ebersberger & Markus Pfenninger
Background: Life history traits like developmental time, age and size at maturity are directly related to fitness in all organisms and play a major role in adaptive evolution and speciation processes. Comparative genomic or transcriptomic approaches to identify positively selected genes involved in species divergence can help to generate hypotheses on the driving forces behind speciation. Here we use a bottom-up approach to investigate this hypothesis by comparative analysis of orthologous transcripts of four closely...

Data from: Evolutionary processes, dispersal limitation and climatic history shape current diversity patterns of European dragonflies

Stefan Pinkert, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Dirk Zeuss, Christoph Reudenbach, Roland Brandl & Christian Hof
We investigated the effects of contemporary and historical factors on the spatial variation of European dragonfly diversity. Specifically, we tested to what extent patterns of endemism and phylogenetic diversity of European dragonfly assemblages are structured by (i) phylogenetic conservatism of thermal adaptations and (ii) differences in the ability of post-glacial recolonization by species adapted to running waters (lotic) and still waters (lentic). We investigated patterns of dragonfly diversity using digital distribution maps and a phylogeny...

Data from: Disentangling the effects of multiple environmental drivers on population changes within communities

Diana E. Bowler, Henning Heldbjerg, Anthony D. Fox, Robert B. O'Hara & Katrin Böhning-Gaese
1. The effects of different environmental drivers on the changes in species’ population abundances can be difficult to disentangle since they often act simultaneously. Researchers have built statistical models that include environmental variables (such as annual temperature), or species attributes (such as a species’ temperature preference), which are assumed to detect the impacts of specific drivers (such as climate change). However, these approaches are often applied separately or, if combined, not explicitly compared. 2. We...

Data from: Cross-taxa generalities in the relationship between population abundance and ambient temperatures

Diana E. Bowler, Peter Haase, Christian Hof, Ingrid Kröncke, Léon Baert, Wouter Dekoninck, Sami Domisch, Frederik Hendrickx, Thomas Hickler, Hermann Neumann, Robert B. O'Hara, Anne F. Sell, Moritz Sonnewald, Stefan Stoll, Michael Türkay, Roel Van Klink, Oliver Schweiger, Rikjan Vermeulen & Katrin Boehning-Gaese
Identifying patterns in the effects of temperature on species' population abundances could help develop a general framework for predicting the consequences of climate change across different communities and realms. We used long-term population time series data from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species communities within central Europe to compare the effects of temperature on abundance across a broad range of taxonomic groups. We asked whether there was an average relationship between temperatures in different seasons and...

Data from: How ants acclimate: impact of climatic conditions on the cuticular hydrocarbon profile

Florian Menzel, Miriam Zumbusch & Barbara Feldmeyer
1. Organisms from temperate zones are exposed to seasonal changes and must be able to cope with a wide range of climatic conditions. Especially ectotherms, including insects, are at risk to desiccate under dry and warm conditions, the more so given the changing climate. 2. To adjust to current conditions, organisms acclimate through changes in physiology, morphology and/or behaviour. Insects protect themselves against desiccation through a layer of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) on their body surface....

Data from: Quantifying the climatic niche of symbiont partners in a lichen symbiosis indicates mutualist-mediated niche expansions

Gregor Rolshausen, Francesco Dal Grande, Anna Sadowska-Deś, Juergen Otte & Imke Schmitt
The large distributional areas and ecological niches of many lichenized fungi may in part be due to the plasticity in interactions between the fungus (mycobiont) and its algal or cyanobacterial partners (photobionts). On the one hand, broad-scale phylogenetic analyses show that partner compatibility in lichens is rather constrained and shaped by reciprocal selection pressures and codiversification independent of ecological drivers. On the other hand, sub-species-level associations among lichen symbionts appear to be environmentally structured rather...

Data from: Comparing methods for mapping global parasite diversity

Paula Pappalardo, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Andrew Park, Shan Huang, John Schmidt & Patrick Stephens
Aim Parasites are a major component of global ecosystems, yet spatial variation in parasite diversity is poorly known, largely because their occurrence data are limited and thus difficult to interpret. Using a recently compiled database of parasite occurrences, we compare different models which we use to infer parasite geographic ranges and parasite species richness across the globe. Innovation To date, most studies exploring spatial patterns of parasite diversity assumed, with little validation, that the geographic...

Agricultural intensification and land use change: assessing country-level induced intensification, land sparing and rebound effect

Virginia Rodriguez Garcia, Patrick Meyfroidt, Frédéric Gaspart & Thomas Kastner
In the context of growing societal demands for land based products, crop production can be increased through expanding cropland or intensifying production on cultivated land. Intensification can allow sparing land for nature, but it can also drive further expansion of cropland, i.e. a rebound effect. Conversely, constraints on cropland expansion may induce intensification. We tested those hypotheses by investigating the bidirectional relations between changes in cropland area and intensity, using a global cross-country panel dataset...

Data from: Global vegetation patterns of the past 140,000 years

Judy Allen, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Joy Singarayer, Paul Valdes & Brian Huntley
Aim Insight into global biome responses to climatic and other environmental changes is essential to address key questions about past and future impacts of such changes. By simulating global biome patterns 140 ka to present we aimed to address important questions about biome changes during this interval. Location Global. Taxon Plantae. Methods Using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic global vegetation model, we made 89 simulations driven using ice-core atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Earth’s obliquity, and outputs from a...

Data from: Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the mechanisms underpinning ageing and fecundity in social insects

Judith Korb, Karen Meusemann, Denise Aumer, Abel Bernadou, Daniel Elsner, Barbara Feldmeyer, Susanne Foitzik, Jürgen Heinze, Romain Libbrecht, Silu Lin, Megha Majoe, José Manuel Monroy Kuhn, Volker Nehring, Matteo A. Negroni, Robert J. Paxton, Alice C. Séguret, Marah Stoldt & Thomas Flatt
Exceptional longevity of social insect queens despite their lifelong high fecundity remains poorly understood in ageing biology. To gain insights into the mechanisms that might underlie ageing in social insects, we compared gene expression patterns between young and old castes (both queens and workers) across different lineages of social insects (two termite, two bee and two ant species). After global analyses, we paid particular attention to genes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling (IIS)/target...

A chromosome-scale genome assembly of the okapi (Okapia johnstoni)

Sven Winter, Raphael T. F. Coimbra, Philippe Helsen & Axel Janke
The okapi (Okapia johnstoni), or forest giraffe, is the only species in its genus and the only extant sister group of the giraffe within the family Giraffidae. The species is one of the remaining large vertebrates surrounded by mystery because of its elusive behavior as well as the armed conflicts in the region where it occurs, making it difficult to study. Deforestation puts the okapi under constant anthropogenic pressure, and it is currently listed as...

Rapid diversification of the Australian Amitermes group during late Cenozoic climate change

Bastian Heimburger, Leonie Schardt, Alexander Brandt, Stefan Scheu & Tamara Hartke
Late Cenozoic climate change led to the progressive aridification of Australia over the past 15 million years. This gradual biome turnover fundamentally changed Australia’s ecosystems, opening new niches and prompting diversification of plants and animals. One example are termites of the Australian Amitermes Group (AAG), consisting of the Australian Amitermes and affiliated genera. Although the most speciose and diverse higher termite group in Australia, little is known about its evolutionary history. We used ancestral range...

Additional file 4 of Phenotypic insecticide resistance status of the Culex pipiens complex: a European perspective

Stien Vereecken, Adwine Vanslembrouck, Isabelle Marie Kramer & Ruth Müller
Additional file 4: Table S2. Overview of all active substances that are approved as PT18 products according to the ECHA database on 4/10/2022.

Data from: Genome analyses of the sunflower pathogen Plasmopara halstedii provide insights into effector evolution in downy mildews and Phytophthora

Rahul Sharma & Marco Thines
Background: Downy mildews are the most speciose group of oomycetes and affect crops of great economic importance. So far, there is only a single deeply-sequenced downy mildew genome available, from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Further genomic resources for downy mildews are required to study their evolution, including pathogenicity effector proteins, such as RxLR effectors. Plasmopara halstedii is a devastating pathogen of sunflower and a potential pathosystem model to study downy mildews, as several Avr-genes and R-genes have...

Data from: Environmental context determines the limiting demographic processes for plant recruitment across a species’ elevational range

Dominik Merges, Jörg Albrecht, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Matthias Schleuning & Eike Lena Neuschulz
Plant recruitment is a multi-stage process determining population dynamics and species distributions. Still, we have limited understanding of how the successive demographic processes depend on the environmental context across species’ distributional ranges. We conducted a large-scale transplant experiment to study recruitment of Pinus cembra over six years. We quantified the effects of environmental conditions on four demographic processes and identified the most limiting across and beyond the pines’ elevational range over several years. Realized transition...

Pacific Introduced Flora (PacIFLora)

Michael Wohlwend, Dylan Craven, Patrick Weigelt, Hanno Seebens, Marten Winter, Holger Kreft, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Mark Van Kleunen, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, James Space, Philip Thomas & Tiffany Knight
The Pacific region has the highest density of naturalized plant species worldwide, which makes it an important area for research on the ecology, evolution and biogeography of biological invasions. While different data sources on naturalized plant species exist for the Pacific, there is no taxonomically and spatially harmonized database available for different subsets of species and islands. A comprehensive, accessible database containing the distribution of naturalized vascular plant species in the Pacific will enable new...

ANDEAN frugivory: data on plant–bird interactions and functional traits of plant and bird species from montane forests along the Andes

D. Matthias Dehling, Irene M. A. Bender, Pedro G. Blendinger, Marcia C. Muñoz, Marta Quitián, Francisco Saavedra, Vinicio Santillán, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Eike-Lena Neuschulz & Matthias Schleuning
Species differ in their resource use and their interactions with other species and, consequently, they fulfil different functional roles in ecological processes. Species with specialized functional roles (specialists) are considered important for communities because they often interact with species with which few other species interact, thereby contributing complementary functional roles to ecological processes. However, the contribution of specialists could be low if they only interact with a small range of interaction partners. In contrast, species...

Global impacts of climate change on avian functional diversity

Peter Stewart, Alke Voskamp, Luca Santini, Matthias Biber, Adam Devenish, Christian Hof, Stephen Willis & Joseph Tobias
Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts, leading to fluctuations in species richness worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity remains unclear, in part because comprehensive species-level trait data are generally lacking at global scales. Here we use morphometric and ecological traits for 8268 bird species to estimate the impact of climate change on avian functional diversity (FD). We show that future bird assemblages are likely to undergo substantial shifts...

Data for: Effects of biotic interactions on plant fecundity depend on spatial and functional structure of communities and time since disturbance

Huw Cooksley, Hanna Walter, Alexander Neu, Henning Nottebrock, Baptiste Schmid, Martina Treurnicht, Jörn Pagel, Matthias Schleuning & Frank Schurr
Biotic interactions in plant communities affect individual fitness and community dynamics. Interactions between plants vary in space, over time and with organisational complexity. Yet it is challenging to quantify temporal, spatial and functional determinants of different types of interactions between long-lived perennial plant species and their effect on lifetime fecundity. We studied how plant-plant, pollinator- and seed predator-mediated interactions affect year-to-year variation in three fecundity components (cone production, seed set and seed survival) during post-fire...

Additional file 2 of Phenotypic insecticide resistance status of the Culex pipiens complex: a European perspective

Stien Vereecken, Adwine Vanslembrouck, Isabelle Marie Kramer & Ruth Müller
Additional file 2: Fig. S2. Material and method, results and conclusion of the protein and GST assays.

Additional file 4 of Phenotypic insecticide resistance status of the Culex pipiens complex: a European perspective

Stien Vereecken, Adwine Vanslembrouck, Isabelle Marie Kramer & Ruth Müller
Additional file 4: Table S2. Overview of all active substances that are approved as PT18 products according to the ECHA database on 4/10/2022.

Additional file 3 of Phenotypic insecticide resistance status of the Culex pipiens complex: a European perspective

Stien Vereecken, Adwine Vanslembrouck, Isabelle Marie Kramer & Ruth Müller
Additional file 3: Table S1. Insecticide resistance tested via WHO susceptibility tests in Belgium, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Italy, Morocco, Spain and Turkey.

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  • Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre
  • Goethe University Frankfurt
  • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
  • Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp
  • Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
  • Université Catholique de Louvain
  • University of Queensland
  • Philipp University of Marburg
  • University of Göttingen
  • Wageningen University & Research